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US  ISSN  0013-872X 


fOL.  94 


JANUARY  &  FEBRUARY  1983 


NO.  1 


ENT 


_  ew  species  of  pseudophylline  katydid  from  Cocos  Is., 

Costa  Rica  (Orthoptera:  Tettigoniidae)  David  A  Nickle      1 

Life  history  of  red  oak  borer,  Enaphalodes  rufulus,  in  white 

oak  (Coleoptera:  Cerambycidae)  Jimmy  R.  Galford     1 

New  milliped  of  genus  Delophon  from  Mississippi  (Callipodida: 
Caspiopetalidae)  Rowland  M.  Shelley    1 1 

Nothochauliodes  penai,  new  genus  &  species  of  Megaloptera 

from  Chile  (Neuroptera:  Corydalidae)        Oliver  S.  Flint,  Jr.    15 

Larval  Hydropsyche  &  Smyphitopsyche  records  from  West  Virginia 
(Trichoptera:  Hydropsychidae)        C.K.  Nugen,  D.C.  Tarter    18 

New  species  of  Penaphlebia  from  Argentina  (Ephemeroptera: 

Leptophlebiidae)  E.  Dominguez,  M.L.  Pescador  21 

Observations  of  territorality  of  Oligodranes  mitis  (Diptera: 
Bombyliidae)  on  flowers  of  Erigeron  neomexicanus 

Neal  L.  Evenhuis   25 

Notes  onAuplopus  carbonarius,  a  spider  wasp  new  to  the  United 
States  (Hymenoptera:  Pompilidae)  Sal  Nolfo   29 

Chiggers  from  some  small  mammals  from  Nigeria  (Acari: 
Trombiculidae) 

J.O.  Whitaker,  Jr.,  M.L.  Goff,  J.G.  Matthysse   31 

Two  new  synonyms  of  Eutaenionotum  guttipennis  (Diptera: 

Ephydridae)  Philip  J.  Clausen    33 

Asheum,  replacement  name  in  Chironomidae  (Diptera) 

J.E.  &  M.  Sublette   34 


New  records  of  Ceratopogonidae  from  North  Carolina  (Diptera) 

\  Tommy  W.  Bo  wen   35 

NOTICES  and  ANNOUNCEMENTS  £($RAR1E.S.  ...  .  6,  14,24,   28 


SOCIETY  MEETING  OF  October  7,  1982  .  20 


THE  AMERICAN  ENTOMOLOGICAL  SOCIETY 


ENTOMOL  OGICA  L  NE IVS  is  published  bi-monthly  except  July- A  ugust  by  The  A  tnerican 
Entomological  Society  at  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences,  1900  Race  St.,  Philadelphia, 
Pa.,  19102,  U.S.A. 

The  American  Entomological  Society  holds  regular  membership  meetings  on  the  first 
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Guests  always  are  cordially  invited  and  welcomed. 

Officers  for  1983-1984:  President:  Charles  E.  Mason:  Vice-President:  Joseph  K.Sheldon: 
Recording  Secretary:  Roger  W.  Fuester:  Corresponding  Secretary:  Harold  B.  White: 
Treasurer:  Jesse  J.  Freese. 

Publications  and  Editorial  Committee:  S.  Roback.  Chr.,  C.  Mason.  D.  Otte  and  Howard  P. 
Boyd.  Editor. 

Previous  editors:  1890-1920  Henry  Skinner  (1961-1926):  1911-1944  Philip  P.  Calvert 
( 1 87 1  - 1 96 1 ):  1 945-1 967  R.G.  Schmieder  ( 1 898- 1 967 ):  1 968- 1 972  R.H.  Arnett.  Jr.;  1 973- 
4/1974  R.W.  Lake. 

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TOMOLOGICAL NE  IVS,  The  American  Entomological  Society,  1900  Race  St.,  Philadelphia, 
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Back  issues  of  most  numbers  may  be  obtained  by  writing  to  the  office  of  The  American 
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Membership  dues:  $7.00  per  year  (regular);  $4.00  per  year  (student). 

Manuscripts  and  all  communications  concerning  same  should  be  addressed  to  the  editor: 
Howard  P.  Boyd,  Oak  Shade  Rd..  RD7.  Tabernacle  Twp.  Vincentown,  New  Jersey  08088, 
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American  Entomological  Society  are  given  priority.  It  is  suggested  that  all  prospective  authors 
join  the  society.  All  manuscripts  should  follow  the  format  recommended  in  the  AIBS  Style 
Manual  for  Biological  Journals  and  should  follow  the  style  used  in  recent  issues  of 
ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS.  Two  doublespaced,  typed  copies  of  eac  h  manuscript  are 
needed  on  8'  2  x  11  paper.  The  receipt  of  all  papers  will  be  acknowledged  and,  if  accepted,  they 
will  be  published  as  soon  as  possible.  Articles  longer  than  eight  printed  pages  may  be  published 
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Editorial  Policy:  Manuscripts  on  taxonomy,  systematics,  morphology,  physiology,  ecology, 
behavior  and  similar  aspects  of  insect  ife  and  related  terrestrial  arthropods  are  appropriate  for 
submission  to  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS.  Papers  on  applied,  economic  and  regulatory 
entomology  and  on  toxicology  and  related  subjects  will  be  considered  only  if  they  also  make  a 
major  contribution  in  one  of  the  aforementioned  fields. 

(Continued  on  inside  of  back  cover) 


r  If  undeliverable,  please  send  form  3579  to  Howard  P.  Bovd,  Oak  Shade 
Rd.,  RD7,  Tabernacle  Twp..  Vincentown,  New  Jersey  08088,  U.S.A. 

SECOND  CLASS  POSTAGE  PAID  AT  VINCENTOWN,  NEW  JERSEY,  08088,  US, 


Vol.  94,  No.  1,  January  &  February  1983 


A  NEW  SPECIES  OF  PSEUDOPHYLLINE  KATYDID 

FROM  COCOS  ISLAND,  COSTA  RICA 

(ORTHOPTERA:  TETTIGONIIDAE)1 

David  A.  Nickle^ 

ABSTACT:  A  pseudophylline  katydid,  Parascopioricus  binoditergus  Nickle  new  species,  is 
described  and  figured  for  the  first  time.  It  occurs  only  on  Cocos  Island,  offthe  coast  of  Costa 
Rica,  and  displays  characters  that  are  intermediate  between  species  of  Parascopioricus  and 
Scopioricus. 

In  his  revision  of  the  Pseudophyllinae,  Beier  ( 1 96 1 :  283)  segregated 
two  species  of  Scopioricus  and  placed  them  with  an  additional  new  species 
within  a  new  genus,  Parascopioricus  Beier  1961.  These  species,  P. 
lancifolius  (Brunner  von  Wattenwyl),  1895  [type  species],  P.  carinulatus 
(Saussure  and  Pictet),  1 897,  and  P.  cordillericus  Beier,  1961,  differed  from 
Scopioricus  in  the  spination  of  the  ventral  carinae  of  the  fore  and  mid 
femora  and  in  the  shape  of  the  apex  of  the  tegmen.  In  Scopioricus  both 
ventral  carinae  of  the  fore  and  mid  femora  have  spines,  and  the  apex  of  the 
tegmen  is  rounded,  in  Parascopioricus  only  one  ventral  carina  of  the  fore 
and  mid  femora  has  spines,  and  the  apex  of  the  tegmen  is  lanceolate  or 
nearly  so. 

In  a  faunal  survey  of  the  insects  of  Cocas  Island,  Costa  Rica,  Hogue 
and  Miller  (1981)  collected  five  specimens  of  an  undescribed  species  of 
pseudophylline  katydid  with  characters  that  most  closely  align  it  with 
Parascopioricus.  The  pronotum  is  rugose,  crenulated,  with  lateral  lobes 
that  are  about  as  wide  as  deep;  the  fore  and  mid  femora  are  each  armed  with 
spines  on  only  one  ventral  carina;  the  male  subgenital  plate  bears  two  styles; 
the  male  cerus  is  not  branched;  and  the  ovipositor  is  smooth,  lacking  rows  of 
oblique  or  transverse  nodes.  However,  it  differs  from  members  of  that  genus 
in  several  respects:  the  apex  of  the  tegmen  is  acutely  rounded  and  more 
similar  in  shape  to  those  of  Scopioricus  species;  the  male  cercus,  though  not 
branched,  is  acutely  upcurved  and  lanceolate,  similar  to  the  cerci  of 
Scopioricus  species;  and  all  genicular  lobes  are  unarmed,  again  more 
characteristic  of  Scopioricus  species. 

It  is  likely  that  the  separation  of  species  into  Scopioricus  and 
Parascopioricus  as  distinct  genera  is  unjustified,  based  as  it  is  on  the 
spination  of  the  ventral  carinae  of  the  fore  and  mid  femora  and  shape  of  the 
apex  of  the  tegmen.  Within  other  genera  of  tettigoniids  one  can  find  both 


1  Received  July  15.  1982 

^Systematic  Entomology  Laboratory,  IIBIII,  Agricultural  Research  Service,  USDA.  c/o 
U.S.  National  Museum  of  Natural  History,  Washington.  D.C.  20560. 

ENT.  NEWS,  94  (1)  1-6,  January  &  February,  1983 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


extremes  of  characters  (Hebard  1925;  Ragge  1980),  and  it  is  possible  that 
they  will  be  synonymized  when  more  information  is  acquired  for  these 
species.  However,  for  the  present,  it  seems  expedient  to  follow  a  conserva- 
tive approach  and  describe  this  as  a  new  species  of  Parascopioricus,  the 
genus  to  which  it  keys  in  Beier  (1961:  283). 

The  description  will  serve  to  make  a  name  available  for  a  paper  on  the 
insect  fauna  of  Cocos  Island  (Hogue  etal,  in  preparation).  Specimens  have 
been  deposited  in  the  Los  Angeles  County  Museum,  Los  Angeles 
[LACM|,  California  Academy  of  Sciences,  San  Francisco  [CAS],  U.S. 
National  Museum  of  Natural  History,  Washington,  D.C.  [NMNH],  and 
American  Museum  of  Natural  History,  New  York  [AMNH]. 

Key  to  the  Species  of  Parascopioricus 

1           Tegmina  no  more  than  4  times  as  long  as  wide,  anal  margin  moderately  to  strongly 
convex;  margins  of  pronotum  well-developed  only  in  the  lateral  metazona 2 

1'         Tegmina  5  times  as  long  as  wide,  anal  margin  weakly  convex;  margins  of  pronotum 

well-developed  along  entire  lateral  margin  (Costa  Rica) 

carinulatus  (Saussure  and  Pictet) 

2(  1 )     Male  cerci  short, thickened  basally;  male  subgenital  plate  weakly  emarginate  apically; 

female  subgenital  plate  bifid 3 

Male  cerci  long  and  slender,  straight;  male  subgenital  plate  deeply  excised  apically; 

female  subgenital  plate  broadly  rounded  (Panama.  Colombia) 

lancifolius  ( Brunner  von  Wattenwyl) 

3(2)      Male  tenth  tergite  apically  elongate,  rounded;  female  subgenital  plate  terminally 
emarginate,  with  triangulate,  pointed,  tapering  lobes;  smaller  species  (cf ,  17-19  mm;  9, 

20-23  mm)  (Colombia) cordillericus  Beier 

Male  tenth  tergite   apicolaterally   expanded   into  two  clawlike  projections,  each 
terminating  in  a  sharp,  ventrally-curved  tooth;  female  subgenital  plate  emarginate,  with 

rounded  lobes;  larger  species  (cf,  35-37  mm;  9,  38-42  mm)  (Cocos  Island) 

binoditergus  Nickle.  new  species 

Parascopioricus  binoditergus  Nickle,  new  species 

Diagnosis.  Male.  This  species  differs  from  other  species  of  Parascopioricus  in  the 
shapes  of  the  tenth  tergite  and  the  cercus.  The  tenth  tergite  is  produced  well  beyond  the  apices 
of  the  cerci,  concealing  them  from  above,  and  is  belaterally  extended  into  two  broad,  tapering 
lobes,  each  terminating  apically  in  a  deflexed  tooth.  The  cercus  is  basally  thick  and  cylindrical, 
abruptly  narrowed  and  recurved  acutely  upward,  and  is  apically  sharp  and  lanceolate. 

Female.  The  shape  of  the  tegmen,  which  is  similar  to  that  of  the  male,  is  apically  acutely 
rounded  (as  in  Fig.  1),  and  the  subgenital  plate  is  broad  with  a  wide  U-shaped  emargination 
producing  a  rounded  bifid  apex  (Fig.  9). 

Holotype.  cf .  COSTA  RICA:  Cocos  Island.  Wafer  Bay,  on  beach  at  Wafer  Bay  Station 
1-26-1978  (C.  Hogue  and  S.  Miller,  Steele  Exped.)  #1  (LACM|. 

Description  of  holotype.   Head.  Eyes  small,  prominent,  globose;  diameter  of  eye  equal 

.  length  of  subocular  genal  length;  lower  margin  of  eye  confluent  with  ventral 

margin  ot  antennal  insertion.  Frons  and  vertex  narrow,  0.3-0.4  mm  wide:  vertex  apically 

rounded,  extending  horizontally  slightly  beyond  frons  and  separated  from  it  by  a  distance 

equal  to  apical  diameter  of  vertex. 


Vol.  94,  No.  1,  January  &  February  1983 


Thorax.  Pronotum  saddle-shaped,  with  a  weakly-expressed  median  ridge  interrupted 
twice  by  an  anterior  shallow  and  posterior  deep  lateral  sulcus.  Posterior  lateral  sulcus  entire, 
extending  along  midline  of  pronotum  and  lateral  lobes  to  their  ventral  margins.  Anterior  lateral 
sulcus  also  extending  to  ventral  margin  of  lateral  lobe  but  more  weakly  expressed,  becoming 
obscure  along  its  course.  Pronotum  rugose,  crenulate.  Lateral  lobe  of  pronotum  quadrate, 
about  as  deep  as  wide;  ventral  margin  of  lateral  lobe  with  a  blunt,  ventrally-directed  tooth  just 
below  termination  an  anterior  lateral  sulcus.  Prosternal  spines  slightly  shorter  and  narrower 
than  mesosternal  spines,  separated  by  a  distance  equal  to  length  of  spine.  Metasternal  spines 
shorter  still,  separated  from  mesosternal  spines  by  a  distance  equal  to  three  times  as  great  as 
distance  between  pro-  and  mesosternal  spines. 

Wings.  Tegmina  oval,  extending  just  beyond  tip  of  abdomen;  acutely  rounded  apically; 
costal  margin  subtruncate;  anal  margin  convex.  Stridulatory  field  as  in  Fig.  2;  mirrors  of  fields 
on  both  tegmina  depressed  by  recurvature  of  anal  margins  of  tegmina,  producing  a  sharp  ridge 
along  median  vein;  accessory  veins  surrounding  trapezoidal,  translucent  mirrors,  inflating 
edges  of  anal  margins  of  tegmina  at  region  of  Stridulatory  field.  Stridulatory  file  with  78  teeth, 
26  teeth/mm  (Fig.  3).  Hind  wing  translucent,  light  green,  in  repose  concealed  completely 
beneath  tegmina. 

Legs.  Procoxal  spine  present.  Ventral  margins  of  left  and  right  fore  femora  with  4-0  and  3-0 
spines,  respectively:  ventral  margins  of  left  and  right  mid  femora  with  0-1  and  0-2  spines, 
respectively;  ventral  margins  of  left  and  right  hind  femora  with  0-9  and  0-6  spines, 
respectively.  Tympana  concealed  on  both  sides;  tympanal  shields  closely  appressed  to  tibial 
surface,  barely  inflated;  shield  openings  slit-like.  Genicular  lobes  of  all  legs  unarmed. 

External  Genitalia.  Tenth  tergite  inflated,  medio-apically  depressed;  apical  margin 
produced  beyond  apices  of  cerci,  concealing  them  in  dorsal  view.  Posterior  margin  of  tenth 
tergite  lobes  on  either  side  of  medial  depression,  with  each  lobe  terminating  in  a  well- 
developed  deflexed  tooth  (Fig.  4).  Basal  half  of  cercus  inflated,  round  in  cross-section;  distal 
half  abruptly  narrowing  and  recurving  vertically,  distally  lanceolate  and  terminally  pointed 
(Fig.  5).  Subgenital  plate  elongate,  upcurved,  extended  distally  beyond  apex  of  tenth  tergite; 
mediobasally  keeled,  apically  depressed,  and  terminating  with  two  short,  stout,  articulating 
styles  (Fig.  6). 


Figure  1.   Parascopioricits  binoditergus,  new  species.  Holotype.  Left  lateral  habitus. 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Internal  Genitalia.  Not  examined  in  holotype,  but  apparently  lacking  sclerotized  or 
pigmented  structures. 

Color.  Uniform  leaf  green.  Fuscous  areas  limited  to  Cu2  vein  on  stridulatory  field.  Basal 
third  of  antennae  annulate,  with  dark  brown  rings. 

Allotype.  9.  COSTA  RICA:  Cocos  Island,  Rio  Genio  111-25-1978  (C.  Hogue  and  S. 
Miller,  Steel  Exped.  1978)  |LACM|. 


Figures  2-9,  Parascopioricus  binoditergus,  new  species:  Figs.  2-6,  holotype.  Figs.  7-9, 
allotype.  2,  stridulatory  field:  3,  stridulatory  file,  left  legmen;  4.  tenth  tergite;  5,  left  cercus;  6, 
subgenital  plate;  7,  left  lateral  abdomen;  8,  supra-anal  plate;  9,  subgenital  plate.  Figs.  5  and  7 
are  lateral  views;  2,  4,  and  8  are  dorsal  views;  and  3,  6  and  9  are  ventral  views. 


Vol.  94,  No.  1,  January  &  February  1983 


Description  of  allotype.  Similar  to  holotype  in  nonsexually  related  characters.  Differs 
from  holotype  in  number  of  spines  on  ventral  margins  of  femora;  both  fore  femora  with  5-0 
spines;  mid  femora  with  0-3  spines;  hind  femora  with  0-5  (right)  and  0-6  (left)  spines. 

External  Genitalia.  Abdominal  tergites  gradually  becoming  narrower  successively  from 
VII  to  X.  Terminal  tergite  unmodified;  in  lateral  view,  lateral  edge  concealing  base  of  cercus. 
Supra-anal  plate  flat,  quadrate;  distal  edge  directed  posteriorly;  lateral  corners  extending 
beyond  distal  edge  as  small  papillae  (Fig.  8).  Cercus  short,  slightly  longer  than  supra-anal 
plate,  simple,  cylindrical,  curving  medially  along  its  length,  slightly  more  constricted  at  distal 
third  and  curving  more  abruptly  to  the  apex.  Ovipositor  about  twice  as  long  as  pronotum, 
gradually  upcurved  across  its  length,  sickle  shaped,  apically  pointed,  and  minutely  serrated 
along  distal  third  of  both  dorsal  and  ventral  valves;  surface  of  ovipositor  smooth,  lacking 
oblique  or  transverse  ridges  (Fig.  7).  Basal  lobe  of  ovipositor  oval,  partially  concealed  dorsally 
by  ventral  margin  of  terminal  tergite  and  ventrally  by  an  expanded  ridge  of  ventral  valve  of 
ovipositor.  Subgenital  plate  spatulate,  apically  bifid,  with  a  broad  U-shaped  emargination 
separating  rounded  furcae  (Fig.  9). 

Paratypes.  2cr cf ,  1 9.  COSTA  RICA:  Isla  del  Coca  [Cocos  Island],  Bahia  Chatham  III- 
8- 1964  (R.O.Schuster)  1  cf,  19  (CAS.  NMNH|;  Cocos  Island.  Wafer  Bay  III-1963  (P.  Slud) 

i  cf  IAMNH]. 

Variation.  The  number  of  spines  on  the  ventral  margins  of  the  femora  varies  among 
individuals  and  on  either  side  of  the  same  individual.  Previous  studies  (Hebard  1925:  Ragge 
1980)  conclude  that  the  number  of  spines  are  irrelevant  as  a  taxonomic  character,  although 
their  presence  or  absence  may  carry  some  relevant  information  at  the  generic  level.  The  Cu2 
veins  of  the  male  paratypes  are  not  nearly  as  fuscous  as  in  the  holotype,  but  portions  of  other 
adjoining  veins  are  fuscous. 

Measurements,  (means,  range,  mm).  Total  length,  cf  36.0  (35.3-36.8),  9  40.3  (38.0- 
42.6).  Pronotum  length,  cf5.6  (5.4-5.7),  9  5.8  (5.6-6.0).  Pronotum  width,  cf  5.6  (5.4-5.8),  9 
5.9  (5.8-6. 1 ).  Tegmen  length,  cf  30.2  (29.2-30.9),  9  32.3  (31 .5-33.1 ).  Tegmen  width,  cf  9.9 
(9.3-10.2).  9  10.0  (9.8-10.1).  Fore  femur  length,  cf9.3  (8.9-9.6),  9  10.2  (9.8-10.6).  Hind 
femur  length,  cf  21.0  (20.4-21.3).  9  22.4  (20.4-23.1).  Length  subgenital  plate,  cf  7.4  (7.2-7.6). 
Length  ovipositor,  9  12.8  (12.6-12.9).  Mean  number  of  spines  on  ventral  margins  of 
femora:  cf  (4-0, 0-2,  0-6).  9  (4-0,  0-2, 0-5),  medial  and  lateral  margins  of  fore.  mid.  and  hind 
femora,  respectively. 

Etymology.  (Lt.)  bi-  two;  node-  node,  projection;  tergus-  tergite;  referring  to  the  apical 
modification  of  the  male  tenth  tergite  into  two  projections,  a  feature  lacking  in  other  species  of 
Pa  rascopio  ricus. 

Discussion.  Parascopioricus  binoditergus  is  the  second  species  of 
pseudophylline  katydid  considered  to  be  endemic  to  Cocos  Island.  The 
other  species,  Cocconotus  bellicosus  Rehn,  described  in  1 902  from  a  single 
female,  has  been  collected  more  recently  by  Hogue  and  Miller.  The  two 
species  are  not  related,  Parascopioricus  belonging  to  the  tribe  Pterophyllini 
and  Cocconotus  to  the  Cocconotini.  The  nearest  relatives  to  both  species 
occur  on  the  South  American  mainland  in  Columbia.  Since  Cocos  Island  is 
nearly  midway  between  South  America  and  the  Galapagos  Archipelago, 
one  might  expect  the  fauna  to  be  related.  Such  is  not  the  case,  however,  for 
the  pseudophylline  fauna  on  the  Galapagos  chain  is  limited  to  yet  another 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


unrelated  species,  Nesocoecia  cooksoni  (Butler)  (Hebard  1920),  which 
may  be  a  complex  of  several  species.  Beier  (1961)  synonymized  three 
described  species  into  one,  but  he  apparently  made  the  synonymy  in  part  on 
the  circumstantial  evidence  that  no  males  are  known  for  one  species 
(McNeill  1901 ).  This  species  is  a  brachypterous  member  of  the  Cocconotini, 
and  its  origins  are  more  obscure,  since  its  only  known  relatives  occur  in  the 
Yucatan  Peninsula  in  Mexico  and  in  Bahia,  Brazil. 

Based  on  the  shape  of  the  male  cercus,  the  elongate  male  tenth  tergite, 
and  the  bifid  subgenital  plate  of  the  female,  P.  binoditerugs  appears  to  be 
most  closely  related  to  the  Colombian  species  P.  cordillericus. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The  author  expresses  his  appreciation  to  Mr.  Scott  Miller,  Harvard  University, 
Cambridge,  Mass.,  for  securing  the  specimens  and  supplying  information  about  this  species. 
The  author  appreciates  the  comments  and  criticism  of  the  manuscript  that  were  provided  by 
Drs.  A.S.  Menke  and  D.D.  Wilder  of  the  Systematic  Entomology  Laboratory,  IIBIII,  USDA, 
and  Dr.  J.J.  Whitesell,  Valdosta  State  College,  Valdosta,  Ga. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Beier,  M.  1961.  Orthoptera,  Tettigoniidae(Pseudophyllinaell).  DasTierreich.  Berlin  74:    1- 

396. 

Brunner  von  Wattenwyl,  C.  1895.  Monographic  der  Pseudophylliden.  Wien.  282  pp. 
Hebard,  M.  1920.  Expedition  of  the  California  Academy  of  Sciences  to  the  Galapagos 

Islands,  1905,  1906.  Proc.  Cal.  Acad.  Sci.,  Ser.  IV,  2(2):   311-346. 
1925.  Dermaptera  and  Orthoptera  from  the  state  of  Sinaloa,  Mexico.  Part  II. 

Saltatorial  Orthoptera.  Trans.  Am.  Entomol.  Soc.  51:   265-310. 
Hogue,  C.  and  S.E.  Miller.  1981.  Entomofauna  of  Cocos  Island,  Costa  Rica.  Atoll  Res. 

Bull.  No.  250:   1-29. 
McNeill,  J.  1901.  Papers  from  the  Hopkins  Stanford  Galapagos  Expedition,  1898-1899.  IV. 

Entomological  results  (4):   Orthoptera.  Proc.  Wash.  Acad.  Sci.  3:   487-506. 
Ragge,  D.R.  1 980.  A  review  of  the  African  Phaneroperinae  with  open  tympana  (Orthoptera: 

Tettigoniidae).  Bull.  Brit.  Mus.  (Nat.  Hist.)  (Entomol.)  40(2):   67-192. 
Saussure,  H.  and  A.  Pictet.   1897.  Insecta,  Orthoptera,  vol.  I.   In  Biologia  Centrali- 

Americana,  I:   285-458. 


NOTICE  OF  SURVEY  RESULTS 

In  the  March  -  April,  1 982  issue  of  ENT.  NEWS  a  card  insert  asked  members  to  express 
their  opinion  concerning  the  possible  inclusion  of  brief  news  reports,  possibly  as  "fillers", 
about  society  meetings,  proceedings,  and  other  activities,  as  well  as  doings  of  society 
members.  We  wish  to  thank  those  members  who  responded,  sixty  percent  of  whom  indicated 
they  would  very  much  like  to  have  this  material  included  in  future  issues.  The  first  of  these 
reports  appears  in  this  issue. 

-  Ed. 


Vol.  94,  No.  1,  January  &  February  1983 


LIFE  HISTORY  OF  THE  RED  OAK  BORER, 

ENAPHALODES  RUFULUS  (HALDEMAN), 

IN  WHITE  OAK  (COLEOPTERA:  CERAMBYCIDAE) ' 

Jimmy  R.  Galford2 

ABSTRACT:  Young  red  oak  borer  larvae  feed  horizontally  in  white  oak  but  mostly  vertically 
in  red,  black,  and  scarlet  oak.  Overgrowths  of  successful  attacks  in  white  oak  appear  as  "L"  or 
reverse  "L"  marks  on  the  trees.  In  a  study  in  central  and  southern  Ohio  between  1977  and 
1981,  27  of  457  trees  examined  in  the  basal  6  feet  had  borer  injuries.  Only  small,  suppressed 
trees  were  injured. 

The  life  history  of  the  red  oak  borer,  Enaphalodes  rufulus  (Haldeman), 
in  red,  Quercus  rubra  L.,  black,  Quercus  velutina  Lam.,  and  scarlet  oak, 
Quercus  coccinea  Muenchh.,  was  reported  by  Hay  ( 1 969).  Donley  and  co- 
workers  (1969)  reported  red  oak  borer  damage  in  white  oak,  Quercus  alba 
L.  However,  the  behavior  of  the  red  oak  borer  in  white  oak  was  not  reported. 

Methods 

The  basal  6  feet  of  457  living  white  oak  trees,  ranging  from  5  to  45  cm 
dbh,  were  examined  in  central  and  southern  Ohio  between  1 977  and  1981. 
Twenty-seven  trees  had  evidence  of  red  oak  borer  attacks.  Diameter  breast 
height  (dbh)  measurements  of  the  attacked  trees  were  taken;  the  trees  were 
cut  and  average  annual  diameter  growth  for  the  last  10  years  was  recorded. 
The  trees  were  sectioned  and  debarked,  and  the  number  of  attacks  that 
damaged  the  xylem  were  recorded.  Sections  with  attacks  that  went  deep 
into  the  xylem  were  split  open  to  see  if  long  slivers  (10  to  25  mm)  of  wood 
remained  in  the  larval  galleries  indicating  successful  adult  emergence.  In 
addition,  27  other  randomly  chosen  trees  without  attacks  were  cut,  and  their 
average  annual  diameter  growth  during  the  last  10  years  was  recorded. 

The  life  history  of  the  red  oak  borer  in  white  oak  was  determined  as 
follows:  10  mated  females  were  caged  individually  in  hardware  cloth  sleeve 
cages  on  10  white  oaks,  10  to  15  cm  dbh,  in  July  of  1979.  The  beetles  had 
been  reared  artificially  using  techniques  reported  by  Galford  (1974).  The 
beetles  were  F  i  and  F2  offspring  of  parents  that  had  emerged  from  a  white 
oak  tree.  In  November  of  1979,  and  June  and  November  1980.  10  of  the 
attack  sites  on  the  trees  were  exposed  and  measurements  of  larval  damage 
were  made.  In  August  of  1 98 1  the  remaining  attack  sites  were  examined  to 
see  if  adult  emergence  had  occurred. 


1  Received  August  12,  1982 

^Research  Entomologist,  USDA  Forest  Service,  Northeastern  Forest  Experiment  Station. 
359  Main  Road,  Delaware,  Ohio  43015 

ENT.  NEWS.  94  ( 1 )  7-10,  January  &  February,  1983 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Results 

The  mean  dbh  of  the  27  naturally  attacked  trees  was  9.9  cm  and  ranged 
from  7.1  to  18cm.  Mean  number  of  attacks  per  tree  that  damaged  the  xylem 
was  7,  ranging  from  2  to  14.  Mean  number  of  adult  emergents  per  tree  was 
1 .4  and  ranged  from  0  to  4.  Average  annual  diameter  growth  of  the  attacked 
trees  during  the  last  10  years  was  2  mm,  ranging  from  less  than  1  mm  to  4 
mm. 

Average  annual  diameter  growth  for  the  27  trees  without  attacks  was  6 
mm,  ranging  from  2  mm  to  9  mm.  The  mean  dbh  of  these  trees  was  1 3  cm 
and  ranged  from  7  to  28  cm. 

As  a  result  of  caging  the  10  females  on  10  different  trees,  46  attacks 
were  detected  on  4  of  the  trees.  Thirty  of  the  attacks  were  exposed  to  make 
measurements,  and  the  larvae  were  killed  in  the  process.  Only  2  of  the 
remaining  16  larvae  survived  to  become  adults. 

Observations  and  measurements  of  attacks  that  occurred  as  a  result  of 
caging  females  on  trees  led  to  the  following  conclusions:  the  newly  hatched 
larvae  mine  in  the  cambium  area  horizontally  around  the  tree  from  late  July 
and  early  August  until  cold  weather  arrives,  and  then  overwinter.  Damage 
in  the  phloem-cambium  region  ranges  from  roughly  circular  areas  about  5 
mm  in  diameter  to  horizontal  lines  2  to  3  mm  wide  and  6  to  15  mm  long. 

During  the  spring  of  the  next  year,  the  larvae  continue  to  feed 
horizontally  around  the  tree  until  late  June  or  early  July.  Horizontal  feeding 
now  extends  40  to  75  mm  around  the  tree.  The  larvae  then  feed  upward 
widening  the  gallery  and  begin  to  score  the  xylem  more  heavily.  After 
feeding  upward  for  75  to  1 25  mm,  the  larvae  bore  obliquely  into  the  xylem 
about  30  to  50  mm,  then  vertically  for  1 00  to  1 50  mm.  In  the  fall,  the  larvae 
plug  the  holes  with  wood  slivers  and  overwinter  behind  the  plugs.  The 
following  spring  the  plugs  are  removed  and  replaced  with  other  plugs  behind 
which  the  larvae  pupate.  Sometimes  the  overwintering  plugs  are  not 
removed,  and  pupation  occurs  without  new  plugs  being  made. 

When  emerging,  the  adults  gnaw  and  rip  the  plugs  out,  pushing  some  of 
the  wood  slivers  behind  them.  Long  slivers  of  wood  often  extrude  from  the 
emergence  hole  indicating  adult  emergence.  Figure  1  illustrates  borer 
damage  in  white  oak. 

When  white  oak  trees  are  vigorous  enough  to  overgrow  borer  injuries, 
the  overgowths  resemble  an  "L"  or  reverse  "L"  (Figure  2).  One  attack  was 
found  that  did  not  have  a  horizontal  feeding  scar,  but  this  was  exceptional. 

Discussion 

In  southern  and  central  Ohio,  27  of  457  white  oak  trees  examined  had 
external  evidence  of  red  oak  borer  damage.  These  were  suppressed,  very 


Vol.  94,  No.  1,  January  &  February  1983 


slow-growing  trees.  In  Ohio,  either  the  red  oak  borer  does  not  readily  attack 
white  oak,  or  the  larvae  can  survive  only  in  very  suppressed  trees. 

The  red  oak  borer  has  a  2-year  life  cycle  in  white  oak,  the  same 
development  period  as  Hay  (1969)  observed  in  red,  black,  and  scarlet  oak. 

The  difference  in  feeding  habits  of  young  larvae  in  white  oak  versus  red, 
black,  and  scarlet  could  be  due  to  the  very  thin  layer  of  phloem  in  slow- 
growing  white  oaks,  or  there  could  be  a  strain  of  red  oak  borers  that  prefers 
or  attacks  only  white  oak. 


Fig.  1 .   Horizontal  feeding  scar  caused  by  red  oak  borer  larva  during  first  year  of  development . 


10 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


LITERATURE  CITED 

Donley,  D.E.;  Hay,  C.J.;  Burns,  D.P.  1969.  Borers  in  Ohio  oaks.  Ohio  Woodlands 

7(4):    17-18. 
Galford,  J.R.  1974.  Some  physiological  effects  of  temperature  on  artificially  reared  red  oak 

borers.  J.  Econ.  Entomol.  67:   709-710. 
Hay,  C.J.  1969.  The  life  history  of  a  red  oak  borer  and  its  behavior  in  red,  black,  and  scarlet 

oak.  Proc.  North  Cent.  Branch  Entomol.  Soc.  Am.  Vol.  24(2):    125-127. 


Fig.  2.   Red  oak  borer  attacks  on  white  oak  almost  overgrown  with  callus  tissue. 


Vol.  94,  No.  1,  January  &  February  1983  11 

A  NEW  MILLIPED  OF  THE  GENUS  DELOPHON 

FROM  MISSISSIPPI  (CALLIPODIDA: 

CASPIOPETALIDAE) » 

Rowland  M.  Shelley2 

ABSTRACT:  A  fourth  species  of  Delophon,  D.  mississippianum,  is  described  and 
illustrated.  It  is  closely  related  to  D.  georgianum  Chamberlin  and  D.  sernilatum  Causey,  and 
features  a  smooth  margin  on  the  coxal  process,  a  tibiotarsal  process  that  is  homologous  to  the 
postfemoral  process  on  the  other  species,  and  a  parasolenomerite  that  is  longer  than  the 
tibiotarsus. 

In  1979  I  revised  the  callipodid  genus  Delophon  and  reported  that  it 
was  comprised  of  three  species  -  -  georgianum  Chamberlin,  serrulatum 
Causey,  and  holti  Shelley  --in  Tennessee,  North  Carolina,  Georgia,  and 
Alabama.  Recently,  while  sorting  through  the  diplopod  collection  of  the 
Missisippi  Entomological  Museum,  Mississippi  State  University,  I  discovered 
a  single  male  of  a  fourth  species  from  the  northern  part  of  that  state.  I  present 
herein  a  description  of  the  new  species  along  with  a  new  generic  distribution 
map  and  phylogeny,  to  supplement  information  in  the  revision.  I  thank  Dr. 
Richard  L.  Brown,  Director  of  the  Mississippi  Entomological  Museum,  for 
the  opportunity  to  describe  this  species  and  permission  to  deposit  the 
holotype  in  the  invertebrate  primary  type  collection  of  the  North  Carolina 
State  Museum  of  Natural  History  (NCSM). 

Delophon  mississippianum,  new  species 

Figs.  1-3 

Type  specimen:  Male  holotype  (NCSM  A3983)  collected  by  W.H.  Cross,  9  May  1 980, 
form  a  pitfall  trap  in  deciduous  woods,  1.6  km  SE  Ecru,  Pontotoc  Co.,  Mississippi. 

Diagnosis:  A  small  species  of  Delophon  distinguished  by  following  features  of  male 
gonopods:  distal  elements  forming  approximately  90  degree  angle  with  femur;  coxal  process 
with  apical  lobes  on  medial  and  lateral  sides  of  femur,  distal  margins  smooth;  with  tibiotarsal 
process  representing  postfemoral  process  of  georgianum;  parasolenomerite  comparatively 
large,  longer  than  tibiotarsus,  bent  slightly  dorsad  distal  to  midlength,  subparallel  to 
tibiotarsus;  solenomerite  short,  blunt,  arising  from  parasolenomerite  at  midlength,  located 
between  latter  and  tibiotarsus,  without  subterminal  spur. 

Holotype:  Length  about  1 8  mm,  greatest  width  about  1 . 1  mm,  ca.  43  segments.  Dorsum 
light  mottled  brown  in  color,  with  wide,  light  yellow  middorsal  stripe  extending  from  2nd 
segment  to  epiproct;  pore  crests  faintly  yellow  anteriad  and  brown  caudad,  thus  forming  two 
less  distinct  stripes  equidistant  of  median  one.  Epicranium  dark  mottled  brown,  interantennal 


Deceived  August  23,  1982 

^North  Carolina  State  Museum  of  Natural  History,  P.O.  Box  27647,  Raleigh,  North 
Carolina  2761 1 

ENT.  NEWS,  94(1)  1  1-14.  January  &  February,  1983 


12 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


region  lighter,  color  fading  out  in  clypeal  region.  Antennae  long  and  slender,  extending  beyond 
caudal  margin  of  segment  5;  relative  lengths  of  antennomeres  3>2>5>4>6>7>1,  2-6 
clavate.  About  34  ocelli  in  subtriangular  patches. 

Collum  with  22  crests  beginning  near  midlength,  medial  crests  slightly  shorter  than  lateral 
ones,  anterior  half  of  collum  smooth.  Secondary  crests  subequal  in  length  to,  but  noticeably 
smaller  than,  primary  crests  on  all  segments,  fading  out  around  segment  27.  Setal  formula 
normal  for  genus. 

Gonopods  (Figs.  1-3)  small,  femur  extending  caudad  only  to  metazonite  of  segment  8: 
parasolenomerite  extending  laterad  to  edge  of  body.  Coxal  process  very  broad,  sheathing 
femur,  expanded  apically  into  two  lobes  on  medial  and  lateral  sides  of  distal  extremity  of 
femur,  apical  margins  smooth.  Postfemur  nearly  perpendicular  to  femur,  of  normal  length 
relative  to  distal  elements.  Tibiotarsus  shorter  than  parasolenomerite,  angling  abruptly  caudad 
apically  and  narrowing  into  spiniform  projection,  inner  margin  with  broad  lobe  at  level  of 
solenomerite,  with  spiniform  process  proximad.  homologous  to  postfemoral  process  of 
georgianum.  Parasolenomerite  relatively  long,  longer  than  tibiotarsus,  bent  dorsad  just 
beyond  midlength  (level  of  solenomerite).  with  broad  rounded  lobe  distad  on  dorsal  margin, 
narrowing  abruptly  apically  into  spiniform  projection.  Solenomerite  a  short,  blunt,  bisinuately 
curved  structure  arising  near  midlength  of  parasolenomerite,  located  between  latter  and 
tibiotarsus,  expanded  slightly  apically,  without  subterminal  spur. 

Distribution:  Known  only  from  the  type  locality. 


Figs.  1-3.  Delophon  misissippianum.  1 ,  left  gonopod,  caudal  view.  2,  right  gonopod,  ventral 
view.  3,  left  gonopod.  lateral  view.  cp.  coxal  process;  f,  femur;  ps.  parasolenomerite; 
s,  solenomerite;  tt,  tibiotarsus.  ttp.  tibiotarsal  process;  Scale  line  =  0.50  mm  for  all 
figs. 


Vol.  94,  No.  1.  January  &  February  1983 


13 


Fig.  4.  Distribution  of  Delophon.  A  smooth  curve  has  been  drawn  around  the  range  extremes 
ofgeorgianum  and  serrulatum.  A,  georgianum;  B,  sernilatum;  dot,  mississippianum; 
triangle,  holti. 


georgianum    serrulatum          mississippianum 


Fig.  5.   Relationships  in  the  genus  Delophon. 


14  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Remarks:  One  of  the  main  diagnostic  traits  of  mississippianum  is  the 
location  of  a  process  on  the  proximal  part  of  the  tibiotarsus,  which  is  similar 
in  form  to,  and  undoubtedly  homologous  to,  the  postfemoral  process  of 
georgianum. 

At  first  glance  the  parasolenomerite  and  tibiotarsus  appear  to  be 
reversed  in  mississippianum,  in  comparison  to  georgianum  and  serrulatum. 
The  longer  parasolenomerite  is  similar  to  the  tibiotarsi  of  the  other  species, 
and  the  tibiotarsus  of  mississippianum  is  likewise  similar  in  length  to  their 
parasolenomerites.  The  origin  of  the  solenomerite,  however,  is  the  key 
factor  in  identifying  the  projections,  and  as  in  georgianum  and  serrulatum, 
it  arises  from  the  more  caudal  of  the  two  in  mississippianum.  Thus  in  this 
species,  the  parasolenmerite  is  longer  than  the  tibiotarsus. 

Figure  4  shows  the  type  locality  of  mississippianum  along  with  known 
ranges  of  its  congeners.  It  is  the  westernmost  species,  occurring  some  60 
miles  west  of  the  nearest  known  record  of  serrulatum,  in  Franklin  County, 
Alabama.  The  distribution  of  mississippianum  in  Mississippi  is  a  subject 
for  future  investigation,  and  the  species  may  also  be  found  in  western 
Tennessee. 

Although  similar  in  size  to  holti,  mississippianum  is  a  product  of  the 
georgianum-serrulatum  branch  of  evolution  (Fig.  5).  It  has  the  general 
gonopodal  form  of  these  two  species,  so  holti  still  stands  by  itself  as 
representing  a  second  line  of  descent.  However,  the  unexpected  discovery 
of  mississippianum  suggests  that  more  species  of  Delophon  may  occur  in 
the  southeast  and  that  a  sister  species  for  holti  may  eventually  be 
discovered.  The  most  probable  area  for  such  a  form  is  northeastern 
Tennessee,  western  Virginia,  and  eastern  Kentucky. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Shelley,  Rowland  M.  1979.  A  revision  of  the  milliped  genus  Delophon,  with  the  proposal  of 
two  new  tribes  in  the  subfamily  Abacioninae  (Callipodida:  Caspiopetalidae).  Proc.  Biol. 
Soc.  Wash.,  92:  533-550. 


SOCIETY  MEMBER  HONORED 

Dr.  Hal  C.  Reed,  a  member  of  the  American  Entomological  Society,  and  a  contributing 
author  to  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS,  is  the  1 982  recipient  of  the  Entomological  Society 
of  America  Pacific  Branch  Graduate  Student  Award.  This  award  is  given  annually  to  promote 
interest  in  the  science  of  entomology  at  the  graduate  level. 

Dr.  Reed  is  associate  Professor,  Dep't.  of  Natural  Sciences,  Oral  Roberts  University.  He 
received  his  B.S.  in  biology  in  1975  from  Oral  Roberts  and  his  M.S.  in  entomology  in  1978 
from  Texas  A&M  University.  His  doctoral  degree  in  entomology  was  awarded  from 
Washington  State  Univeristy  in  1982.  Dr.  Reed's  research  was  in  the  nesting  biology  and 
social  behavior  of  a  forest  dwelling  yellowjacket,  Vespula  acadica.  Usurpation  and  colony 
behavior  of  the  obligate  social  parasite,  V.  austriaca,  were  also  investigated. 


Vol.  94,  No.  1,  January  &  February  1983  15 

NOTHOCHA  ULIODES  PENAL  A  NEW  GENUS  AND 

SPECIES  OF  MEGALOPTERA  FROM  CHILE 

(NEUROPTERA:  CORYDALIDAE)1 

Oliver  S.  Flint,  Jr.2 

ABSTRACT:  Nothochauliodes penai,  new  genus,  new  species,  is  described  and  figured.  It  is 
found  on  the  coastal  mountains  of  Maule  Province  in  Chile.  A  key  is  provided  to  separate  the 
genus  from  the  related  genera  Neohermes,  Protochauliodes,  and  Taeniochauliodes. 

In  1973  I  reviewed  the  Megaloptera  known  to  occur  in  Chile.  In  the 
nearly  ten  intervening  years,  numerous  additional  collections  from  this 
country  have  been  examined,  but  all  material  has  proven  to  be  known 
species.  Early  in  1982  a  collection  from  the  coastal  ranges  was  received 
from  the  noted  Chilean  naturalist  and  collector,  Sr.  Luis  E.  Pena  G.  In  the 
lot  were  two  male  specimens  of  a  species  that  differed  strikingly  from  all 
known  Chilean  Megaloptera.  Study  shows  these  to  represent  an  undescribed 
genus  and  species  related  to  the  chauliodine  genera  Neohermes  (North 
America),  Protochauliodes  (North  America,  Chile,  Australia),  and 
Taeniochauliodes  (South  Africa). 

Family  Corydalidae 

Subfamily  Chauliodinae 
Genus  Nothochauliodes,  new  genus 

Antenna  filiform,  with  short  hair;  of  45-50  segments.  Head  lacking  postocular  ridge  and 
spine;  with  raised,  non-setose,  muscle  attachment  scars.  Pronotum  roughly  quadrate. 
Forewing  with  Rs  branching  pectinately,  R4  not  forked;  M\  +2  forked;  Cuj  forked;  anterior 
branch  of  2  A  fused  to  1 A  for  a  short  distance.  Hindwingwith  Rs  branching  pectinately.  R4not 
forked;  Mj  +2  forked;  CU  \  forked;  both  branches  of  2  A  arising  close  together,  adjacent  to  3  A. 

Type-species:  Nothochauliodes  penai,  new  species 

The  genus  belongs  to  the  cluster  of  genera  held  together  by  the  apotypy 
of  the  fusion  for  a  short  distance  of  the  anterior  branch  of  2  A  with  1 A  in  the 
forewing.  In  two  of  the  genera  in  this  series  (Neohermes  and  Protochauliodes}, 
R4  in  both  the  fore-and  hindwings  is  forked.  In  Nothochauliodes  and 
Taeniochauliodes  the  vein  is  simple,  resulting  in  the  appearance  of 
pectinate  branching  of  the  Rs  system.  The  vein  MI  -\-2  in  the  fore-  and 
hindwings  is  branched  in  Nothochauliodes.  In  Taeniochauliodes  this  vein 
is  not  branched  in  either  wing,  and  in  Protochauliodes  and  Neohermes  is 


1  Received  August  9,  1982 

^Department  of  Entomology,  Smithsonian  Institution,  Washington,  DC  20560. 

ENT.  NEWS.  94  ( 1 )  15-17,  January  &  February.  1 983 


16 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


branched  only  in  the  hindwing  (in  P.  bullockiFYmt,  the  largest  species  of  the 
genus,  MI  +2  is  usually  branched  in  both  wings  but  R4  is  forked).  Thus  the 
combination  of  the  venational  characteristics  of  an  unbranched  R4  in  both 
wings  and  a  branched  MI  +2  in  both  wings  will  distinguish  Nothochauliodes 
from  all  other  described  genera  showing  the  fusion  of  the  anterior  branch  of 
2 A  with  1A  in  the  forewing.  In  addition  to  these  characters,  the  male 
genitalia  differ  strongly  from  those  of  the  other  related  genera.  The  vertical 
orientation  of  the  tenth  tergites  appears  to  be  unique  within  the  subfamily. 


2 


3 


Figs.  1-4.   Nothochauliodes penai:    1,  fore-  and  hindwings  (drawn  by  Elaine  R.  Hodges);  2, 
male  genitalia,  lateral;  3,  male  ninth  and  tenth  terga,  posterior;  4,  aedeagus,  dorsal. 


Vol.  94,  No.  1,  January  &  February  1983  17 


The  very  long,  slender,  and  deeply  divided  aedeagus  is  also  very  unusual,  if 
not  unique. 

The  genus  will  run  in  Kimmins  (1954)  key  to  the  Chauliodinae  to 
couplet  4,  genus  Protochauliodes.  Couplets  3  and  4  may  be  modified  as 
below  to  allow  easy  separation  of  the  four  related  genera. 

3.  Anterior  branch  of  M  in  hindwing  forked 3A 

Anterior  branch  of  M  in  hindwing  simple Taeniochauliod.es 

3A.      R4  of  fore-  and  hindwings  simple Nothochauliodes 

R4  of  fore-  and  hindwings  forked 4 

4.  Male  antenna  with  a  whorl  of  erect  hairs  on  each  segment,  no  crossvein  in  apical  fork  of 

R4  in  forewing  (rarely  present  in  large  specimens) Protochauliodes 

Male  antenna  with  whorls  of  erect  hairs  on  each  segment;  a  crossvein  in  apical  fork  of 
R4  in  forewing  (rarely  absent) .  Neohermes 

Nothochauliodes  penai,  new  species 

Because  the  genus  is  monotypic,  the  species  at  this  time  is  recognizable 
by  the  generic  characters.  If  other  species  are  discovered,  specific 
characteristics  ought  to  be  evident  in  the  male  genitalia,  as  they  are  in 
related  genera.  Coloration  often,  but  not  invariably,  differs  between 
species. 

Adult.  —  Length  of  forewing,  27-30  mm.  Color  pale  brown,  head  brown,  muscle  scars 
virtually  concolorous;  pronotum  with  distinctly  darker  lateral  bands;  forewing  mostly  pale 
brown  with  short,  darker,  transverse  maculae,  generally  darkest  on  veins  giving  them  a  distinct 
dotted  appearance:  hindwing,  except  for  anal  area,  similarly  marked,  but  dotting  on  veins  less 
pronounced.  Male  genitalia:  Ninth  tergum  large,  with  ventral  margin  oblique.  Ninth  sternum 
roughly  triangular  in  lateral  aspect;  in  ventral  aspect  with  posterior  margin  almost  semicircular. 
Tenth  tergite  elongate,  almost  vertical  in  lateral  aspect,  with  a  large  basolateral  cereal  area:  in 
posterior  aspect  with  tergite  slightly  arcuate  with  apicomesal  face  bearing  many,  small,  black 
setae.  Posterior  region  of  genitalia  partially  membranous,  but  with  a  large  area  between  and 
below  tenth  tergites  lightly  sclerotized  and  sparsely  setate.  Aedeagus  in  lateral  aspect  long, 
slender,  and  slightly  curved;  in  dorsal  aspect  with  anterior  margin  deeply  and  broadly  divided, 
lateral  arms  expanded  anteriorly,  produced  into  a  long,  slender  lobe  posteriad  which  is  deeply 
and  narrowly  divided  mesally,  tips  hooked  slightly  laterad. 

Variation.  —  In  the  two  specimens  available,  there  are  a  number  of  venational  differences. 
The  type,  the  larger  specimen,  has  in  the  forewing  a  small  apical  fork  to  the  anteriormost 
branch  of  Rs  in  both  sides,  R5  (on  the  side  not  figured)  has  an  apical  fork,  and  one  of  the 
hindwings  (figured)  has  an  apical  fork  in  R$.  The  smaller  specimen  lacks  all  these,  that  I 
believe  to  be,  extra  forks  of  the  radial  system. 

Material.  —  Holotype,  male:  Chile,  Provincia  Maule.  Cayurranquil,  west  of  Cauquenes. 
400m,  23-31  Jan  1981,  L.E.  Pena  G.  USNM  Type  100591.  Paratype:  Same  data.  Icf 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Flint,  Oliver  S.,  Jr.  1973.  The  Megaloptera  of  Chile  (Neuroptera).  Rev.  Chil.  Ent.  7    3 1-45. 
Kimmins,  D.E.  1 954.  A  New  Genus  and  some  New  Species  of  the  Chauliodini  (Megaloptera). 
Bull.  Brit.  Mus.  (Nat.  Hist.).  Ent.  3(  1  1  ):   417-444. 


18  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

LARVAL  HYDROPSYCHE  AND  SMYPHITOPSYCHE 
RECORDS  FROM  WEST  VIRGINIA  (TRICHOPTERA: 

HYDROPSYCHIDAE) l 

Charlene  K.  Nugen,  Donald  C.  Tarter^ 

ABSTRACT:  Over  4,000  larvae  of  the  genera  Hydropsyche  and  Symphitopsyche  were 
collected  from  225  sites  in  West  Virginia.  A  total  of  1 5  species,  including  1 3  state  records,  and 
two  species  groups  were  identified  from  the  collections.  Important  extensions  included  S. 
macleodi  (Flint),  S.  ventura  (Ross),  H.  leonardi  Ross  and  H.  hoffmani  Ross. 

Until  this  investigation,  only  three  Hydropsyche  species  have  been 
recorded  from  West  Virginia:  H.  morosa  Hagen,  H.  sparna  Ross  and  H. 
opthalmica  Flint  (Ross,  1944  and  Flint,  1965).  Tarter  and  Hill  (1979) 
noted  the  H.  scalaris  group  from  the  Cranberry  Glades. 

From  225  sites  in  West  Virginia,  approximately  4,000  larvae  of  the 
genera  Hydropsyche  and  Symphitopsyche  were  collected  and  identified. 
Fifteen  species,  including  13  state  records,  and  two  species  groups  were 
recorded  from  these  collections.  The  classification  system  employed  in  this 
study  follows  that  of  Schuster  and  Etnier  (1978),  and  species  are  arranged 
alphabetically  with  drainage  basins  and  rivers  (Janssen,  1973).  State 
records  are  indicated  by  an  asterisk  (*).  All  specimens  are  stored  in  the 
West  Virginia  Benthological  Survey  at  Marshall  University,  and  detailed 
records  are  found  in  Nugen  (1981). 

Four  important  range  extensions  are  noted:  S.  macleodi  (Flint)  (GA, 
NC,  TN,  VA);  S.  ventura  (Ross)  (ME,  MA,  NY,  PA,  TN,  VA, 
NEWFOUNDLAND);  H.  leonardi  Ross  (MI,  VA);  and  H.  hoffmani 
Ross  (MD,  VA). 

Symphitopsyche 

S.  bifida  group:  S.  cheilonis  (Ross);  S.  bronta  (Ross),  Central  Form,  S.  bifida  (Banks): 

Drainages  I,  II  (1,  2,  4),  III  (5,  7a,  7b)  V  (10,  13,  14,  15,  16)  and  VI. 
*S.  bronia  (Ross):  Drainages  1, 11(1,3),  111(5,  6,  7a,  7b,  8),  V (12,  13,  14,  16),  VI  and  VII. 
*S.  macleodi  (Flint):  Drainages  II  (1,  3),  III  (7b),  V  (13)  and  VII. 
S.  morosa  (Hagen):  Drainages  II  (1,  3),  III  (5,  6,  7b),  V  (10,  12,  13,  14)  and  VI. 
*S.  slossonae( Banks):   Drainages  I,II(  1,  2,  3),  III  (6,  7a,  7b),  IV,  V(13,  14.  15,  16),  and  VI. 
S.  spa rna( Ross):  Drainages  1, 11(1,  2,  3),  III  (5,6, 7a,7b),V(  10, 11, 12, 13, 14  15   16) 
VI  and  VII. 

*S.  ventiira  (Ross):   Drainages  II  (3),  III  (7a,  7b),  V  (12,  13,  14,  15,  16),  VI  and  VII. 
*S.  walkeri  (Betten  and  Mosely):   Drainage  II  (1). 


'Received  June  7,  1982 

2Department  of  Biological  Sciences,  Marshall  University,  Huntington,  WV  25701 

ENT.  NEWS,  94(1)  18-20.  January  &  February,  1983 


Vol.  94,  No.  1,  January  &  February  1983 


19 


Hydropsyche 

H.  depravata  group:   H.  betteni  Ross;  H.  depravata  Hagen:   Drainages  I,  II  ( 1 ,  2,  3,  4),  III 

(5,  7a,  7b,  8),  IV,  V(10,  11.  12,  14,  15,  16),  VI  and  VII. 

*H.  dicantha  Ross:  Drainages  I,  II  (1,  3),  III  (5,  7a,  7b,  8),  IV.  V  (1 1.  12,  13)  and  VI. 
*//.  hageni  Banks:  Drainages  III  (8),  V  (10,  14,  16)  and  VI. 
*H.  hoffmani  Ross:   Drainages  III  (8),  IV,  V  (14,  15)  and  VII. 
*H.  leonardi  Ross:   Drainage  V  (16). 
*H.  orris  Ross:      Drainages  I,  VI. 


Figure  1 .  Drainage  Basins  and  Major  Rivers  in  West  Virginia.  Black  dots  represent  collecting 
sites. 

I.  Ohio  River.  II.  Monongahela  River:  1.  Cheat  River  2.  Monongahela  River  3.  Tygart 
River  4.  West  Fork  River.  III.  Potomac  River:  5.  Cacapon  River  6.  Lost  River  7.  Potomac 
River  a.  North  Branch  b.  South  Branch  8.  Shenandoah  River.  IV.  Little  Kanawha  River: 
9.  Little  Kanawha  River.  V.  10.  Bluestone  River:  11.  Coal  River.  12.  Elk  River.  I  3. 
Gaulcy  River  14.  Greenbrier  River  15.  Kanawah  River  16.  New  River.  VI.  Guyandot 
River.  VII.  Big  Sandy  River. 


20  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


*H.  phalerata  Hagen:   Drainage  III. 

*H.  scalaris  Hagen:   Drainages  III  (5,  7a,  7b,  8),  V  (12,  13,  14). 

*H.  simulans  Ross:  Drainages  I,  IV,  VI,  and  VII. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We  are  indebted  to  Dr.  Guenter  A.  Schuster,  Eastern  Kentucky  University,  for 
identification  and  confirmation  of  many  specimens.  We  acknowledge  the  loan  of  specimens 
from  the  West  Virginia  Department  of  Natural  Resources,  Water  Resources  Division.  A 
special  thanks  to  Ms.  Vickie  Crager  for  typing  the  manuscript. 

REFERENCES 

Flint,  O.S.,  Jr.  1965.  New  species  of  Trichoptera  from  the  United  States.  Proc.  Ent.  Soc. 

Wash.  67(3):    168-176. 
Janssen,   R.E.    1973.   Earth   Science:   A   handbook  on   the  geology  of  West   Virginia. 

Educational  Marketeers,  Inc.,  Clarksburg,  West  Virginia.  345  pp. 
Nugen,  C.K.  1981.  A  taxonomic  study  of  the  Symphitopsychc  Ulmer  and  Hydropsyche 

Pictet  larvae  of  West  Virginia  (Trichoptera:   Hydropsychidae).  Unpublished  Master's 

Thesis,  Marshall  University,  Huntington,  West  Virginia.  149  pp. 
Ross,  H.H.,  D.A.  Etnier  1944.  The  caddisflies,  or  Trichoptera.  of  Illinois.  Bull.  111.  Nat. 

Hist.  Surv.  23:    1-326. 
Schuster,  G.A.,  D.A.  Etnier.  1978.  A  manual  for  the  identification  of  the  larvae  of  the 

caddisfly  genera  Hvdropsvche  Pictet  and  Symphitopsyche  Ulmer  in  eastern  and  central 

North  America  (Trichoptera:   Hydropsychidae).  EPA-600/4-78-060.  129  pp. 
Tarter,  D.C.,  P.L.  Hill.  1979.  Caddisflies  (Trichoptera)  of  the  Cranberry  Glades  in  West 

Virginia.  Ent.  News  90(4):   205-206. 


SOCIETY  MEETING  —  OCTOBER  7,  1982 

The  first  fall  meeting  of  the  American  Entomological  Society  was  held  October  7,  1982  at 
the  University  of  Delaware.  Nine  members  and  four  guests  attended.  Dr.  Judith  Hough, 
Assistant  Professor  of  Entomology  and  Applied  Ecology  at  the  University  of  Delaware, 
presented  an  illustrated  lecture  on  "Oviposition  Behavior  of  Root  Maggots."  She  described 
how  maggots  of  the  fly  Hylemya  antiquu  can  do  considerable  damage  to  commerical  onion 
crops  in  the  Northern  United  States.  Females  appear  to  be  attracted  to  volatile,  sulfur- 
containing  compounds  produced  by  onions  after  physical  damage  or  by  rot-inducing 
microorganisms.  In  Southern  Delaware  the  related  seed  corn  maggot,  H.  platura,  is  an 
agricultural  pest  on  melon  and  bean  seeds  planted  in  April.  The  factors  which  stimulate 
ovipositon  in  this  species  are  being  studied  in  Dr.  Hough's  laboratory. 

In  notes  of  local  entomological  interest,  Howard  Boyd  reported  the  appearance  of  a 
substantial  population  of  the  tiger  beetle,  Cicindela  lepida.  on  a  tract  of  disturbed  New  Jersey 
Pine  Barrens  about  30  miles  from  the  coast.  Aside  from  some  very  early  records  (Clementon 
and  Lahaway  (Smith,  1909)).  this  is  the  first  New  Jersey  record  of  this  species  so  far  from 
coastal  sand  dunes  and  the  first  on  recently  disturbed  soil.  Hal  White  displayed  specimens  of 
Aeshna  tubercitlifera  and  A.  verticalis  collected  October  3  at  Lums  Pond  State  Park.  This  is 
the  first  time  either  of  the  dragonflies  has  been  found  in  Delaware.  He  also  reported  that  the 
damselfly,  Argia  bipunctulata,  was  collected  in  the  state  for  the  first  time  this  summer. 

Harold  B.  White  —  Corresponding  Secretary 


Vol.  94,  No.  1,  January  &  February  1983  21 

A  NEW  SPECIES  OF  PENAPHLEBIA 

(EPHEMEROPTERA:  LEPTOPHLEBIIDAE) 

FROM  ARGENTINA1 

Eduardo  Dominguez^,  Manuel  L.  Pescador^ 

ABSTRACT:  A  new  species  of  Penaphlebia,   P.   exigua,   is  described  from  southerr 
Argentina.  Diagnostic  morphological  characters  of  both  nymph  and  images  are  illustrated 

Included  in  the  mayfly  collections  of  the  senior  author  from  Argentina 
are  unusually  small  specimens  of  the  genus  Penaphlebia  which  represent  a 
new  species,  Penaphlebia  exigua,  described  herein.  In  the  revision  of  the 
generic  classification  of  certain  Leptophlebiidae  from  southern  South 
America,  Peters  and  Edmunds  (1972)  listed  four  recognized  species  of 
Penaphlebia:  P.  chilensis  (Eaton),  P.fulvipes  (Needham  and  Murphy),  P. 
sepia  (Thew),  and  P.  vinosa  (Demoulin).  Pescador  is  presently  revising  the 
genus  and  additional  species  will  be  included  in  the  genus. 

Penaphlebia  exigua,  new  species 

(Fig.  1-9,  11) 

Male  imago  (in  alcohol).  Length:  body  6.4-6.9  mm,  fore  wings  6.5-7.0  mm.  Head  pale 
brown;  a  black  stripe  extends  from  compound  eyes  to  base  of  antennae.  Scape  and  pedicel  of 
antennae  pale  yellow,  flagellum  paler.  Ocelli  grayish-white,  black  at  base.  Upper  portion  of 
eyes  beige,  lower  portion  grayish-black.  Thorax:  nota  brown,  pronotum  paler,  except  margins 
black  with  2  pairs  of  longitudinal  submedian  black  stripes.  Pleura  and  sterna  brown.  Wings 
(Fig.  1-3):  membrane  of  fore  wings  hyaline,  yellowish  at  extreme  base;  pterostigma 
translucent  white;  longitudinal  and  cross  veins  yellowish-brown,  vein  C,  Sc,  and  Rj  darker; 
vein  MP2  of  at  least  one  of  fore  wings  attached  to  vein  CUA  (Fig.  1);  prepterostigmatic  cross 
veins  weakly  developed;  number  of  costal  cross  veins  17-20.  Hind  wings  elliptic;  membrane 
hyaline;  longitudinal  and  cross  veins  yellowish-brown;  number  of  costal  cross  veins  7-8. 
Legs:  coxae,  trochanters,  tibio-femoral  joints,  and  tarsal  joints  brownish-yellow,  remaining 
segments  yellow,  progressively  paler  toward  apex;  femora  with  faint  transverse  black  median 
band;  segment  3  of  protarsi  longer  than  segment  4.  Abdomen:  terga  translucent  yellow  with 
pronounced  black  maculae  (Fig.  7)  and  black  posterolateral  markings  thinly  extended  to 
posterior  margins  of  segment.  Sterna  yellow;  lateral  margins  on  sternum  9  yellowish-brown. 
Genitalia  (Fig.  4-6);  forceps  pale  yellow,  segment  1  faintly  washed  with  brown,  pronounced 
on  inner  lateral  margin;  basal  3/4  of  inner  margin  of  segment  1  moderately  serrated,  segments 
2  and  3  subequal  length.  Styliger  plate  yellow  with  shallow  U-shaped  posteromedian 
emargination.  Penes  pale  yellow;  subapical  spine  on  penis  lobe  stubby  and  pointed 
posterolaterally  (Fig.  5,  6);  subapical  lobe  weakly  developed  (Fig.  5,  6).  Caudal  filaments; 
pale  yellow  with  apical  1/3  of  basal  segments  brown,  brown  portion  progressively  becoming 


1  Received  June  22,  1982 

^CONICET.,  Fundacion  Miguel  Lillo,  Miguel  Lillo  205,  4.000  Tucuman,  Argentina. 

•^Department  of  Entomology,  Florida  A&M  University,  Tallahassee,  Fl.  32307. 

ENT.  NEWS,  94(1)  21-24,  January  &  February.  1983 


22 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Fig.  1-9.   Penaphlebia  exigua.  Fig.  1-7.  cfimago:    1,  fore  wing,  2,  variation  in  vein  MP  of  fore 

wing;  4,  genitalia,  ventral;  5-6,  dorsal  (5)  and  ventral  (6)  detail  of  apex  of  penis  lobe; 

7,  abdominal  terga  2-10.  Fig.  8-9,  nymph:   8,  posterior  margin  of  abdominal  terga; 

9,  fore  claw.  Fig.  10-11,  posterolateral  projections  of  abdominal  segments  8-9  of 

nymph:  ventral  view:    10,  P.  chilensis;  \\,  P.  exigua. 


Vol.  94.  No.  1,  January  &  February  1983  23 


broader  towards  apex  until  filaments  consist  of  alternating  pale  yellow  and  brown  segments 
with  brown  segments  gradually  faded  distally. 

Female  imago  (in  alcohol).  Length:  body  7.7  mm,  fore  wing  8. Omm.  Color  and  marking 
of  head,  antennae  and  ocelli  as  in  male.  Eyes  black.  Thorax:  color  and  markings  as  in  male. 
Wings:  color  of  fore  and  hind  wings  as  in  male  except  veins  darker,  and  costal  and  subcostal 
cross  veins  well  developed.  Abdomen:  color  slightly  darker  than  male,  markings  similar  (Fig. 

7). 

Mature  nymph  (in  alcohol).  Body  length  6.9-7.2  mm.  Dorsum  of  head  pale  brown,  venter 
paler;  small  triangular  pale  yellow  spot  anterior  to  median  ocellus  and  lateral  to  lateral  ocelli. 
Scape  and  pedicel  of  antennae  light  brown,  flagellum  paler.  Ocelli  black.  Eyes  of  female  black. 
Upper  portion  of  male  eyes  orange  brown,  lower  portion  black.  Mouthparts:  labrum  with  a 
transverse  row  of  closely  set  hair  near  dorsoapical  margin.  Outer  margin  of  mandibles 
smoothly  curved,  middorsal  depression  shallow  to  absent.  Maxillary  palpi  uniformly  yellow. 
Thorax:  nota  light  brown,  sterna  paler;  color  markings  on  pronotum  as  in  imagos.  Legs:  light 
brown:  femora  with  broad  transverse  median  and  apical  dark  brown  bands.  Middenticles  on 
claws  larger  than  apical  denticles  (Fig.  9).  Abdomen:  terga  yellowish-brown  with  black 
maculae  as  in  imagos;  terga  2-7  with  midsublateral  pale  yellow  spot;  tergal  posterior  spines 
subequal  length  with  hair-like  setae  (Fig.  8);  posterolateral  projections  on  abdominal  segments 
8  and  9  weakly  developed  (Fig.  11).  Sterna  pale  yellow,  anterior  margin  brownish. 
Gills:  membrane  grayish-white;  tracheae  black;  lamellae  terminated  in  a  filamentous  process. 
Caudal  filaments;  pale  brown,  with  pronounced  dark  shiny  brown  annulation  on  every  other 
articulations. 

Geographical  Distribution.  Holotype  c?  imago,  ARGENTINA:  Rio  Negro  Prov., 
Rincon  de  Asconape,  70  km  S  Valcheta,  27-11-80,  Willink,  el.  al.  Allotype  9  imago,  same  data 
as  holotype.  Paratypes:  ARGENTINA:  19  o"  imagos,  14  nymphs,  same  data  as  holotype. 

Association  of  nymph  and  imagos  is  by  color  markings  of  nymphs  and  adults  collected  in 
same  locality.  Holotype,  allotype,  9  cfimaginal  and  7  nymphal  paratypes  are  deposited  in  the 
collections  of  Fundacion  Miguel  Lillo,  Miguel  Lillo,  Tucaman,  Argentina.  Ten  cf  imaginal 
and  7  nymphal  paratypes  are  deposited  in  the  collections  of  Florida  A&M  University. 

Etymology,  exiguus,  L.,  meaning  little. 

Discussion.  The  nymphs  of  P.  exigua  exhibit  minor  variations  on 
markings  on  the  abdominal  sterna,  and  the  development  of  posterolateral 
projections  on  abdominal  segments  8-9.  Young  nymphs  have  uniformly 
pale  yellow  abdominal  sterna  while  mature  ones  have  the  anterior  margin  of 
each  segment  brownish,  and  anterior  brown  maculae  on  sternum  9. 
Additionally,  mature  nymphs  have  pronounced  midsublateral  pale  yellow 
spots  on  terga  2-8,  less  pronounced  or  absent  among  the  immature  ones. 
Male  nymphs  have  posterolateral  projections  of  abdominal  segments  8-9 
more  developed  (Fig.  1 1)  than  the  females. 

Black  maculae  on  abdominal  terga  4  and  5  of  most  imagos  are 
medially  separated  (Fig.  7)  while  a  few  have  such  maculae  medially  fused. 
Except  for  three  cf  imagos  which  have  the  base  of  vein  M?2  of  one  of  the 
fore  wings  attached  by  a  cross  vein  to  vein  MP  i  (Fig.  2),  the  rest  have  vein 
M?2  basally  fused  or  attached  with  vein  CUA  (Fig.  1 ). 


24  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

Penaphlebia  exigua  can  be  distinguished  from  the  other  species  of  the 
genus  by  any  of  the  following  characters.  In  the  imagos:  ( 1 )  small  body  size 
having  a  length  of  6.4-6.9  mm  (male),  7.7  mm  (female);  (2)  pattern  of  black 
maculae  on  abdominal  terga  is  similar  to  Fig.  7;  (3)  vein  MP2  of  at  least  one 
of  the  fore  wings  is  basally  attached  to  vein  CUA  (Fig.  1 );  and  (4)  apex  of 
penes  is  as  in  Fig.  5,  6.  In  the  nymph:  (1)  body  length  ranges  from  6.9-7.2 
mm;  (2)  middle  denticles  on  claws  are  larger  than  the  apical  denticles  (Fig. 
9);  and  (3)  posterolateral  projections  on  male  abdominal  segments  8-9  are 
weakly  developed  (Fig.  11)  compared  to  the  other  species  (Fig.  10). 

Biology.  The  nymphs  of  P.  exigua  were  collected  in  a  small  stream  in 
Somuncura  Plateau  which  supports  a  thick  growth  of  Nostoc  and  moss. 
Along  the  edge  of  the  stream  are  thick  growths  of  Cortaderia  speciosa 
Nees,  Samoulus  valerandi  (L.),  Cvnodon  dactvlum,  Agrostis,  and  ferns 
(Cei,  1969). 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

This  research  was  supported  in  part  by  a  grant  (FLAX  79009)  from  SEA/CR.  USDA. 
Collection  of  specimens  by  one  of  us  (ED)  was  supported  by  a  grant  from  the  National 
Geographic  Society,  Dr.  A.  Willink,  Principal  Investigator.  Fundacion  Miguel  Lillo.  We 
thank  M.D.  Hubbard.  W.L.  &  J.G..  Peters,  and  H.M.  Savage  for  reading  the  manuscript.  The 
nymphal  figures  were  drawn  by  J.G.  Peters. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Cei,  J.M.  1969,  La  Meseta  basaltica  de  Somuncura,  Rio  Negro.  Herpetofauna  endemica  y 
sus  peculiares  equilibrios  biocenoticos.  Physis  XXVIII,  77:  257-271. 

Peters,  W.L.  and  G.F.  Edmunds,  Jr.  A  revision  of  the  generic  classification  of  certain 
Leptophlebiidae  from  southern  South  America  (Ephemeroptera).  Ann.  Entomol.  Soc. 
Am.  65:  1398-1414. 


AWARDS  FOR  STUDY 

at  The  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  of  Philadelphia 

The  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  of  Philadelphia,  through  its  Jessup  and  McHenry 
funds,  makes  available  each  year  a  limited  number  of  awards  to  support  students  pursuing 
natural  history  studies  at  the  Academy.  These  awards  are  primarily  intended  to  assist 
predoctoral  and  immediate  postdoctoral  students.  Awards  usually  include  a  stipend  to  help 
defray  living  expenses,  and  support  for  travel  to  and  from  the  Academy.  Application  deadlines 
are  1  April  and  1  October  each  year.  Further  information  may  be  obtained  by  writing 
to:  Chairman,  Jessup-McHenry  Award  Committee,  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  of 
Philadelphia.  19th  and  the  Parkway,  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania  19103. 


Vol.  94,  No.  1,  January  &  February  1983  25 

OBSERVATIONS  ON  TERRITORALITY  OF 

OLIGODRANES  MITIS  CRESSON  (DIPTERA: 

BOMBYLIIDAE)  ON  FLOWERS  OF  ERIGERON 

NEOMEXICANUS  (ASTERACEAE)1 

Neal  L.  Evenhuis^ 

ABSTRACT:  Territorality  and  allied  behavior  exhibited  by  Oligodranes  mitis  on  flowers 
heads  of  Erigeron  neomexicanus  in  southern  New  Mexico  is  described  and  illustrated. 

Bombyliidae  are  well  known  as  visitors  to  many  different  flowering 
plants  (Graenicher  1910,  Robertson  1928,  Grant  &  Grant  1965)  and  are 
principal  pollinators  of  certain  species  (Moldenke  1976,  Schmitt  1981, 
Plichta,  unpubl.  data).  Published  observations  on  plant-insect  relationships 
concerning  Bombyliidae  have  dealt  primarily  with  floral  visitation  and 
pollination  ecology  (Straw  1963,  Moldenke  1976,  Schmitt  1981).  The 
present  paper  concerns  territoriality  exhibited  by  Oligodranes  mitis 
Cresson  on  flower  heads  of  Erigeron  neomexicanus  Gray  (Asteraceae). 

On  6-7  and  13  May  1982,  observations  were  conducted  by  the  author 
at  a  site  5  mi  [  8.0  km  ]  N  of  Aguirre  Springs,  Dona  Ana  Co.  in  the  Organ 
Mts  of  southern  New  Mexico,  elevation  ca.  5000  ft  [1524  m].  Observa- 
tions were  made  daily  from  approximately  1000-1600  h.  The  prominent 
floral  display  of  Erigeron  neomexicanus,  combined  with  a  small,  dry 
streambed  that  ran  between  two  large  patches  of  Erigeron,  was 
an  ideal  collecting  site  for  Bombyliidae.  The  site  is  located  in  the 
northernmost  portion  of  the  Chihauhuan  Desert,  and  is  characterized  by  a 
lack  of  vegetation  save  for  sporadic  growths  of  Salvia,  Opuntia,  Erigeron, 
and  other  small  flowering  annuals.  The  site  is  at  the  eastern  base  of  the 
Organ  Mts  and  sharply  grades  into  a  pinyon-juniper  woodland  less  than  a 
mile  away. 

While  collecting  the  many  bombyliids  that  frequented  the  flowering  E. 
neomexicanus  (e.g.,  Pantarbes,  Geminaria,  Oligodranes,  Mythicomyia, 
Apolysis,  Villa,  Lepidanthrax  and  Aphoebantus),  it  was  noted  that  when 
disturbed,  males  of  Oligodranes  mitis  would  fly  from  their  perches  on  the 
E.  neomexicanus  flower  heads  and  return  a  few  seconds  later.  The  time 
between  leaving  the  flower  head  and  returning  varied  according  to  the 
degree  of  disturbance;  however,  males  would  almost  invariably  return  to  the 
same  flower  head.  This  type  of  behavior  is  similar  to  the  territorial  behavior 


'Received  August  31.  1982 

^Department  of  Entomology,  Bishop  Museum.  P.O.   Box   19000- A.  Honolulu.  Hawaii 
96819.  USA 

ENT.  NEWS,  94  ( 1 )  25-28,  January  &  February.  1983 


26 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


exhibited  by  species  of  Bombylius.  The  males  of  Bombylius  hover  over 
marked  territories  and,  after  being  disturbed  from  their  territory,  will 
eventually  return  to  the  same  territory  (Cunningham-van  Someren  1979, 
Evenhuis,  unpubl.  data).  Females  of  O.  mitis  did  not  exhibit  territorality 
but  instead  moved  from  flower  to  flower  when  disturbed  and  fed  much  more 
frequently. 

After  alighting,  the  Oligodranes  male  placed  itself  on  the  outer  ray 
petals  with  its  proboscis  directed  inward  toward  the  disc  flowers  (Fig.  1). 
When  it  fed,  it  moved  forward  slightly  to  probe  among  the  corollas  of  the 
disc  flowers  in  search  of  nectar  with  its  long  proboscis.  After  feeding,  the  fly 
would  again  move  backward  to  the  ray  petals  resuming  its  original  position. 
Feeding  in  males  was  infrequent;  they  spent  most  of  the  time  in  the  resting 
position  described  above. 


1 


Fig.  I .   Resting  position  of  a  male  Oligodranes  mitis  Cresson  on  a  flower  head  of  Erigeron 
neomexicanus  Gray. 


Vol.  94,  No.  1,  January  &  February  1983 


27 


Usually  only  one  Oligodranes  individual  (male  or  female)  would 
occupy  a  single  flower  head;  however,  ocassionally  more  than  one  fly  was 
found  on  a  single  flower  (observed  in  12  out  of  58  cases).  As  many  as  4 
individuals  of  O.  mitis  were  observed  on  the  same  flower  (2  observations). 
When  another  individual  alighted  upon  an  occupied  flower,  the  original 
occupant  would  not  attempt  to  chase  the  new  occupant  away  but  would 
instead  space  itself  1 80°  from  the  other  indiviual  (Fig.  2a).  This  equidistant 
spacing  also  held  true  in  cases  when  there  were  more  than  two  individuals 
on  the  same  flower  head  (i.e.,  with  three  individuals,  the  spacing  would  be 
120°  apart,  with  four  it  would  be  90°). 


Fig.  2.  Spacing  of  Oligodranes  on  Erigeron  during  multiple  occupation,  a)  ca.  1 80C  spacing 
with  2  individuals;  b)  ca.  120  spacing  with  3  individuals;  c)  ca.  90  spacing  with  4 
individuals. 


When  viewed  from  above,  movement  on  the  flower  head  by  more  than 
one  fly  while  feeding  was  always  in  a  clockwise  direction.  When  one  fly 
came  within  ca.  20°  of  another  fly,  one  or  the  other  would  move  away, 
maintaining  the  equidistant  spacing.  During  these  confrontations,  often  the 
larger  individual,  whether  male  or  female,  would  remain  in  its  position  and 
the  smaller  fly  would  move  away  (in  a  clockwise  direction).  Occasionally, 
when  the  smaller  one  failed  to  move  away  as  the  larger  one  approached,  the 
larger  one,  after  getting  close  enough,  would  kick  its  middle  leg  outward  to 
push  away  the  smaller  individual.  This  was  the  only  physical  contact 
observed  between  individuals  on  the  same  flower  and  was  seen  three  times 
during  the  course  of  these  observations. 

Captures  of  other  species  of  Oligodranes  at  this  site,  other  localities  in 
New  Mexico,  and  Arizona,  all  on  various  species  of  Erigeron,  lead  me  to 
conclude  that  Erigeron  flowers  play  an  important  role  in  the  biologies  of 
adult  species  of  Oligodranes,  much  as  other  flowers  do  in  the  Old  World 
genus  Us ia  (Du Merle  1971 )[  both  genera  have  been  recently  placed  in  the 
subfamily  Usiinae  (Hull  1973,  Hesse  1973)  |.  Though  not  observed  here. 


28  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


territoriality  exhibited  by  males  of  Oligodranes  mitis  presumably  is  related 
to  courtship  and  mating  as  in  other  genera  of  Bombyliidae. 


LITERATURE  CITED 

Cunningham-van  Someren,  G.R.  1979.  Observations  on  the  behavior  and  feeding  of 

Bombvlius  uniformis  Paramonov  and  B.  flammeus  Bowden  (Dipt.,  Bombyliidae)  in 

Kenya.  Entomol.  Mon.  Mag.  114:   107-11. 
DuMerle,  P.  1971.  Biologie  de  deux  especies  de  genre  Usia  Latreille  (Diptera:  Bombyliidae). 

Ann.  Soc.  Entomol.  Fr.  (N.S.)l:   241-59. 
Grant,  V.  &  K.  Grant.  1 965.  Flower  pollination  in  the  Phlox  family.  Columbia  Univ.  Press, 

N.Y.  180  p. 
Graenicher,  S.  1910.  The  bee  flies  (Bombyliidae)  and  their  relations  to  flowers.  Bull.  Wise. 

Nat  1.  Hist.  Soc.  8:  91-101. 
Hesse,  A.J.   1975.  Additions  to  the  South  African  species  of  Phthiriinae  and  Usiinae 

(Diptera:   Bombyliidae)  with  keys  to  all  known  species.  A nn.  S.  Afr.  Mus.  66:   257-308. 
Hull,  P.M.  1973.  Bee  flies  of  the  world.  The  genera  of  the  family  Bombyliidae.  Bull.  U.S. 

Natl.  Mus.  286:    1-687. 
Moldenke,  A.R.  1976.  California  pollination  ecology  and  vegetation  types.  Phrtologia 

34:  305-61. 

Robertson,  C.  1928.  Flowers  and  insects.  Science  Press,  Lancaster,  Penn.  221  p. 
Schmitt,  J.M.  1981.  Pollinator  foraging  and  evolution  in  flowering  plant  populations.  Univ. 

Microfilms  International,  Ann  Arbor,  Michigan.  73  p. 
Straw,  R.M.  1963.  Bee  fly  pollination  in  Penstemon  ambiguus.  Ecology  44:   818-19. 


INTERNATIONAL  COMMISSION  ON  ZOOLOGICAL 

NOMENCLATURE 

c/o  BRITISH  MUSEUM  (NATURAL  HISTORY), 
CROMWELL  ROAD,  LONDON,  SW7  58BD 

ITZN  11/4 

(A.N.(S.))  123  4  October,  1982 

The  Commission  hereby  gives  six  months  notice  of  the  possible  use  of  its  plenary  powers 
in  the  following  cases,  published  in  the  Bulletin  of  Zoological  Nomenclature,  volume  39, 
part  3,  on  30  Spetember  1982,  and  would  welcome  comments  and  advice  on  them  from 
interested  zoologists.  Correspondence  should  be  addressed  to  the  Secretary  at  the  above 
address,  if  possible  within  six  months  of  the  date  of  publication  of  this  notice. 

Case  No. 

2384  Nymphula  Schrank,  1802  (Insecta  Lepidoptera):  proposal  to  designate  a  type 

species. 
2296  Hybosorus  illigeri  Reiche,  1853  (Insecta,  Coleoptera):  proposed  conservation 

by  use  of  the  plenary  powers. 
2380  Anthalia  Zetterstedt,  1838  (Insecta,  Diptera):   request  for  designation  of  type 

species. 

(Continued  on  page  30) 


Vol.  94,  No.  1,  January  &  February  1983  29 

NOTES  ON  AUPLOPUS  CARBONARIUS,  A  SPIDER 

WASP  NEW  TO  THE  UNITED  STATES 

(HYMENOPTERA:  POMPILIDAE)1 

Sal  Nolfo2 

ABSTRACT:  Six  Auplopus  carbonarius  Scopoli  have  been  captured  in  New  York  state 
within  the  past  fifteen  years,  five  since  June  15,  1981.  It  may  be  assumed  that  this  Palearctic 
species  is  firmly  established  in  the  northeastern  United  States. 

Auplopus  carbonarius  Scopoli 

Male  —  5  mm  to  6  mm  in  length;  dorsum  black,  lacking  iridescence;  last  tergum  white; 
frons  bears  two  longitudinal  white  stripes,  one  adjacent  to  each  compound  eye,  starting  just 
above  the  antennal  sockets  and  extending  down  to  the  apical  edge  of  the  clypeus.  Wings  faintly 
infuscate,  forewing  6  mm  long;  second  flagellar  segment  2.5  times  as  long  as  wide:  apical 
margin  of  the  clypeus  moderately  concave. 

Female  —  8  mm  to  9  mm  in  length:  dorsum  black,  without  iridescence;  apical  section  of 
mandibles  rufous.  Wings  faintly  infuscate,  forewing  8  mm  long;  pygidial  plate  polished; 
second  flagellar  segment  4.0  times  as  long  as  wide;  apical  margin  of  clypeus  broadly  angled  to 
form  a  rounded  median  point. 

This  species  closely  resembles  Auplopus  variolarum  Townes  and 
Auplopus  caerulescens  subcorticalis  Walsh  in  Townes  (1957)  keys.  The 
female  is  similar  to  A.  variolarum  but  differs  in  having  its  legs  wholly  dark, 
the  clypeus  somewhat  produced  forming  a  rounded  median  point,  and 
averaging  slightly  smaller  in  size.  The  male  is  similar  to  A.  caerulescens 
subcorticalis  but  lacks  the  bluish  iridescence  on  the  thorax. 

Auplopus  carbonarius,  like  many  other  species  of  Auplopus,  builds 
nests  of  mud,  consisting  of  single,  not  side  by  side,  tubes.  The  females 
collect  small  pellets  of  mud,  using  their  mandibles  and  mental  bristles,  and 
build  cells  with  rows  of  pellets.  The  mud  is  pressed  into  place  with  the  tip  of 
her  gaster  or  pygidial  plate.  These  barrel-shaped  cells  are  flat  topped  and 
approx.  8-10  by  4-5  mm. 

It  is  not  known  if  the  cells  are  constructed  before  or  after  the  prey  is 
paralyzed,  but  it  is  almost  certain  that  it  is  after.  After  paralyzing  the  spider, 
but  before  taking  it  back  to  the  nest,  the  wasp  usually  mutilates  it.  The 
significance  of  this  habit  is  unknown.  Perhaps  this  makes  the  paralyzed  prey 
easier  to  carry  or  pack  into  a  cell. 

The  nest  are  built  in  a  variety  of  situations,  such  as  on  tree  stumps, 
fences,  under  stones,  under  bark,  in  crevices  of  tree  trunks  and  on  walls. 


Deceived  August  12,  1982 

2 14 19  Valley  Rd.,  Garner.  North  Carolina.  27529 

ENT.  NEWS.  94  ( 1 )  29-30,  January  &  February,  1983 


30  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Nests  may  have  been  brought  into  this  country  in  nursery  stock  or  wood 
products. 

One  female  A.  carbonarius  was  captured  in  Nyack,  New  York  on  June 
12,  1967,  by  M.  Deyrup  (collection  of  the  American  Museum  of  Natural 
History,  New  York).  Since  then  five  more  have  been  captured  in  North 
Bellmore,  New  York  since  June  15,  1981,  by  V.  Nolfo.  It  seems,  in  all 
probabilities,  that  this  wasp  is  established  here.  One  pair  will  be  deposited 
in  the  collection  at  the  U.S.  National  Museum,  Wash.,  D.C. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I  am  grateful  to  Howard  E.  Evans,  Colorado  State  University,  and  to  M.C.  Day,  of  the 
British  Museum  of  Natural  History,  for  assistance  in  determining  these  specimens.  I  also  wish 
to  thank  Vincent  Nolfo  for  providing  the  five  specimens  from  Long  Island,  New  York  and  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  W.  Hancock  for  their  translation  of  Heinrich  Wolfs  German  manuscript. 

REFERENCES 

Richards,  O.W.  and  Hamm,  A.H.  1 939.  The  Biology  of  the  British  Pompilidae  (Hymenoptera), 

Trans.  Soc.  British  Ent.  6:   51-114. 

Townes,  Henry.  1957,  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  Bull.  209.  286  pps. 
Wolf,  Heinrich.  1972.  Insecta  Helvetica,  pt.  5,  Hymenoptera-Pompilidae.  pps.  75-79. 


(Continued  from  page  28) 


ITZN59  4  October  1982 

The  following  Opinions  and  Directions  have  been  published  by  the  International 
Commission  on  Zoological  Nomenclature  in  the  Bulletin  of  Zoological  Nomenclature, 
volume  39,  part  3,  on  30  September,  1982: 

Opinion  No. 

1218  (p.  166)  Trombidium  akamitshi  Brumpt,    1910  (Acarina):  designation  of 

type  species. 

1221  (p.  175)  Baeocera  Erichson.  1845  (Insecta.  Coleoptera):  designation  of  type 

species. 

1222  (p.  178)  Campylosteira  Fieber,    1844  (Insecta,   Hemiptera):  type  species 

designated. 

Direction  No. 

112  (p.  194)  PIERIDAE  Duponchel.  [1835]  (Insecta.  Lepidoptera):  protected. 

113  (p.  196)  MORPHIDAE  (Insecta,  Lepidoptera):   further  correction  to  Official  List 

entry. 


The  Commission  regrets  it  cannot  supply  separates  of  opinion. 


R.V.  Melville, 
Secretary 


Vol.  94,  No.  1,  January  &  February  1983  31 

CHIGGERS  (ACARI:  TROMBICULIDAE)  FROM 
SOME  SMALL  MAMMALS  FROM  NIGERIA1 

John  O.  Whitaker,  Jr.2,  M.  Lee  Goff3,  John  G.  Matthysse4 

ABSTRACT:  Six  species  of  chiggers  were  recorded  from  mammals  from  Nigeria:  Gahrliepia 
(G.)bellieri,  G.  (Schoengastiella)  nr.  combesi,  Leptotrombidium  (Hypotrombidium)  legaci, 
Microtrombicula  iecensis,  Neotrombicula  nigeriensis,  and  Schoengastia  eburnensis.  Of 
these,  only  N.  nigeriensis  and  L.  legaci  had  been  reported  previously  from  Nigeria. 

Recently,  two  of  us  (Whitaker  and  Matthysse,  1982)  presented 
information  on  ectoparasites  of  some  small  mammals  in  Nigeria.  The 
present  paper  presents  information  on  the  larval  trombiculids  or  chiggers 
from  that  collection.  Mammal  species  collected  which  were  not  found 
infested  by  chiggers  are  as  follows  (with  numbers  of  hosts  examined  in 
parentheses):  Arvicanthis  niloticus  (2),  Cricetomys  gambianus  (6), 
Leggada  musculoides  (1),  Mastomys  natalensis  (6),  Mus  musculoides 
(2),  Praomys  tullbergi  (9),  and  Rattus  alexandrianus  (1).  All  of  the 
uninfested  hosts  were  rodents. 

Four  species  of  mammals  were  recorded  as  hosts  for  1 12  chiggers  of  6 
species  as  follows: 

Insectivora  (Soricidae) 

Crociduraflavescens  (I.  Geoffrey,  1827)  The  single  specimen  examined 
(Ibadan,  18  Apr  1 975)  of  the  White-footed  shrew  (=  C.  manni]  yielded  24 
larvae  of  Leptotrombidum  (Hypotrombidium)  legaci  (Andre,  1950).  This 
species  has  been  previously  reported  from  a  number  of  different  hosts, 
including  Felis  sp.,  Taterillus  e.  emini,  Mylomys  cunninghamei  alberti, 
Lemniscomys  s.  striatus  and  Gallus  domesticus,  from  the  Ivory  Coast. 
Ghana  and  the  Central  African  Republic. 

Rodentia  (Muridae) 

Dasymys  incomtus  (Sundevall,  1 847)  Two  of  the  7  Shaggy-haired  rats 
examined  (Ibadan;  30  Apr.,  12  May  1975)  were  each  infested  by  1 
specimen  of  Schoengastia  eburnensis  Taufflief,  1 960.  This  chigger  was 
previously  reported  from  an  antelope,  Neotraguspygmaeus,  taken  from  the 
Ivory  Coast. 


1  Received  July  9,  1982 

^Department  of  Life  Sciences,  Indiana  State  University,  Terre  Haute.  IN  47809 
Department  of  Entomology,  B.P.  Bishop  Museum,  P.O.  Box  1 9000-A,  Honolulu.  HI  986 1 9 
410810  E.  Prince  Rd..  Tucson,  AZ.  85715 

ENT.  NEWS,  94(1)  3  1-32,  January  &  February.  1983 


32  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Lophuromys  sikapusi  (Temminck,  1853)  The  single  specimen  of  the 
harsh-furred  mouse  examined  (Ibadan,  23  Apr  1975)  was  infested  by  29 
chiggers  representing  3  species:  7  Gahrliepia  (Gahrliepia)  bellieri  Taufflieb, 
1 965;  1 2  Leptotrombidium  (H.)  legaci  and  1 0  Neotrombicula  nigeriensis 
(Ewing,  1928).  Gahrliepia  (G.)  bellieri  was  originally  described  by 
Taufflieb  (1965)  from  Crocidura  sp.  taken  from  the  Ivory  Coast  and 
Neotrombicula  nigeriensis  was  described  by  Ewing  (1928)  from  Funisciurus 
auriculatus  oliviae  taken  in  Nigeria. 

Rattus  rattus  (Linneaus,  1758)  A  total  of  53  chiggers  of  4  species  was 
recovered  from  9  of  1 3  black  rats  examined.  All  rats  with  chiggers  were 
taken  between  April  10  and  April  22,  1975,  at  Ibadan.  Leptotrombidium 
legaci  was  represented  by  16  larvae  on  6  hosts,  12  Microtrombicula 
iecensis  Taufflieb,  1960,  on  3  host  individuals,  24  Neotrombicula  nigeriensis 
on  6  host  individuals,  and  a  single  Gahrliepia  (Schoengastiella)  likely 
combesi  Taufflieb,  1966.  Microtrombicula  iecensis  was  described  by 
Taufflieb  (1960a)  from  Rattus  frugivorus  taken  in  Brazzaville,  the  Congo. 
Taufflieb  (1964)  described  Gahrliepia  (S.)  combesi  from  Aethomys  sp. 
taken  near  Bangui,  Central  African  Republic.  The  specimen  in  the  present 
collection  has  been  damaged,  thus  precluding  positive  identification.  In  all 
observable  characters,  this  specimen  agrees  with  G.  (S.)  combesi. 

Of  the  6  species  of  chiggers  collected  during  this  study,  only  Neotrombicula 
nigeriensis  and  Leptotrombidium  (H.)  legaci  had  been  previously  reported 
from  Nigeria.  Host  records  from  shrews  and  rodents  are  new  for  all  chigger 
species  except  Leptotrombidium  (H.)  legaci. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Andre,  M.  1950.  Une  nouvelle  forme  larvaire  de  Thrombicnla  d'AfriqueEquatoriale.  Bull. 

Mus.  His.  Natur.,  2e  Serie  22(5):   577-81. 

Ewing,  H.E.  1928.  A  preliminary  key  to  the  larvae  of  fifteen  species  of  the  mite  genus 
Trombicula,  with  descriptions  of  four  new  species.  Proc.  Entomol.  Soc.  Wash.  80:  77- 
80. Taufflieb,  R.  1960.  Etude  d'une  collection  de  Trombiculidae  d'Afrique  Occidentale. 
Acarologia  2:  224-37. 

.  1960a.  Notes  sur  les  Trombiculidae  (Acarina)  de  la  region  de  Brazzaville. 
Description  de  trois  nouvelle  especies.  Acarologia  2:   472-79. 

.  1964.  Les  Schoengastiella  (Acarina,  Trombiculidae)  de  la  region  Subsaharienne. 
Acarologia  6:   455-75. 

.  1 965 .  Le  sous-genre  Gahrliepia  (Acarina,  Trombiculidae)  en  Afrique  Subsaharienne. 
Acarologia  7:   510-22. 

Whitaker,  J.O.,  Jr.  &  J.G.  Matthysse.  1982.  Records  of  some  ectoparasites  from  Nigeria. 
Entomol.  News  93:  4:  95-102. 


Vol.  94,  No.  1,  January  &  February  1983  33 

TWO  NEW  SYNONYMS  OF  EUTAENIONOTUM 
GUTTIPENNIS  (STENHAMMAR)  (DIPTERA: 

EPHYDRIDAE)12 

Philip  J.  Clausen3 

ABSTRACT:  The  types  of  Notiphila  producta  Walker  and  Ephydra  octonotata  Walker 
have  been  examined,  lectotypes  designated  for  each,  and  both  are  consideredjunior  synonyms 
of  Eutaenionotum  guttipennis  (Stenhammar). 

In  1849,  Walker  describd  Notiphila  producta  and,  later  in  the  same 
paper,  described  Ephydra  octonotata,  both  from  specimens  taken  at  the 
same  locality.  Much  later  Wirth  (1965)  listed  producta  (Walker)  and 
octonotata  (Walker)  as  species  in  the  ephydrid  genus  Hyadina. 

Consequently,  during  the  course  of  my  revision  of  the  genus  Hyadina,  it 
was  necessary  to  examine  the  Walker  types  of  each  of  the  above  species. 
My  examination  proves  beyond  any  doubt  that  not  only  are  both  species 
conspecific  but  both  are  definitely  junior  synonyms  of  Eutaenionotum 
guttipenis  (Stenhammar).  For  a  complete  list  of  synonymies  of  guttipennis, 
both  Notiphila  producta  Walker  and  Ephydra  octonotata  Walker  should 
be  added  to  those  in  Clausen  and  Cook  (1971). 

In  Walker's  descriptions  of  both  species,  he  made  no  mention  of  exactly 
how  many  specimens  of  each  species  were  before  him  or  actually  in  the  type 
series.  If  there  was  ever  a  series  of  specimens  of  each  species,  apparently 
only  a  single  specimen  of  each  still  exists.  Thus,  I  can  either  assume  these  to 
be  holotypes  or  designate  each  as  a  lectotype.  For  nomenclatorial  stability, 
I  am  herein  doing  the  latter. 

Both  lectotypes  are  deposited  in  the  collection  of  the  British  Museum 
(Natural  History)  and  bear  identical  data,  except  for  the  original  determina- 
tion labels  and  my  lectotype  and  determination  labels.  The  data  on  both 
lectotypes  are  as  follows:  "Hudson's  Bay,  St.  Martin's  Falls,  George 
Barnston,  B.M.  1844- 17. "The  \eclotypeofNotiphilaproducta  Walker  is 
a  female  and  is  now  so  labeled.  The  lectotype  of  Ephydra  octonotata 
Walker  has  the  abdomen  missing  and  is  unlabeled  as  to  sex,  but  from  the 
size  of  the  specimen  I  strongly  suspect  it  to  be  female  also.  Beneath  the 


1  Received  June  8,  1982 

"Paper  No.  12,266,  Scientific  Journal  Series.  Minnesota  Agricultural  Experiment  Station. 
St.  Paul  Minnesota  55108. 

-  Department  of  Entomology,  Fisheries,  and  Wildlife,  University,  of  Minnesota,  St.  Paul. 
Minnesota  55108 

ENT.  NEWS,  94(1)  33-34,  January  &  February,  1983 


34  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


lectotype  label,  each  also  bears  my  determination  label  for  Eutaenionotum 
guttipennis  (Stenhammar). 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Clausen,  P.J.  and  E.F.  Cook.  1971,  A  revision  of  the  nearctic  species  of  the  tribe  Parydrini 

(Diptera:   Ephydridae).  Mem.  Am.  Ent.  Soc.  27:    1-150. 
Walker,  F.  1849.  List  of  the  specimens  of  diperous  insects  in  the  collection  of  the  British 

Museum.  Vol.  4,  pp.  689-1 172.  London. 
Wirth,  W.W.  1965.  Family  Ephydridae.  pp.  734-759.  In  Stone,  A.,  C.W.  Sabrosky,  W.W. 

Wirth,  R.H.  Foote,  and  J.R.  Coulson,  A  catalog  of  the  Diptera  of  North  America  north  of 

Mexico.  U.S.  Department  of  Agriculture  Research  Service.  Agriculture  Handbook  No. 

276.  1,696pp. 


ASHEUM,  A  REPLACEMENT  NAME  IN 
CHIRONOMIDAE  (DIPTERA)1 

James  E.  Sublette,  Mary  Sublette^ 

In  reviewing  the  genera  of  Chironomidae  of  the  world,  Dr.  Patrick 
Ashe,  University  College,  Dublin,  encountered  a  senior  homonym  for  a 
genus  name  published  by  Sublette  (1964).  The  following  new  name  is 
proposed  as  a  replacement  for  the  junior  homonym. 

Asheum  New  name  Sublette  &  Sublette 

Etymology:  This  replacement  name  for  Pedionomus  Sublette,  1964, 
nee  Pedionomus  Gould,  1840,  Birds  of  Australia,  5,  pi.  80.  (Aves);  nee 
Pedionomus  Haag-Rutenberg,  1875,  Duetsch.  Ent.  Zeitschr.  19:42  (Insecta), 
is  dedicated  to  Dr.  Patrick  Ashe  who  pointed  out  the  homonomy. 

Gender:  Neuter 

Type-species:  Pedionomus  beckae  Sublette  (= Asheum  beckae( Sublette) 
n.  comb.),  by  original  designation. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Sublette,  James   E.   1964.   Chironomidae  (Diptera)  of  Louisiana.   I.   Systematics   and 
immature  stages  of  some  lentic  chironomids  of  west  central  Louisiana.  Tulane  Stud  Zool 
11(4):    109-150. 


'Received  August  23.  1982 

2Natural  History  Museum,  Eastern  New  Mexico  University,  Portales,  N.  Mex.  88130. 
ENT.  NEWS.  94  ( 1 )  34,  January  &  February,  1983 


Vol.  94,  No.  1,  January  &  February  1983 

NEW  RECORDS  OF  CERATOPOGONIDAE 
(DIPTERA)  FROM  NORTH  CAROLINA1 

Tommy  W.  Bowen^ 

ABSTRACT:  Eighteen  species  of  ceratopogonids  (Diptera:  Ceratopogonidae)  are  reported 
from  North  Carolina  for  the  first  time.  They  include:  Atrichopogon  levis,  A.  fusculus, 
Forcipomyia  brevipennis,  F.  fimbriata,  F.  squamipes,  F.  pluvialis,  Dasyhelea  major,  D. 
navaiae,  Culicoides  chioplenis,  Parabezzia  alexanderi,  Jenkinshelea  albaria,  Johannsenomyia 
argentata,  Probezzia  pallida,  Bezzia  glabra,  B.  laciniastyla,  B.  pulverea,  B.  setulosa,  and 
Phaenobezzia  opaca. 

Records  of  North  Carolina  ceratopogonids  are  scattered  in  the  literature. 
Brimley  ( 1938),  in  the  first  attempt  at  cataloging  the  insect  fauna  of  North 
Carolina  listed  7  species  in  6  genera  of  ceratopogonids.  Wray  (1967) 
published  a  supplement  to  the  Brimley  catalogue  which  added  6  more 
species  and  3  genera.  Battle  and  Turner  (1970,  1971)  summarized  the 
North  Carolina  Culicoides  listing  a  total  of  15  species.  Kline  and  Axtell 
(1976)  collected  an  additional  4  species  of  Culicoides  in  a  Spartina  salt 
marsh  in  coastal  North  Carolina.  To  my  knowledge,  no  other  major  listing 
of  North  Carolina  ceratopogonids  has  been  published. 

Listed  below  are  18  species  previously  unreported  from  North  Carolina. 
The  specimens  were  collected  during  1978  and  1979  at  Lake  Norman,  a 
large,  warm,  monomictic,  piedmont  reservoir  in  Mecklenburg  County, 
North  Carolina.  Adults  were  collected  either  by  ultraviolet  and  standard 
fluorescent  light  traps  (LT),  emergence  traps  (ET),  or  by  rearing  (R)  from 
pupae  collected  at  the  water  surface  (S).  For  each  species  listed,  the  dates 
collected,  the  sex,  the  number  of  specimens  obtained,  and  the  collection 
method  are  given.  Voucher  specimens  are  deposited  in  the  Duke  Power 
Company  Environmental  Services  invertebrate  collection. 

Forcipomyiinae 

Atrichopogon  (Atrichopogon)  levis  (Coquillett  1901):   30-VI-78,  1  male,  LT. 

A.  (A.)  fusculus  ( Coquillett.  1901):    19-V-78,  1  male;  30-VI-78.  1  male:  19-X-78,  1  male, 

LT. 

Forcipomvia  (Forcipomvia)  brevipennis  (Macquart.  1826):   23-VI-78,  1  male,  LT. 
F.  (F.)  fimbriata  (Coquillett.  1901):    19-X-78,  1  male,  LT. 
F.  (F.)  squampies  (Coquillett,  1902):    19-X-78,  1  male.  LT. 
F.  (Metaforcipomyia)  pluvialis  Malloch.  1923:  24-VIII-78:  1  male,  LT. 

Dasyheleinae 

Dasyhelea  major (Ua\\oc\\,  1915):    14-IV-78. 10  males,  14  females:  12-V-78. 2  males:  1-V1- 


1  Received  May  28,  1982 

-Duke  Power  Company,  Production  Environmental  Services,  Rt.  4.  Box  53  1 .  Huntersville. 
NC  28078. 

ENT.  NEWS.  94  (1)  35-36,  January  &  February.  1983 


36  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

78,  2  males;  4-VI-78,  1  male;  30-VI-78,  1  male;  15-V-79,  2  males,  LT,  R. 
D.  navaiaeV/augh  and  Wirth,  1976:   30-VI-78,  1  male,  LT. 

Ceratopogoninae 

Culicoidini 
Culicoides  (Avaritia)  chiopterus  (Meigen,  1830):  28-IX-78,  1  male;  19-X-78,  1  male,  LT. 

Stilobezziini 
Parabezzia  alexanderi  Wirth,  1965:    15-V-79,  2  male  pupae,  S. 

Sphaeromiini 

Jenkinshelea  albaria  (Coquillett,  1895):    17-VIII-78,  1  male.  R. 

Johannsenomyia  argentata  (Loew,  1861):    l-VI-78,  1  female;  14-VII-78,  1  male;  28-VII- 

78,  3  females,  LT. 
Probezzia pallida  Malloch,  1914:  26-V-78,  1  male;  l-VI-78,  9  males,  10  females;  9-VI-78, 

1  male;  7-VII-78,  1  male;  15-V-79,  12  males,  R. 

Palpomyiini 

Bezzia  (Aspinabezzia)  glabra  (Coquillett,  1902):   12-V-78,  1  male,  1  female;  26-V-78,  2 

males;  4-VI-78,  1  male;  8-VI-78,  1  female,  9-VI-78,  2  males,  1  female;  16-VI-78,  2 

males;  30-VI-78,  4  males,  1  female,  LT,  ET,  R. 

B.  (Pseudobezzia)  laciniastvla  Dow  and  Turner,  1976:  30-VI-78,  1  female,  LT. 
B.  (P.)  pulverea  (Coquillet,  1901):   14-IX-78,  1  male,  ET. 
B.  (P.)setulosa  (Loew,  1861):   19-V-78,  2  males;  4-VI-78,  1  male;  30-VI-78,  2  males;  31- 

VIII-78,  1  male.  LT. 
Phaenobezzia  opaca  (Loew,  1861):   14-IV-78,  1  male,  17-V-78,  1  female:  l-VI-78,  1 

female,  7-VI-78,  1  male;  15-V-79,  1  female,  ET,  R. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The  author  wishes  to  express  his  appreciation  to  William  L.  Grogan,  Jr.  and  Walter  I. 
Knausenberger  for  verification  of  identifications,  and  to  Kenneth  L.  Manuel  and  Willis  W. 
Wirth  for  reviewing  the  manuscript. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Battle,  F.V.  and  E.G.  Turner,  Jr.  1 970.  Culicoides  (Diptera,  Ceratopogonidae)  reared  from 

breeding  site  collections  in  North  Carolina  with  a  summary  of  the  species  occurring  in  that 

state.  Mosq.  News  30:  425-427. 
Battle,  F.V.  and  E.C.Turner,  Jr.  1971.  The  insects  of  Virginia:  No.  3.  A  systematic  review 

of  the  genus  Culicoides  (Diptera:  Ceratopogonidae)  of  Virginia  with  a  geographic  catalog 

of  the  species  occurring  in  the  eastern  United  States  north  of  Florida.  Va.  Polytech.  Inst.  St. 

Univ.  Res.  Div.  Bull.  44:    1-129. 
Brimley,  C.S.  1 938.  The  insects  of  North  Carolina  being  a  list  of  the  insects  of  North  Carolina 

and  their  close  relatives.  N.C.  Dep.  Agric.  Div.  Entomol.,  Raleigh.  560  p. 
Kline,  D.L.  and  R.C.  Axtell.  1976.  Salt  marsh  Culicoides  (Diptera:  Ceratopogonidae): 

species,  seasonal  abundance,  and  comparisons  of  trapping  methods.  Mosq.  News  36:    1- 

10. 
Wray,  D.L.  1967.  Insects  of  North  Carolina.  Third  supplement.  N.C.  Dep.  Agric.  Div. 

Entomol.,  Raleigh. 


When  submitting  papers,  all  authors  are  requested  to  ( 1 )  provide  the  names  of  two  qualified 
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US  ISSN  0013-872X 


MARCH  &  APRIL  1983 


,3! 
«\t, 


ENTOM 


NEW; 


Sexual  dimorphism  of  tarsal  claws  in  anthonomine 
weevils  (Coleoptera:  Curculionidae) 

P.  Kovarik,  H.R.  Burke  37 

Seasonal  flight  pattern  of  Plecoptera  from 
North  Otter  Creek,  Virginia 

B.C.  Kondratiejf,  J.L.  Despins  41 

Nests  and  prey  of  two  little  known  species  of  Cerceris 

(Hymenoptera:   Sphecidae)  Howard  E.  Evans  45 

Southern  range  extension  ofAmeletus  cryptostimulus 

(Ephemeroptera:  Siphlonuridae)  Robert  D.  Davic  47 

A  blind  Homolophus  biceps  (Arachnida:  Opiliones) 

R.G.  Holmberg,  E.G.  Kokko  49 

No.  Dakota  fleas  VIII:  Two  new  geographic  records 
from  northern  flying  squirrel  (Siphonaptera) 

Omer  R.  Larson  53 

New  records  and  descriptions  ofAlloperla  from  Ozark- 
Ouachita  region  (Plecoptera:  Chloroperlidae) 

B.P.  Stark,  K.W.  Stewart,  J.  Feminella  55 

Arthropods  from  a  saw-whet  owl  nest  in  Connecticut 

J.R.  Phillips,  M.  Root,  P.  DeSimone  60 

Annotated  checklist  of  stoneflies  of  Maine  (Plecoptera) 

Terry  M.  Mingo  65 


SOCIETY  MEETINGS  of  November  4,  1982  and 
February  4,  1983 

NOTICES 


48,  54 
40,  46,  52 


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Vol.  94,  No.  2,  March  &  April  1983  37 

SEXUAL  DIMORPHISM  OF  TARSAL  CLAWS 

IN  ANTHONOMINE  WEEVILS 
(COLEOPTERA:  CURCULIONIDAE)12 

Peter  Kovarik,  Horace  R.  Burke3 

ABSTRACT:  Sexual  dimorphism  of  the  protarsal  claw  tooth  of  several  species  of  anthonomine 
weevils  is  discussed  and  selected  examples  are  illustrated.  This  dimorphic  character  occurs  in 
a  scattered  fashion  in  the  subfamily.  In  the  genus  Anthonomus  it  is  found  mostly  in  closely 
related  species  in  the  nominate  subgenus  and  in  all  species  of  the  subgenus  A  nthonornorphus. 
Other  genera  containing  species  with  sexual  dimorphism  of  the  claws  areAchia,  Coccotorus 
and  Furcipus.  The  character  was  not  found  in  any  other  subfamilies  of  Curculionidae  which 
have  toothed  claws. 

Dieckmann  ( 1 968)  was  the  first  to  point  out  that  some  of  the  European 
species  of  the  genus  Anthonomous  Germar  have  sexual  dimorphic 
protarsal  claws.  In  his  revision  of  the  Anthonomini  of  the  western  Palearctic 
region  he  described  such  claws  for  Anthonomus  pomorum  L.  and 
Anthonomus pedicularius  (L.).  Morris  (1976)  briefly  mentioned  dimorphism 
in  the  tarsal  claws  of  Anthonomus  conspersus  Desbrochers  and  A. 
pedicularius,  illustrating  the  latter.  Read  (1981)  added  Furcipus  rectirostris 
(L.)  to  this  short  list  of  anthonomine  species  showing  secondary  sexual 
characters  of  the  tarsal  claws. 

During  our  study  of  the  systematics  of  North  American  anthonomines, 
we  surveyed  a  wide  array  of  species  of  the  subfamily  to  determine  the 
incidence  and  distribution  of  this  dimorphism.  Approximately  75  species, 
representing  nearly  all  of  the  genera  of  Anthonominae  and  subgenera  of 
Anthonomus,  were  investigated.  Additional  observations  were  made  on 
several  other  genera  of  Curculionidae  whose  species  have  toothed  tarsal 
claws  similar  to  those  of  the  anthonomines. 

Sexual  dimorphism  of  the  tarsal  claws  in  the  anthonomines  involves 
only  the  protarsi.  Tarsal  claws  of  weevils  in  this  subfamily  are  each  usually 
provided  with  a  tooth  which  arises  on  the  inner  surface  of  the  claw  near  the 
base.  The  tooth  may  be  short  or  it  may  extend  almost  the  full  length  of  the 
tarsal  claws.  Occasionally  the  tarsal  claws  of  anthonomines  are  simple  and 
there  are  a  few  which  have  the  tooth  arising  from  the  underside  of  the  claw 
rather  than  on  the  inside. 


1  Received  November  8,  1982 

^Technical   Contribution   No.    18082.   Texas  Agricultural   Experiment   Station.  College 
Station,  Texas  77843. 

-•Department  of  Entomology,  Texas  A&M  University.  College  Station.  Texas  77843 
ENT.  NEWS  94(2):   37-40.  March  &  April.  1983 

UBRAR' 


38 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


In  species  where  sexual  dimorphism  is  present  the  tooth  on  the  protarsal 
claw  of  the  female  is  usually  sharply  pointed  apically  (Figs.  2a,  3a,  4a,  5a, 
6a)  while  that  of  the  male  is  somewhat  rounded  and  blunt  at  the  apex  (Figs. 
2b,  3b,  4b,  5b,  6b).  The  reverse  is  true  mAnthonomus  nebulosus  LeConte 
where  the  tooth  of  the  female  has  a  blunt  apex  (Fig.  1  a)  and  that  of  the  male 
is  more  sharply  pointed  (Fig.  Ib).  The  claw  of  the  female  is  usually 
distinctly  shorter  than  that  of  the  male  in  species  with  dimorphic  claws, 
although  mAnthonomus  texanus  there  is  only  a  slight  difference  in  length 
between  the  sexes.  Another  difference  noted  is  that  the  female  tooth  often 


Figs.  1-6.  Protarsal  claws  of  species  of  Anthonomus.  In  each  figure  a=female,  b=male.  Fig. 
1.   Anthonomus  nebulosus  LeConte.   Fig.   2.  Anthonomus  grandis  Boheman.   Fig.   3. 
Anthonomus  hunteri  Burke  and  Cate.  Fig.  4.  Anthonomus  texanus  Dietz.  Fig.  5.  Anthonomus 
fulvus  LeConte.  Fig.  6.  Anthonomus  peninsularis  Dictz. 


Vol.  94,  No.  2,  March  &  April  1983  39 


curves  inward  and  forms  a  greater  angle  with  the  claw;  the  tooth  of  the  male 
claw  lies  close  to  the  claw  so  that  the  two  are  more  or  less  parallel. 

The  distribution  of  the  sexual  dimorphic  claws  in  the  subfamily  is 
somewhat  scattered.  In  addition  to  Anthonomus,  they  occur  in  the  genera 
Furcipus  Desbrochers,  Coccotorus  LeConte  and  in  some  species  ofAchia 
Champion.  Species  of  Furcipus  and  Coccotorus  have  occasionally  been 
placed  in  Anthonomus,  indicating  their  apparent  close  phylogenetic 
relationships  to  members  of  the  latter  genus.  Furthermore,  this  affinity 
seems  to  be  with  species  in  the  nominate  subgenus  Anthonomus,  some  of 
which  also  have  sexual  dimorphic  claws.  The  majority  of  species  of  the 
subgenus  Anthonomus,  however,  are  not  dimorphic  in  this  character. 
Species  of  the  subgeneraAnthonomorphus  Dietz  and  Parathonomus  Dietz 
also  exhibit  dimorphism  of  the  claws;  these  taxa  (at  least  the  latter)  are 
likewise  relatively  close  phylogenetically  to  the  species  in  the  nominate 
subgenus  which  are  dimorphic.  It  seems,  therefore,  that  dimorphism  of  the 
tarsal  claw  occurs  mostly  in  a  relatively  small  number  of  species  which  have 
the  closest  relationships  to  A.  pedicularius,  the  type  species  of  the  genus. 
The  presence  or  absence  of  tarsal  claw  dimorphism  may  therefore  be  useful 
as  an  indicator  of  phylogenetic  relationships  in  the  subfamily.  One 
exception  to  this  general  pattern  is  Anthonomus  testaceosquamosus  Linell. 
This  species,  a  member  of  the  A.  squamosus  Group,  has  sexual  dimorphic 
claws  but  on  the  basis  of  overall  characters  does  not  appear  to  be  closely 
related  to  other  species  having  the  character. 

Species  of  the  subgenus  Antonomorphus  exhibit  more  distinct  protar- 
sal  claw  dimorphism  than  most  other  anthonomines.  There  is  a  relatively 
small  amount  of  difference  in  the  sexual  dimorphic  tooth  of  the  claw  within 
this  subgenus  (Figs.  2-6).  Anthonomus  grandis  Boheman  and  A.  hunteri 
Burke  and  Gate  are  considered  to  be  closely  related  (Burke  and  Gate  1 979) 
on  the  basis  of  overall  characters  and  this  relationship  is  also  reflected  in  the 
tarsal  claws  (Figs.  2,  3).  The  most  noticeable  difference  between  the  claws 
of  the  two  species  is  in  the  more  slender  tooth  of  A.  hunteri.  Two  other 
species,  A.  texanus  Dietz  and  A.  cognatus  Burke,  are  considered  by  Burke 
( 1 964)  to  constitute  a  species  pair  within  the  subgenus.  This  relationship  is 
supported  by  the  claw  characters.  Similarity  of  claws  of  the  two  species  is 
more  striking  in  males  than  in  females.  Anthonomus peninsularis  Dietz  is 
not  especially  closely  related  to  any  of  the  other  species  in  the  subgenus; 
both  males  and  females  have  a  shorter  tooth  than  that  of  the  other  species 
(Fig.  6).  The  remaining  member  of  the  subgenus,  A.fulvus  LeConte,  is  a 
distinctive  species  which  appears  to  have  no  close  relatives  in  the  subgenus. 
The  female  tooth  (Fig.  5a)  of  A.fulvus  is  somewhat  intermediate  in  length 
between  that  of  A.  peninsularis  and  other  members  of  the  subgenus.  The 
male  tooth  (Fig.  5b)  is,  however,  one  of  the  longest  in  the  subgenus. 


40  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


The  basis  for  the  difference  in  the  tarsal  claw  teeth  of  the  two  sexes  in 
these  anthonomines  is  not  known.  This  may  be  an  adaptation  in  the  male 
which  plays  some  part  in  grasping  the  female  during  copulation.  In  addition 
to  showing  some  phylogenetic  relationships  within  the  subfamily,  the 
character  may  also  be  used  with  ease  to  distinguish  the  sexes. 

Relatively  few  other  curculionids  have  toothed  claws  like  those  of  the 
anthonomines.  None  of  the  species  with  toothed  claws  examined  from  other 
subfamilies  show  sexual  dimorphism  of  the  tooth  of  the  tarsal  claw. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

Special   thanks   are  due  Jim   Ehrman,  Electron   Microscopy   Center.   Texas   A&M 
University,  for  technical  assistance  in  preparation  of  the  SEM  photographs  included  here. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Burke,  H.R.   1964.  Studies  on  the  genus  Anthonomus  in  North  and  Central  America 

(Coleoptera:   Curculionidae)  II.  The  subgenus  Anthonornorphus  Dietz.  Colept.  Bull. 

18:   7-17. 
Burke,  H.R.  and  J.R.  Gate.  1979.  A  new  species  of  Mexican  A  nthonomus  related  to  the  boll 

weevil  (Coleoptera:  Curculionidae).  Ann.  Entomol.  Soc.  Amer.  72:    189-192. 
Dieckmann,  L.  1968.  Revision  der  westpalaarktischen  Anthonomini  (Coleoptera:  Curculiondae). 

Beitr.  Entomol.  18:   377-564. 
Morris,  M.G.  1976.  The  British  species  of  Anthonomus  Germar  (Col.,  Curculionidae). 

Entomol.  Mon.  Mag.  112:    19-40. 
Read,  R.W.J.  1981.  Furcipus  rectiorostris  (L.)  (Coleoptera:  Curculionidae)  New  to  Britain. 

Entomol.  Gaz.  32:  51-58. 


ENTOMOLOGIST'S  SEMINAR  ON  TRINIDAD 

For  an  exciting  two  weeks'  stay  in  the  tropics  this  summer,  from  June  9  to  June  23,  visit  the 
Asa  Wright  Nature  Centre  and  attend  the  seminar  on  tropical  entomology.  Cameras  and 
collecting  equipment  are  recommended.  The  island's  unique  location  off  the  coast  of 
Venezuela  gives  it  a  varied  and  plentiful  insect  population.  In  the  evening  a  series  of  lectures 
covering  photography,  insects  and  other  animals  of  Trinidad  will  be  given.  The  seminar  price 
of  $750  includes  room,  meals,  transportation  on  the  island,  and  two  days  in  Tobago.  For  more 
information  contact:  Wonderbird  Tours,  500  5th  Ave.,  A  13,  New  York,  New  York  10036. 


Vol.  94,  No.  2.  March  &  April  1983  41 

SEASONAL  FLIGHT  PATTERN  OF  PLECOPTERA 
FROM  NORTH  OTTER  CREEK,  VIRGINIA1 

Boris  C.  KondratiefT.  Joseph  L.  Despins^ 

ABSTRACT:  Adult  stoneflies  were  collected  by  a  hlacklight  trap  for  one  flight  season  from 
North  Otter  Creek,  a  4th  order  Virginia  stream.  A  total  of  324  specimens  were  collected, 
representing  1  1  species  of  Perlidae  and  Perlodidae.  Five  species  dominated:  2  species  were 
collected  for  about  a  7-week  period,  5  over  a  4-week  period.  Few  stoneflies  were  collected  by 
the  trap  when  air  temperature  dropped  below  1C. 

Little  information  exits  on  emergence  patterns  and  flight  period  of 
adult  stoneflies  in  eastern  North  America.  Studies  which  report  this  type  of 
information  have  employed  tent  or  other  emergence  traps  (i.e..  Harper  and 
Pilon  1970  and  White  et  al.  1979).  Blacklight  traps  can  provide  similar 
data.  They  are  easy  to  employ  and  capture  large  numbers  of  specimens, 
often  including  rare  species.  Resh  et  al.  ( 1975)  pointed  out  the  advantages 
and  disadvantages  of  light  trapping  and  the  types  of  information  obtainable. 
Fernando  (1961)  indicated  that  regular  light  trapping  is  a  useful  method  of 
characterizing  colonization  cycles  of  many  insects. 

Some  seasonal  flight  information  for  southeastern  stonefly  species  has 
been  reported  by  Morse  et  al.  (1980).  Our  paper  presents  the  pattern  of 
adult  stonefly  occurrence  over  the  flight  season  in  1981,  based  on  blacklight 
trap  collections  from  a  Virginia  stream. 

Study  Area 

North  Otter  Creek  (37°27'30"N,  79C27'30"W).  a  tributary  of  the 
Roanoke  River  Basin,  lies  at  the  boundary  between  the  Blue  Ridge  and 
Piedmont  Plateau  physiographic  provinces  in  the  northern  portion  of 
Bedford  County,  Virginia.  It  is  formed  by  the  confluence  of  Overstreet  and 
Gunstock  creeks.  The  sampling  site  was  located  on  the  N.A.  Boone  Farm, 
off  County  Route  639,  approximately  1 700  m  below  Bedford  Lake,  a  small 
14.5  ha  impoundment. 

The  substrate  was  mostly  pebble  (16-64  mm)  with  some  cobble  (64- 
256  mm),  and  silt  accumulations  were  present  in  pool  areas.  The  stream 
averaged  5  m  wide  and  had  a  16  m/km  gradient.  Dissolved  oxygen 
concentrations  were  near  saturation  (>  90%)  throughout  the  study  period. 
The  stream  water  pH  ranged  from  6.9-7.1  and  was  soft  (mean  alkalinity: 
3.1  mg/1  CaCO3).  Riparian  vegetation  was  dominated  by  American 


'Received  February  5,  1982 

-Virginia  Polytechnic  Institute  and  State  University.  Department  of  Entomology.  Blacksburg. 
Virginia  24061 

ENT.  NEWS  94(2):   41-44.  March  &  April,  1983 


42  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

sycamore  (Platanus  occidentalis  L.)  and  speckled  alder  (Alnus  serrnlata 
Aiton). 

Methods 

A  standard  Ellisco  Inc.  general  purpose  blacklight  insect  trap  (with  GE 
F15T8/BL  bulb)  was  operated  continuously  from  15  April  to  20  September 
1981.  The  trap  was  set  40  m  from  the  stream  margin  and  trap  contents  were 
examined,  identified  and  enumerated  every  24  hours.  Daily  fluctuations  in 
air  temperature  were  measured  using  a  recording  hygrothermograph  (Cole- 
Parmer  Instrument  Co.).  There  were  no  other  streams  near  the  trap  site. 

Results  and  Discussion 

A  total  of  324  specimens  representing  1 1  species  were  collected.  The 
seasonal  pattern  of  stoneflies  attracted  to  the  trap  is  illustrated  in  Fig.  1. 
Five  species  were  numerically  dominant:  Perlesta  placida  (44%  of  all 
stoneflies  collected),  Acroneiin'a  arenosa  (24%),  Isoperla  dicala  (1 1%), 
Acroneuria  abnormis  (10%),  and  Eccoptura  xanthenes  (7%).  All  except 

MAY  JUNE  JULY  AUGUST 

1231123412341234 

Diploperla    robusta    Stark    and    Gaufin  •• 

ALL   S 

Cliooerla   clio    (Newman)  «• 


WJ     c- 

I  soperla   dicala   Prison 

1      2 

Eccoptura   xanthenes    (Newman) 

1      2 

Acroneuria   abnormis    (Newman) 

1      3 

Acroneuria   arenosa   (Pictet) 

1     2 

Ac  roneu  ria    sp. 
AIX  a 

Perlesta   placida   (Hagen) 

1       3 

Nleoperla   sp. 

ALL    '. 

Ph  asganophora   capitals   (Pictet) 

1      3 

Paragnetma   fumosa   (Banks) 


Fig  I.   Seasonal  flight  of  adult  stoneflies  from  May  to  August  1981.  North  Otter  Creek,  VA. 


Vol.  94,  No.  2,  March  &  April  1983 


43 


Diploperla  robusta,  Clioperla  clio,  and  /.  dicala  (Perlodidae)  belong  to  the 
family  Perlidae,  and  members  of  both  families  are  known  to  be  readily 
attracted  to  light  (Prison  1935,  Hitchcock  1974,  Stark  and  Gaufin  1979). 
The  first  stonefly,  D.  robusta,  was  trapped  on  1 1  May  and  the  last  stonefly . 
Paragnetina  fumosa  on  3  August  1981.  Eccoptura  xanthenes  and 
Phasganophora  capitata  exhibited  the  longest  flight  periods  of  about  7 
weeks  (Fig.  1 ).  Diploperla  robusta,  C.  clio,  Acroneuria  sp.,  and  Neoperla 
sp.  had  very  short  flight  periods  of  less  than  1  week.  These  species  were 
considered  rare  at  this  site.  Acroneuria  abnormis,  C.  clio,  and  P.  placida 
have  approximately  4  week  flight  periods.  Morse  et  al.  (1980)  reported 
similar  flight  periods  for  some  of  the  same  species  in  South  Carolina. 

Nearly  73%  of  all  stoneflies  were  collected  in  June,  representing  7  of  1 1 
species.  Clioperla  clio  and  D.  robusta,  are  spring  emerging  species 
collected  only  in  May  during  this  study.  Adults  of  P.  fumosa  have  been 
recorded  from  April  to  September,  however  we  collected  it  only  in  August. 
Maximum  air  temperatures  averaged  highest  in  June  (Fig.  2)  the  month 
when  almost  two-thirds  of  all  stoneflies  were  collected.  Few  adults  were 
collected  when  air  temperatures  dropped  below  7°C. 


35 


30 


25 


20 


Ul 

(T 


K 

UJ 
Q- 

Ul 


10 


15     22     29 

MAY 


12       19      26 
JUNE 


10       17      24     31 
JULY 


14      21       28 
AUGUST 


Fig.  2.   Weekly  range  of  air  temperatures  from  May  1  to  September  1.  1981.  North  Otter 
Creek.  VA.  Upper  line  is  maximum,  lower  minimum. 


44  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Throughout  the  sampling  period,  less  males  were  collected  than 
females  (Fig.  1 )  and  the  sex  ratio  was  less  than  1 :2.  Eighty-eight  percent  of 
females  either  carried  extruded  egg  masses  or  were  void  of  eggs,  indicating 
that  egg  laying  was  occurring  or  had  occurred.  Active  flying  by  females 
probably  accounted  for  the  higher  capture  rate  of  this  sex. 

No  attempts  were  made  to  test  light  trap  efficiency  or  effects  of  light 
intensity.  Relative  abundance  of  individuals  or  sex  captured/hour  was  not 
recorded.  Benthic  surveys  of  North  Otter  Creek  indicated  the  presence  of 
nymphs  of  all  the  species  attracted  to  the  trap  except  Acroneuria  sp.,  D. 
robusta,  and  Neoperla  sp.  Five  species:  Amphinemura  nigritta 
(Provancher),  Leuclra  spp.  (2  species),  Sweltsa  onkos  (Ricker),  and 
Has taper/a  brevis  (Banks)  were  collected  only  by  kicknet  during  the  period 
of  trap  operation.  Adults  of  these  genera  typically  are  not  attracted  to  light. 

The  majority  of  the  species  collected  by  the  trap  were  widespread 
boreal  species.  These  included/),  robusta,  C.  clio,  I.  dicala,  A.  abnormis, 
P.  placida,  and  P.  capitata.  No  exclusively  Appalachian  species  were 
collected  even  though  the  collecting  site  was  at  the  boundary  with  the 
mountainous  Blue  Ridge  Province.  Stark  ( 1979)  considered  E.  xanthenes 
Appalachian,  however  in  Virginia  it  occurs  throughout  the  state.  Paragnetina 
fumosa  and  A.  arenosa  are  typical  Piedmont  and  Coastal  Plain  species. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We  thank  J.R.  Voshell.  Jr..  R.F.  Kirchner.  and  P.P.  Kondratieff  for  reviewing  the 
manuscript.  We  also  thank  Mr.  N.A.  Boone.  Bedford.  VA  for  technical  assistance  and 
allowing  us  to  place  the  trap  on  his  property. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Fernando,  C.H.   1961    Aquatic  insects  taken  at  light  in  Ceylon,  with  a  discussion  and 

bibliography  of  references  to  aquatic  insects  at  light.  Ceylon  J.  Sci.  4:   45-54. 
Prison,  T.H.  1935.  The  stoneflies.  or  Plccoptera,  of  Illinois.  III.  Nat.  Hist.  Surv.  Bull. 

20:   281-471. 
Harper,  P.P.  and  J.G.  Pilon.1970.  Annual  patterns  of  emergence  of  some  Quebec  stoneflies 

(Insecta:   Plecoptera).  Can.  J.  Zool.  48:   681-694. 
Hitchcock,  S.W.  1974.  Guide  to  the  insects  of  Connecticut:   Part  VII.  The  Plecoptera  or 

stoneflies  of  Connecticut.  State  Geol.  Nat.  Hist.  Surv.  Conn.  Bull.  107:    1-262. 
Morse,  J.C.,  J.W.  Chapin,  D.D.  Herlong,  and  R.S.  Harvey.  1980.  Aquatic  insects  of 

Upper  Three  Runs  Creek.  Savannah  River  Plant.  South  Carolina.  Part  I  Orders  other  than 

Diptera.  J.  Georgia  Entomol.  Soc.  15:   73-101. 
Resh,  V.H.,  K.H.  Haag,  and  S.E.  Neff.  1975.  Community  structure  and  diversity  of 

cuddisfly  adults  from  the  Salt  River.  Kentucky.  Environ.  Entomol.  4:     241-253. 
Stark,  B.P.  1979.  The  stoneflies  (Plecoptera)  of  Mississippi.  J.  Miss.  Acad   Sci   24-    109- 

122. 
Stark,  B.P.  and  A.R.  Gaufin.  1979.  The  stoneflies  (Plectopera)  of  Florida.  Trans.  Amer. 

Entomol.  Soc.  104:     391-433. 
White,  T.R.,  P.H.  Carlson,  and  R.C.  Fox.  1979.  Emergence  patterns  of  fall  and  winter 

stonctlics  (Plecoptera:    Filipalpia)  in  northwestern  South  Carolina.  Proc.  Fntomol    Soc 

Wash.  81:    379  390. 


Vol.  94.  No.  2,  March  &  April  1983  45 

NESTS  AND  PREY  OF  TWO  LITTLE-KNOWN 
SPECIES  OF  CERCERIS  (HYMENOPTERA: 

SPHECIDAE)1 

Howard  E.  Evans^ 

ABSTRACT:  Cerceris  gnarina  Banks  and  C.  \\-yomingensis  Scullen  were  studied  at 
montane  sites  in  Colorado.  In  both  cases  the  burrows  penetrated  the  soil  at  about  a  90  degree 
angle  and  cells  were  built  in  a  more  or  less  radial  pattern  from  the  bottom  of  the  burrow.  C. 
gnarina  preyed  on  Boris  striata  (Curculionidae).  C.  wyomingensis  on  Graphops  nebulosa 
(Chrysomelidae). 

Only  about  a  third  of  the  approximately  80  Nearctic  species  of  Cerceris 
have  been  studied  in  the  field.  What  is  known  suggests  that  there  is 
relatively  little  diversity  in  nest  structure  but  that  each  species  is  moderately 
to  strongly  host-specific,  preying  upon  a  limited  assemblage  of  beetles 
(Scullen  and  Wold,  1969;  Evans,  1971:  Evans  and  Rubink,  1978).  This 
paper  concerns  two  little-known  species  I  have  studied  briefly  in  Colorado, 
both  appearing  typical  of  the  genus  with  respect  to  nest  structure  and  also 
with  respect  to  prey  selection. 

Cerceris  gnarina  Banks 

This  species  has  nested  for  two  consecutive  summers  (1981  -82),  during 
late  June  and  early  July,  in  the  center  strip  of  a  little-used  dirt  road  in 
Hewlett  Gulch,  near  Poudre  Park,  Larimer  Co.,  Colorado,  at  about  1 800  m 
elevation.  The  soil  here  is  a  fine-grained  silty  loam,  with  many  stones  on  the 
surface  but  not  below  3-5  cm.  In  1981  there  were  two  nests  3.5  m  apart, 
each  with  a  small  tumulus  and  a  vertical  hole  penetrating  the  center. 
Females  provisioned  slowly,  taking  up  to  an  hour  to  return  with  prey.  When 
not  provisioning  they  remained  within  the  burrow  entrance,  facing  out.  One 
prey-laden  female  was  followed  by  a  satellite  fly,  Senotainia  trilineata 
(Wulp)  (Sarcophagidae). 

On  1 2  July  one  nest  was  excavated.  The  tumulus  was  1  cm  high,  6.5  cm 
in  diameter,  the  burrow  nearly  vertical,  5  mm  in  diameter,  terminating  at  a 
depth  of  16  cm.  There  were  8  cells,  at  depths  of  15-18  cm,  forming  a 
somewhat  radial  pattern  from  the  bottom  of  the  burrow,  each  at  the  end  of  a 
short  side-burrow  that  had  been  closed  off.  Six  of  them  contained  wasp 
larvae  in  various  stages  of  development,  one  of  them  had  15  weevils  but  no 
egg  or  larva,  and  the  remaining  cell  had  only  beetle  fragments.  All  weevils. 


•Received  November  11.  1982 

-Department  of  Zoology  and  Entomology,  Colorado  State  University.  Fort  Collins.  CO 
80523. 

ENT.  NEWS  94(2):   45-46.  March  &  April.  1983 


46  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


including  those  taken  from  provisioning  females,  appeared  to  belong  to  the 
same  species.  Twelve  that  were  saved  for  identification  proved  to  be  Boris 
striata  (Say)  (Curculionidae). 

Cerceris  wyomingensis  Scullen 

A  single  nest  of  this  species  was  located  in  the  steeply  sloping  bank  of  a 
gully  at  Chimney  Rock,  a  geological  formation  on  the  Colorado  -Wyoming 
border,  40  km  SW  of  Laramie,  Wyoming,  at  an  elevation  of  2350  m.  There 
was  no  tumulus,  simply  an  open  hole  which  penetrated  the  slope  at  about  a 
90  degree  angle.  The  burrow  was  4  mm  in  diameter  and  45  cm  long.  When 
the  nest  was  excavated  on  2  September  1981,  there  was  a  single  beetle  at 
the  end  of  the  burrow  and  a  single  cell  4  cm  from  the  terminus.  The  cell 
contained  6  beetles  and  a  wasp  egg  on  the  topmost  beetle.  All  beetles  were 
Graphops  nebulosa  (LeConte)  (Chrysomelidae). 

At  Great  Sand  Dunes  National  Monument,  in  southern  Colorado,  a 
male  C.  wyomingensis  was  one  of  several  species  of  bees  and  wasps  being 
used  as  prey  by  Philanthus  basilaris  Cresson. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The  Cerceris  were  identified  by  George  R.  Ferguson.  Oregon  State  University,  the  beetles 
by  D.R.  Whitehead  and  R.  White  of  the  Systematic  Entomology  Laboratory.  USDA. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Evans,  H.E.  1971.  Observations  on  the  nesting  behavior  of  wasps  of  the  tribe  Cercerini.  J. 

Kansas  Entomol.  Soc.  44:   500-523. 
Evans,  H.E.,and  W.L.  Rubink.  1978.  Observations  on  the  prey  and  nests  of  seven  species  of 

Cerceris  (Hymenoptera:   Sphecidae).  Great  Basin  Nat.  38:   59-63. 
Scullen,  H.E.,  and  J.L.  Wold.  1969.  Biology  of  wasps  of  the  tribe  Cercerini.  with  a  list  of 

Coleoptera  used  as  prey.  Ann.  Entomol.  Soc.  Am.  62:   209-214. 


ANNOUNCEMENT  AND  CALL  FOR  PAPERS 

The  34th  annual  meeting  of  The  Lepidopterists'  Society  will  be  held  July  7- 1 0,  1 983  at  the 
Fawcett  Center  for  Tomorrow.  Ohio  State  University,  Columbus,  Ohio.  For  a  PROGRAM 
AND  REGISTRATION  FORM  and  other  pertinent  details  write  to  the  Ohio  Biological 
Survey,  484  West  12th  Ave.,  Columbus,  Ohio  43210  (614)  422-9645  or  to  Eric  H.  Metzler, 
1241  Kildale  Square,  North,  Columbus.  Ohio  43229  (614)  265-6507. 


Vol.  94.  No.  2,  March  &  April  1983  47 

SOUTHERN  RANGE  EXTENSION  OF  AMELETUS 

CRYPTOSTIMULUS  (EPHEMEROPTERA: 

SIPHLONURIDAE)1 

Robert  D.  Davic2 

ABSTRACT:  Ameletus  cn-ptostimulus  Carle,  previously  known  only  from  western  Virginia,  is 
newly  recorded  from  Macon  County.  North  Carolina. 

Ameletus  cryptostimulus  Carle  has  been  known  only  from  small 
streams  at  high  elevations  in  Giles  County,  Virginia  (Carle  1978).  Here 
nymphs  of  A.  cryptostimulus  are  reported  from  a  small  mountain  stream  in 
Macon  County,  North  Carolina,  although  Traver's  ( 1 932)  Ameletus  sp.  B 
from  North  Carolina  almost  surely  was  A.  cryptostimulus. 

The  unnamed  stream,  located  on  the  U.S.  Geological  7.5  minute 
Highland  map  (35°5'N,  83C14'W).  is  spring-fed,  and  has  an  elevation 
ranging  from  1036m  to  1049m.  Stream  width  is  less  than  1  m;  water  depths 
range  from  0.7  cm  to  5.9  cm  annually.  The  stream  flows  through  an  oak- 
hickory-deciduous  heath  second  growth  forest,  with  numerous  Rhododendron 
sp.  shrubs  dominating  the  stream  bank  vegetation.  Soil  composition  of  the 
hill  slope  is  utisol  ashe  loam  series.  Topsoil  is  dark  brown  humus  loam  with 
a  pH  of  4.3  to  5.3. 

A  total  of  48  A.  cryptostimulus  nymphs  were  collected  from  408  Surber 
samples  taken  from  4  random  sections  of  the  stream.  Collection  dates  and 
the  number  of  A.  cryptostimulus  per  square  meter  of  stream-bed  were  as 
follows:  23-24  June  1980  (0.9),  13-14  August  1980  (0.2).  2-3  October 
1980(0.0),  29-30  December  1980  (3.3).  23-24  May  1981  (4.1).  and  21- 
22  August  1981  (1.2).  The  largest  nymphs  (head  width  and  total  length) 
were  collected  during  the  two  August  time  periods.  The  temporal  pattern  of 
the  density  data  suggests  a  summer  emergence  period  which  differs  from  the 
April-May  emergence  observed  by  Carle  (1978)  in  the  western  Virginia 
populations. 

Nymphs  of  other  Ephemeroptera  collected  with  A.  cryptostimulus, 
including  their  total  numbers,  from  the  408  Surber  samples  were  as 
follows:  Paraleptophlebia  sp.-596,  Stenonema  meririvulanum  Carle  and 
Lewis-485.  Habrophlebia  vibrans  Needham-175.  Seratella  sordida 
(McDunnough)-l  19.  and  Stenacron  Carolina  (Banks)-6.  The  relative 
rarity  of  A.  cryptostimulus  suggests  that  a  casual  collector  would  likely 
overlook  it,  which  may  explain  its  exclusion  from  previous  species  lists  of 


'Received  August  9.  1982 

-Department  of  Biological  Sciences.  Kent  State  University.  Kent.  Ohio  44242 
ENT.  NEWS  94(2):   47-48.  March  &  April.  1983 


48  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


the  southern  Appalachian  Mountains.  The  similarity  of  the  North  Carolina 
habitat  to  the  type-locality  in  Virginia  (e.g.  small  stream  at  high  elevation) 
indicates  that  other  cryptic  populations  of  A.  cryptostimulus  should  exist  at 
high  elevations  throughout  the  southern  Appalachians. 

I  thank  Dr.  F.L.  Carle  for  identification  of  the  Ameletus  and  Stenonema 
nymphs  and  Dr.  J.D.  Unzicker  for  identification  of  the  other  species.  I  also 
thank  Dr.  B.  A.  Foote  for  reading  the  manuscript.  This  work  was  supported 
by  grants  from  Sigma  Xi  and  The  Highlands  Biological  Station. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Carle,  F.L.  1978.  A  new  species  of  Ameletus  (Ephemeroptera:   Siplonuridac)  from  western 

Virginia.  Ann.  Entomol.  Soc.  Amer.  71:   581-584. 
Traver,  J.R.  1932.  Mayflies  of  North  Carolina.  Elisha  Mitchell  Sci.  Soc.  J.  47:    163-236. 


SOCIETY  MEETING  —  NOVEMBER  4,  1982 

The  American  Entomological  Society's  second  regular  meeting  of  the  1 982-83  year  was 
held  Thursday,  November  4  at  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  of  Philadelphia.  Ten 
members  and  four  guests  attended.  The  speaker  for  the  evening  was  Dr.  Dennis  Joslyn, 
Assistant  Professor  of  Zoology  at  the  Camden  Campus  of  Rutgers  State  University.  Dr. 
Joslyn  spoke  on  "Autocidal  Control  of  Salt  Marsh  Mosquitoes." 

Of  the  approximately  60  species  of  mosquitos  that  are  known  from  New  Jersey,  the  salt 
marsh  mosquito,  A edes  sollicitans  is  the  most  abundant.  Since  it  is  a  major  pest  species  and  a 
vetor  for  eastern  equine  encephalitis  virus,  controlling  its'  populations  is  important.  Dr.  Joslyn 
is  interested  in  developing  a  genetic  strategy  to  complement  current  pest  management 
practices. 

With  a  diploid  chromosome  number  of  six,  the  genetics  of  mosquitoes  is  potentially 
simpler  than  that  of  Drosophila.  An  effective  laboratory  selection  procedure  carried  out  in 
Florida  on  the  Central  American  species.  Anopheles  atbimanus,  has  yielded  a  strain  with 
defined  chromosomal  translocations  and  inversions  in  which  only  males  were  resistant  to 
Propoxur.  Analogous  genetic  manipulations  of  the  salt  marsh  mosquito  should  be  possible. 
Such  a  strain  could  be  mass  cultured  to  yield  males  that  could  be  released  in  the  wild  after 
sterilization.  Matings  between  these  males  and  the  wild  monogamous  females  would  result  in 
nonviable  offspring.  A  lively  discussion  followed  Dr.  Joslyn's  talk. 

On  notes  of  local  entomological  interest.  Dr.  William  Day  mentioned  that  alfalfa  plant 
bugs,  Adelphocoris  lineolatus,  found  in  the  fall,  may  be  so  darkly  colored  that  field 
identification  can  be  difficult.  He  suggested  that  the  dark  coloration  was  probably  an 
adaptation  to  absorb  more  heat.  Drs.  Ronald  Romig  and  Charles  Mason  reported  on  their 
attempts  to  trace  the  spread  ofLydella  thompsoni  into  southeastern  Pennsylvania.  Lydella  is 
an  introduced  parasite  of  the  European  corn  borer. 

Harold  B.  White 
Corresponding  Secretary 


Vol.  94,  No.  2.  March  &  April  1983  49 

A  BLIND  HOMOLOPHUS  BICEPS 
(ARACHNIDA:  OPILIONES)1 

R.G.  Holmberg2,  E.G.  Kokko3 


ABSTRACT:  Scanning  electron  microscopy  of  a  harvestman.  Homolophus  biceps,  that 
lacked  both  eyes  and  ocular  tubercle  revealed  no  indication  of  external  damage  or  healing. 
Internally,  light  microscope  sections  showed  no  evidence  of  eyes.  The  brain  had  no  or  very 
degenerate  optic  nerve  masses.  The  ventral  nerve  cord  was  also  reduced.  Of  the  three  possible 
causative  mechanisms  i.e..  physical  damage,  genetic  change  and  biochemical  disruption,  the 
last  is  the  most  plausible. 

There  are  three  suborders  of  the  Opiliones,  of  which  two.  the 
Laniatores  and  Palpatores,  typically  have  two  eyes.  Members  of  the  third 
suborder,  the  Cyphophthalmi,  are  usually  blind.  Though  the  degree  of  eye 
development  varies  between  species  (Curtis,  1970;  Juberthie  and  Munoz- 
Cuevas,  1973),  it  is  a  rare  event  for  a  species  with  eyes  to  produce  eye-less 
individuals.  Thus  when  we  found  a  blind  specimen  of  a  normally  sighted 
species,  we  tried  to  discover  how  it  became  blind.  As  the  specimen  was 
preserved  1 8  years  previous  to  our  study,  we  were  limited  to  a  morphological 
and  anatomical  inquiry  of  the  cause  and  extent  of  the  abnormality. 

Materials  and  Methods 

The  eye-less  specimen,  an  adult  female  Homolophus  biceps  (Thorell). 
was  collected  by  A.L.  Turnbull  between  14  May  and  8  June  1963  near 
Seven  Persons,  Alberta  (49  5 I'M,  110  54'W,  an  area  of  short  grass 
prairie).  The  specimen  was  taken  along  with  another  female  and  eight 
immatures  that  are  apparently  normal.  After  removal  from  the  ethylene- 
glycol  and  water  mixture  of  the  pit-trap,  the  specimen  was  preserved  in 
ethanol.  When  the  abnormality  was  noted,  the  specimen  was  taken  through 
a  dehydration  series  of  ethanol  to  100%,  critical  point  dried  with  carbon 
dioxide,  mounted,  sputter  coated  with  gold  (15  nm  thick),  and  examined 
with  a  scanning  electron  microscope  (SEM).  Then  the  specimen  was 
removed  from  its  mount  and  infiltrated  and  embedded  in  plastic  (Spurr. 
1969).  After  polymerization,  it  was  sectioned  (7  jum)  and  stained  (1% 
aqueous  toluidine  blue)  for  light  microscopy. 

For  SEM  comparisons  a  normal  adult  female  that  was  collected  in 


'Received  September  3.  1982 

-Athabasca  University,  Edmonton.  Alberta,  Canada,  T5L  2W4 

-^Research  Station,  Agriculture  Canada,  Lethbridge.  Alberta,  Canada  T1J  4B1 

ENT.  NEWS  94(2):   49-52.  March  &  April.  1983 


50  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Osoyoos,  British  Columbia  was  treated  in  the  same  fashion. 

For  light  microscopy  comparisons  we  used  previously  prepared  slides 
of  normal  subadult  to  adult  females  that  were  collected  near  Cypress  Lake, 
Saskatchewan.  These  specimens  had  been  fixed  in  Brasil's  fluid,  embedded 
in  paraffin,  sectioned  (6  //m),  and  stained  with  Mallory's  triple  stain. 

Nomenclature  of  the  nervous  system  follows  Bullock  and  Horridge 
(1965). 


Results 

When  we  examined  the  abnormal  specimen  with  SEM,  there  was  no 
evidence  of  either  any  damage  to  the  integument  or  of  any,  even 
rudimentary,  development  of  an  ocular  tubercle  (Fig.  1 ).  There  were  a  few 
shallow  indentations  in  the  region  near  where  the  ocular  tubercle  should 
have  been,  but  these  were  also  observed  in  the  normal  specimen  (Fig.  2 )  and 
are  almost  certainly  artifacts  of  cuticle  collapse  caused  by  drying. 

Light  microscopy  of  the  abnormal  specimen  revealed  that  the  tissues 
were,  considering  their  history,  remarkably  well  preserved  (Fig.  3). 
However,  there  was  substantial  (microbial?)  degradation  of  the  digestive 
diverticulae,  and  most  structures  within  the  brain  and  ventral  nerve  cord 
were  very  difficult  or  impossible  to  distinguish.  There  was  no  evidence  of  an 
ocular  tubercle,  eyes  or  optic  nerves.  Optic  nerve  masses  were  absent  or 
very  much  reduced.  The  ventral  nerve  cord  was  also  less  developed  than 
normal  specimens  (cf.  Fig.  4).  The  specimen  was  mature  but  not  gravid. 

Discussion 

From  the  morphological  and  anatomical  evidence,  we  conclude  that  the 
abnormality  was  not  caused  by  physical  damage.  Normally  a  large  wound 
such  as  removal  of  the  entire  ocular  tubercle  would  cause  an  opilionid  to 
bleed  to  death  or  at  least  show  some  irregularities  in  the  cuticle  when  the 
wound  was  repaired  during  moulting. 

A  second  possible  explanation  i.e.,  genetic  change,  is  also  unlikely.  In 
cavernicolous  species,  eye  reduction  is  common  and  may  range  from  simple 
eye  depigmentation,  through  absence  of  eyes,  to  absence  of  both  eyes  and 
ocular  tubercle  (Goodnight  and  Goodnight,  1960).  Thus  in  cavernicolous 
species  at  least,  degeneration  of  the  eyes  seems  to  be  a  gradual  phenomenon 
and  the  result  of  many  gene  changes.  However  if  the  situation  described  here 
involves  only  a  single  genetic  change,  other  closely  related  species  occasionally 
should  show  the  same  kind  of  abnormality  (i.e.,  lack  of  eyes  and  ocular 
tubercle  and  reduced  brain  and  ventral  cord). 

The  most  probable  cause  of  the  abnormality  was  a  biochemical 


Vol.  94,  No.  2,  March  &  April  1983 


51 


imbalance  that  occurred  during  the  opilionid's  development.  Biochemical 
disruptions  may  be  caused  by  "exotic"  chemicals  such  as  pesticides  as  well 
as  high  temperatures.  Juberthie  (1968)  has  shown  that  in  the  opilionid 
Odiellus  gallicus  temperatures  between  20  and  23.5°C  before  or  during 
somite  differentiation  may  cause  anopthalmia  and  indicated  that  some 
individuals  may  survive  this  disruption. 


/ 

/ 


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f         V 

- , .        V 

\    ,     v 


vc 


3 


/ 

4 


Figures  1,2.  Scanning  electron  micrographs  of  an  anterior-dorsal  view  of  the  cephalothoraxof 
H.  biceps.  Fig.  1.  Eye-less  specimen.  Note  the  chelicerae  (c)  and  the  openings  of  the  scent 
glands  (sg).  Fig.  2.  Normal  specimen  with  ocular  tubercle  (ot).  Figures  3,4.  Light  micrographs 
of  cross-sections  through  brain.  Fig.  3.  Maximum  extent  of  brain  (b)  in  eve-less  specimen. 
Note  esophagus  (e),  digestive  diverticulum  (dd),  trachaeae  (t),  and  ventral  cord  (vc).  Fig.  4. 
Maximum  extent  of  brain  in  a  normal  subadult  female.  Note  optic  nerve  masses  (on).  The 
position  of  this  section  is  slightly  anterior  to  Fig.  3.  Bars  represent  0.5  mm. 


52  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We  thank  J.C.  Cokendolpher,  Texas  Tech  University,  for  bringing  the  abnormal  specimen 
to  our  attention;  C.D.  Dondale,  Biosystematics  Research  Institute  (Ottawa.  Ontario),  for 
granting  us  permission  to  examine  it;  and  C.  Juberthie,  Laboratoire  Souterrain  (Moulis, 
France),  for  his  valuable  comments. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Bullock,  T.H.  and  G.A.  Horridge.  1965.  Structure  and  function  in  the  nervous  systems  of 

invertebrates.  Vol.  2,  W.H.  Freeman,  San  Francisco. 
Curtis,  D.J.  1970.  Comparative  aspects  of  the  fine  structure  of  the  eyes  of  Phalangida 

(Arachnida)  and  certain  correlations  with  habitat.  J.  Zool.  (London)  160:   231-265. 
Goodnight,  C.J.  and  M.L.  Goodnight.  1960.  Speciation  among  cave  opilionids  of  the 

United  States.  Am.  Midi.  Natur.  64:   34-38. 
Juberthie,  C.  1968.  Teratologie  expe'rimentale  chez  un  opilion  (Arachnide).  J.  Embryo!. 

Exp.  Morph.  19:  49-82. 
Juberthie,  C.  and  A.  Munoz-Cuevas.  1973.  Le  problemede  la  regression  de  1'appareil  visuel 

chez  les  Opilions.  Ann.  Speleol.  28:    147-157. 
Spurr,  A.R.  1969.  A  low-viscosity  epoxy  resin  embedding  medium  for  electron  microscopy. 

J.  Ultrastruct.  Res.  26:   31-43. 


INTERNATIONAL  COMMISSION  ON  ZOOLGOCIAL 

NOMENCLATURE 

c/o  BRITISH  MUSEUM  (NATURAL  HISTORY)  CROMWELL  ROAD, 

LONDON.  SW7  5BD 

ITZN  59 

8  December.  1982 

The  following  Opinions  have  been  published  by  the  International  Commission  on 
Zoological  Nomenclature  in  the  Bulletin  of  Zoological  Nomenclature,  volume  39,  part  4,  on 
7  December,  1982: 

Opinion  No. 

1227  (p.  233)        Tinea  bjerkandrella  Thunberg,   1784  and  Phalaena  (Noctua)  cardui 
Hubner.  1790  (Insecta,  Lepidopera):  conserved. 

1231  (p.  243)        Blatta  germanica  Linnaeus,  1767  (Insecta,  Dictuoptera):  conserved  and 
designated  as  type  species  of  Blatella  Caudell,  1903. 

1238  (p.  262)        Mycteromyia   Philippi,    1865   (Insecta,   Diptera):   designation   of  type 
species. 

The  Commission  regrets  that  it  cannot  supply  separates  of  Opinion. 

R.V.  MELVILLE.  Secretary 


Vol.  94,  No.  2,  March  &  April  1983  53 

NORTH  DAKOTA  FLEAS.  VIII.  TWO  NEW 

GEOGRAPHIC  RECORDS  FROM  THE  NORTHERN 

FLYING  SQUIRREL  (SIPHONAPTERA)1 

Omer  R.  Larson^ 

ABSTRACT:   Opisodasys  pseudarctomys  (Baker)  and  Epitedia  faceta  (Rothschild)  are 
reported  for  the  first  time  from  North  Dakota  on  Glaucomys  sabrinus  (Shaw). 


Since  1937  a  total  of  44  species  or  subspecies  of  fleas  have  been 
reported  from  North  Dakota.  This  paper  adds  two  species  to  that  list. 

On  October  29.  1981,  a  freshly  killed  northern  flying  squirrel, 
Glaucomys  sabrinus  (Shaw),  from  the  city  of  Grand  Forks  (Grand  Forks 
County)  was  brought  to  my  laboratory.  It  harbored  a  large  population  of 
ectoparasites,  including  mites,  larval  ticks,  mallophagans  and  three  species 
of  fleas.  The  latter  were  identified  as  Orchopeas  caedens  (Jordan)  ( 1  cf,  2 
9),  Opisodasys  pseudarctomys  (Baker)  (2  cf,  2  9)  and  Epitedia  faceta 
(Rothschild)  (5  cf,  3  9).  Voucher  specimens  of  the  fleas  are  in  the 
Invertebrate  Museum,  University  of  North  Dakota. 

Orchopeas  caedens  is  common  on  red  squirrels  throughout  their  North 
American  range,  and  occasionally  occurs  on  other  sciurids.  The  other  two 
species  of  fleas  are  true  parasites  of  flying  squirrels  and  constitute  new 
records  for  North  Dakota.  Opisodasys  pseudarctomys  has  a  transcontinental 
distribution  (Lewis  1974),  and  is  known  regionally  from  north-central 
Minnesota  (Benton,  et  al.  1971).  Epitedia  faceta  has  not  been  previously 
reported  west  of  Pennsylvania  (Benton  1980).  This  range  extension  of 
1500  km  is  interesting  since  flying  squirrels  from  Manitoba,  Minnesota, 
Iowa,  Wisconsin,  Michigan,  Illinois  and  Ohio  have  been  examined  for  fleas 
in  other  studies.  It  is  tempting  to  view  the  local  occurrence  of  E.  faceta  as  a 
disjunct  population  reflecting  post-glacial  movement  of  flying  squirrels. 
However,  E.  faceta  is  primarily  a  nest  flea  with  adults  present  only  in  the 
colder  months.  Since  flying  squirrels  and  their  nests  are  seldom  collected  at 
such  times,  it  may  be  that  E.  faceta  occurs  throughout  the  intervening  area, 
at  least  across  southern  Canada.  Apparently,  there  are  not  specimens  or 
reports  to  substantiate  this  hypothesis,  but  winter  collections  of  flying 
squirrel  nests  would  probably  resolve  the  question. 


'Received  October  21.  1982 

-Department  of  Biology,  University  of  North  Dakota.  Grand  Forks.  ND  58202 

ENT.  NEWS  94(2):   53-54.  March  &  April.  1983 


54  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I  wish  to  thank  Dr.  Paul  B.  Kannowksi,  University  of  North  Dakota,  for  providing  the 
flying  squirrel,  and  Dr.  Allen  H.  Benton.  State  University  College,  Fredonia,  NY.  for 
verifying  my  identification  of  E.  faceta. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Benton,  A.H.  1980.  An  atlas  of  the  fleas  of  the  eastern  United  States.  Marginal  Media. 

Fredonia.  177  pp. 
O.R.  Larson  and  B.A.  Yen  Huizen.  1971.  Siphonaptera  from  Itasca  State  Park 

region.  J.  Minn.  Acad.  Sci.  37:   91-92. 
Lewis,  R.E.  1974.  Notes  on  the  geographic  distribution  and  host  preferences  in  the  order 

Siphonaptera.  Part  3.  Hystrichopsyllidae.  J.  Med.  Ent.  11:    147-167. 


SOCIETY  MEETING  —  FEBRUARY  4,  1983 

The  twelve  members  and  twenty-one  guests  who  attended  the  February  4,  1 983,  meeting 
of  the  American  Entomological  Society  at  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  of  Philadelphia 
were  treated  to  an  absorbing  talk  by  Dr.  Paul  W.  Schaefer.  Dr.  Schaefer,  an  entomologist  at 
the  USDA  Beneficial  Insects  Research  Laboratory  in  Newark.  Delaware,  spoke  on 
"Exploring  for  Parasites  and  Predators  of  the  Gypsy  Moth  in  Mainland,  China,  1982."  His 
illustrated  talk  included  a  rich  mixture  of  geography,  culture,  and  entomology. 

Dr.  Schaefer  reported  that  in  China  the  gypsy  moth  (Lymantria  dispar)  is  not  considered 
to  be  a  major  forest  pest  and  defoliation  rarely  occurs.  The  populations  there  are  kept  under 
control  by  natural  parasites  and  predators.  Nevertheless,  Dr.  Schaefer  and  two  other 
American  forest  entomologists  had  no  difficulty  finding  the  gypsy  moth  throughout  northeastern 
China  where  they  travelled  and  were  successful  in  identifying  a  large  number  of  its  natural 
enemies.  Glyptoapanteles  liparidis  was  found  to  be  the  most  important  parasite.  Several 
differences  between  the  Chinese  and  American  populations  of  gypsy  moths  were  illustrated  by 
Dr.  Schaefer.  In  China  the  larvae  are  more  brightly  colored  with  red  and  yellow  and  they 
frequently  retreat  under  rocks  in  the  day  time.  The  adult  males  are  darker  and  females  can  fly. 
This  latter  observation  was  documented  by  photographs  of  large  concentrations  of  egg  masses 
around  outdoor  lights.  The  Academy  of  Forestry  of  the  People's  Republic  of  China,  who 
sponsored  Dr.  Schaefer's  visit,  provided  the  utmost  in  hospitality.  Although  Chinese  officials 
did  not  permit  live  insects  to  leave  the  country.  Dr.  Schaefer  feels  that  his  visit  was  a  successful 
step  toward  locating  natural  enemies  of  the  gypsy  moth  that  could  eventually  be  useful  in 
controlling  gypsy  moth  populations  in  this  country.  A  small  collection  of  Far  Eastern  insects 
was  displayed  after  the  talk. 

In  the  period  for  notes  of  local  entomological  interest.  Dr.  Kenneth  Frank  inquired  if 
anyone  had  observed  the  Ailanthis  silk  moth  in  Philadelphia  in  recent  years.  Joseph  Harrison 
responded  that  he  had  observed  a  colony  about  six  years  ago  but  that  the  populations  are  much 
reduced  compared  to  about  fifty  years  ago,  partly  due  to  loss  of  the  host  tree.  Dr.  Paul  Schaefer 
reported  a  record  of  sorts.  A  gypsy  moth  egg  mass  found  in  the  University  of  Delaware  woodlot 
contained  1 , 038  eggs.  Typically  large  egg  masses  in  regions  of  an  expanding  populations  may 
contain  about  700  eggs. 

Harold  B.  White 
Corresponding  Secretary 


Vol.  94,  No.  2,  March  &  April  1983 

NEW  RECORDS  AND  DESCRIPTIONS  OF 

ALLOPERLA  (PLECOPTRA:  CHLOROPERLIDAE) 

FROM  THE  OZARK-OUACHITA  REGION1 

Bill  P.  Stark^,  Kenneth  W.  Stewart^,  Jack  Feminella^ 

ABSTRACT:  The  male  of  Alloperla  ouachita  n.  sp.,  from  Arkansas  is  described  and  compared 
with  other  members  of  the  A.  leonarda  Ricker  group.  Additional  records  of  A.  caudata  Prison.  A. 
hamata  Surdick  and  A.  leonarda  from  the  Ozark-Ouachita  region  are  given  and  a  key  to  male 
Alloperla  known  from  this  area  is  presented. 

Since  the  Prison  (1934,  1942)  descriptions  of  Alloperla  caudata  from 
the  Ozarks,  no  additional  A lloperla  species  have  been  recorded  in  studies  of 
stoneflies  of  this  region  (Stark  &  Stewart  1973;  Stewart  et  al.  1 974).  Recent 
field  work  on  the  Little  Missouri  River  in  Arkansas  revealed  one  species 
new  to  science  and  the  first  record  of  A.  hamata  Surdick  from  west  of  the 
Mississippi  River.  A.  hamata  and  an  additional  species,  A.  leonarda 
Ricker,  were  subsequently  found  among  material  from  Missouri  in  the 
Monte  L.  Bean  Museum. 

In  order  to  facilitate  regional  studies,  the  new  species  is  described 
herein,  and  a  key  to  male  Alloperla  known  to  occur  in  the  area  is  presented. 
Specimens  utilized  in  this  study  have  been  deposited  in  the  Monte  L.  Bean 
Museum,  Brigham  Young  University  (BYU),  North  Texas  State  University 
Museum  (NTSU),  Bill  P.  Stark  Collection  (BPS),  and  the  United  States 
National  Museum  (USNM). 

Allopera  hamata  Surdick 

Surdick  (1981)  described  this  species  from  Alabama,  but  illustrations 
of  the  male  genitalia  are  given  here  in  facilitate  comparison  with  other 
regional  species.  Our  specimens  differ  slightly  from  Alabama  specimens 
described  by  Surdick  (1981)  in  fine  detail  of  the  epiproct  tip.  In  Ozark- 
Ouachita  populations  the  widest  part  of  the  serrate  apex  occurs  proximal  to 
the  base,  while  in  Alabama  specimens  the  widest  part  of  the  serrated  region 
occurs  anterior  to  the  basal  tooth  (Figs.  1,  2).  These  populations  are. 
however,  not  presently  considered  to  be  specifically  distinct. 


Deceived  September  30.  1982 

^Dept  of  Biology,  Mississippi  College,  Clinton,  MS  39058 

^Dept.  of  Biological  Sciences,  North  Texas  State  Univ.,  Denton.  TX  76203 

ENT.  NEWS  94(2):   55-59.  March  &  April.  1983 


56  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Material  examined  —  ARKANSAS:  Montgomery  Co.,  Little  Missouri  Riv.  20-VI-80, 
E.J.  Bacon  and  J.W.  Feminella,  1  cf  (BPS).  MISSOURI:  Christian  Co.,  Bull  Crk.,  10-V-72, 
B.K.  Newman,  29cf  (BYU). 

Alloperla  ouachita  Stark  &  Stewart,  n.  sp. 

(Figs.  3,  4) 

Male.  —  Forewing  length  6-7  mm;  body  length  5-7  mm.  General  color  white  in  alcohol; 
abdominal  stripe  absent.  Epiproct  tip  ca.  2X  long  as  wide;  lateral  margins  covergent  near  base, 
gradually  diverging  to  apical  third  then  slightly  convergent  to  horns.  Anterior  margin  bluntly 
upturned,  rounded  with  a  pair  of  prominent  lateral  horns;  dorsal  aspect  with  a  broad  mesal 
carina,  widest  at  apex;  fine  setae  along  lateral  margins.  Cowl  with  prominent  membranous 
lateral  lobes.  Lateral  brushes  on  segments  7-9. 

Types.  —  Holotype  cf  (ISNM  #100682)  and  16  cf  paratypes  (BPS  and  NTSU)  from 
Arkansas,  Montgomery  Co.,  Little  Missouri  Riv.,  20-VI-80,  E.J.  Bacon  and  J.W.  Feminella. 

Etymology.  —  The  specific  name,  A .  ouachita,  is  based  on  the  mountain  range  in  which  it 
is  collected. 

Diagnosis.  --  A.  ouachita  is  a  member  of  the  A.  leonarda  complex 
which  also  includes  A.furcula  Surdick  and  A.  natchez  Surdick  &  Stark.  It  is 
most  closely  related  to  A.  leonarda  and  speciation  probably  is  the  result  of 
isolation  in  the  Ouachita  Mountains  of  ancestral  populations  of  A. 
leonarda.  The  two  species  are  distinguished  by  characters  given  in  the  key 
below. 

Allopera  cuadata  Prison 

Prison  (1942)  and  Hitchcock  (1974)  have  adequately  characterized 
this  species,  but  illustrations  of  the  male  genitalia  (Figs.  5,  6)  are  given  to 
facilitate  comparison  with  other  Ozark-Ouachita  species.  The  records 
below  include  the  first  Missouri  localities  for  the  species. 

Material  examined.  —  MISSOURI.  Christian  Co.,  Bull  Crk,  Hwy  W,  Sof  Ozark,  10-V- 
72,  B.K.  Newman.  13  cf  (BYU);  same  location,  17-V-72,  B.K.  Newman,  17  cf  (BYU). 
Greene  Co.,  Little  Sac  Riv,  abv.  Fellows  Lake,  16-V-72,  R.W.  Baumann,  2  cf  (BYU);  same 
location.  25-V-72,  R.W.  Baumann,  4  cf  (BYU).  Tanev  Co.  Blue  Crk,  nr.  Swan,  23-V-72, 
R.W.  Baumann,  2  cf  (BYU);  Bull  Crk,  Hwy.  176,  12-17-V-72,  B.K.  Newman,  22  cf  (BYU). 
OKLAHOMA:  Delaware  Co.,  Flint  Crk,  Flint,  6-VI-73,  B.  Stark,  2  cf,  2  9  (BPS). 

Alloperla  leonarda  Ricker 

Harper  &  Kirchner  (1978)  and  Ricker  (1952)  have  adequately 
diagnosed  this  species,  but  illustrations  of  male  genitalia  (Figs.  7,  8)  are 
given  to  facilitate  comparisons  with  other  regional  species.  The  record 
below  represents  the  first  Missouri  locality  for  the  species. 

Material  examined.  —  MISSOURI:  Christian  Co.,  Bull  Crk,  Hwy  W,  S  of  Ozark,  10- 
V-72,  B.K.  Newman.  13  cf  (BYU). 


Vol.  94,  No.  2,  March  &  April  1983 


57 


Fig.  1-4.  Alloperla  terminalia.  Fig.  1.  ,4.  hamata  male,  dorsal.  Fig.  2.  .4.  humaia  cpiproct. 
lateral.  Fig.  3.  A.  ouachita,  male,  dorsal.  Fig.  4.  .4.  ouachita,  epiproct.  lateral. 


58 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


>Y/i^ 

,   '  /  ! 

/   /         '  i    / 

• 
/ 


\        N 


8 


7 


Fig.  5-S.Alloperlaterminalia.A.  caudata,  male, dorsal.  Fig.  5.  A.  caudata,  male, dorsal.  Fig. 
6.  A.  cauduta,  epiproct,  lateral.  Fig.  7.  A.  leonarda,  male,  dorsal.  Fig.  8.  A.  leonarda. 
epiproct,  lateral. 


Vol.  94,  No.  2,  March  &  April  1983  59 


KEY  TO  OZARK-OUACHITA  MALE  ALLOPERA 

\ .         Epiproct  cowl  with  enlarged  membranous  lateral  lobes  (Fig.  4) 2 

Epiproct  cowl  without  enlarged  membranous  lateral  lobes  (Fig.  2) 3 

2.  Lateral  margins  of  epiproct  almost  parallel  (Fig.  7):  lateral  aspect  of  epiproct  of  almost 

uniform  thickness  (Fig.  8) leonarda 

Lateral  margins  of  epiproct  sinuate;  Epiproct  narrow  at  base,  widest  at  apical  third 
(Fig.  3);  lateral  aspect  of  epiproct  distinctly  inflated  in  apical  half  (Fig.  4).  .  .  .  ouachita 

3.  Epiproct  apex  with  lateral  serrations  (Fig.  1);  dorsal  aspect  with  scattered  fine  long 

setae hamata 

Epiproct  apex  without  lateral  serrations  (Fig.  5);  dorsal  aspect  densely  covered  with 
short  golden  brown  setae caudata 


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We  are  grateful  to  R.W.  Baumann,  Monte  L.  Bean  Museum,  Brigham  Young  University 
and  E.J.  Bacon,  Southern  Arkansas  University  for  the  loan  of  material. 


LITERATURE  CITED 

Prison,  T.H.  1934.  Four  new  species  of  stoneflies  from  North  America.  Can.  Entomol. 

66:  25-30. 

1942.  Studies  of  North  American  Plecoptera  with  special  reference  to  the  fauna 

of  Illinois.  Bull.  III.  Nat.  Hist.  Surv.  22:  234-355. 
Harper,  P.P.  &  R.F.  Kirchner.  1978.  A  new  stonefly  from  West  Virginia  (Plecoptera: 

Chloroperlidae).  Proc.  Entomol.  Soc.  Wash.  80:   403-406. 
Hitchcock,  S.  W.  1 974.  Guide  to  the  insects  of  Connecticut.  VII.  The  Plecoptera  or  stoneflies 

of  Connecticut.  St.  Geol.  Nat.  Hist.  Surv.  Bull.  107:    1-262. 

Ricker,  W.E.  1952.  Systematic  studies  in  Plecoptera.  Ind.  Univ.  Publ.  Sci.  Ser.  18:    1-200. 
Stark,  B.P.  &  K.W.  Stewart.  1973.  Distribution  of  stoneflies  (Plecoptera)  in  Oklahoma. 

Jour.  Kans.  Entomol.  Soc.  46:   563-577. 
Stewart,  K.W.,  R.W.  Baumann  &  B.P.  Stark.  1974.  The  distribution  and  past  dispersal  of 

southwestern  United  States  Plecoptera.  Trans.  Amer.  Entomol.  Soc.  99:   507-546. 
Surdick,   R.F.    1981.   New   Nearctic  Chloroperlidae  (Plecoptera).   Great  Basin  Natur. 

41:   349-359. 


60  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

ARTHROPODS  FROM  A  SAW- WHET  OWL 
(AEGOLIUSACADICUS)  NEST  IN  CONNECTICUT1 

James  R.  Philips^,  Michael  Root^,  Peter  DeSimone^ 

ABSTRACT:  Analysis  of  saw-whet  owl  (Aegolius  acadicus)  nest  material  collected  in 
Sharon,  CT  yielded  6  species  of  insects  and  1 4  species  of  mites,  as  well  as  phoretic  nematodes. 
None  of  the  species  had  previously  been  found  in  saw-whet  owl  nests  and  the  list  includes  3 
new  mite  records  for  the  State  of  Connecticut. 

Saw-whet  owls  (Aegolius  acadicus}  (Gmelin))  are  the  smallest  owls  in 
eastern  North  American  and  occur  in  western,  central  and  northeastern 
United  States,  as  well  as  Canada  and  Mexico.  They  feed  largely  on  rodents 
and  nest  in  tree-holes,  but  they  have  not  been  studied  as  extensively  as  other 
eastern  owls,  and  there  are  no  published  records  of  parasites  or  other 
arthropods  found  in  saw-whet  owl  nests. 

Owl  nests  provide  a  prime  habitat  for  many  kinds  of  arthropods.  The 
owls  themselves  represent  only  one  potential  food  source;  there  is  also  a 
wide  variety  of  organic  material,  including  carrion  in  the  form  of  prey 
remains,  undigested  pellets  regurgitated  by  the  owls,  and  plant  material  in 
the  nest.  Thus  the  nests  attract  a  wide  variety  of  saprophagous,  predatory 
and  parasitic  arthropods  which  may  be  present  in  great  numbers  (Philips 
and  Dindal  1977,  1979b).  Owl  nests  may  also  contain  unique  taxa  -  for 
example,  the  beetle  Trox  tvtus  Robinson  is  known  only  from  barn  owl  ( Tyto 
alba  (Scop.))  nests  (Vaurie,  1955)  and  Fain  and  Philips  (1977a,  I977b, 
1 978a,  1979)  have  described  a  number  of  new  mite  genera  and  species  from 
a  screech  owl  ( Otus  asio(L.)}  nest.  The  objective  of  this  study  was  to  survey 
the  arthropod  fauna  of  a  sample  of  saw-whet  owl  nest  material. 

Methods 

During  a  survey  of  breeding  birds  of  prey  in  northwestern  Connecticut, 
a  saw-whet  owl  nest  was  located  by  the  junior  authors  in  a  tree-hole  in  a 
dead  black  cherry  (Prunus  serotina  Ehrh.)  in  Sharon,  CT.  The  hole  was 
8.2m  high  and  a  sample  of  nest  material  was  collected  on  13  June  1978 
while  the  one  chick  in  the  nest  was  banded.  The  sample  of  nest  material  was 
highly  odoriferous  and  contained  decaying  prey  remains  as  well  as  pellets 
and  plant  matter.  The  sample  was  shipped  to  the  senior  author  for  analysis. 
However,  upon  arrival  it  was  found  that  conditions  had  become  anaerobic 


'Received  July  26,  1982 

2Math/Science  Division,  Babson  College,  Babson  Park  (Wellesley),  MA  02157 

3West  Cornwall  Road.  Sharon.  CT  06069 

ENT.  NEWS  94(2):  60-64,  March  &  April,  1983 


Vol.  94,  No.  2.  March  &  April  1983 


and  the  sample  had  become  a  mass  of  semi-liquefied  material.  This 
prevented  quantitative  analysis,  but  the  material  was  examined  under  a 
dissecting  microscope  before  disposal. 

Results 

Although  no  invertebrates  were  still  alive  in  the  sample  at  the  time  of 
analysis,  204  arthropods  were  found  intact.  These  represented  14  species 
of  mites  and  6  species  of  insects  (Table  I).  In  addition,  hundreds  of 
nematodes  were  found  attached  to  4  of  the  trogid  beetles  on  the  sides  of  the 
elytra  and  pronotum,  and  on  the  prosternum,  metasternum,  and  first 
abdominal  segment.  Hundreds  of  unattached  nematodes  were  also  found 
underneath  the  elytra  of  one  trogid  beetle  and  one  silphid  beetle.  The  prey 
remains  in  the  sample  included  skulls  of  woodland  jumping  mice  (Napaeozapus 
insignis  (Miller))  and  red-backed  voles,  (Clethrionomysgapperi( Vigors)). 

Discussion 

The  role  beetles  play  as  hosts  for  other  invertebrates  needing  food  or 
transportation  was  dramatically  illustrated  in  this  sample  by  the  finding  of 
the  nematodes  and  6  species  of  mites  associated  with  the  beetles.  No 
nematodes  have  previously  been  found  on  trogid  beetles.  Both  the 
subelytral  and  externally  attached  nematodes  seemed  to  be  phoretic  rather 
than  parasitic.  The  externally  attached  nematodes  were  dauerlarvae,  the 
third  larval  instar  which  is  the  usual  phoretic  stage  formed  under  adverse 
conditions.  According  to  Croll  and  Matthews  (1977),  rhabditid  nematodes 
such  as  Pelodera  form  these  larvae  and  attach  by  a  secretion  to  beetles  like 
Phodius.  Crowson  ( 1981 )  stated  that  a  considerable  variety  of  nematodes 
have  such  phoretic  associations  with  beetles.  However  the  unusual 
circumstances  of  this  record  prevent  the  assumption  that  this  is  a  frequent 
association  between  nematodes  and  trogids.  On  the  contrary,  examination 
of  3,433  additional  specimens  of  trogid  beetles  in  museums  and  in  the  field 
has  not  yielded  another  incidence  of  an  external  infestation  of  dauerlarvae. 
However,  phoretic  nematodes  have  been  found  on  mites  of  the  genus 
Macrocheles,  which  are  phoretic  on  trogid  beetles  (Philips  and  Dindal 
1979a).  The  Macrocheles  found  in  this  nest  represent  a  new  species  (R.M. 
Emberson  pers.  comm.). 

Both  parasitic  and  phoretic  mites  were  found  on  the  trogid  beetles. 
Subelytral  forms  included  an  undescribed  genus  of  pyemotid  mite.  Histiostoma 
sp.  B.,  Eviphis  sp.,  and  Poecilochinis  necrophori  Vitzth.  No  mites  have 
previously  been  reported  from  underneath  the  elytra  of  trogid  beetles.  The 
undescribed  pyemotid  mites  were  found  on  only  one  trogid.  on  the 


62  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


anteroventral  side  of  the  elytra  attached  to  membranous  tissue  and 
underneath  both  wings  attached  to  cuticle  at  the  wing  insertion.  Other 
pyemotid  mites  parasitize  many  beetle  families  (Cross  and  Krantz,  1964, 
Cross  et  al.  1975)  and  it  is  likely  that  these  are  also  parasites. 

All  specimens  of  Histiostorna  sp.B.  were  found  under  the  elytra  of  4 
trogid  beetles.  These  anoetid  mites  were  all  in  the  hypopus  stage,  a  form 
adapted  for  phoresy  possessing  a  posteroventral  sucker  plate  and  lacking 
mouthparts .  Anoetid  hypopi  are  of  widespread  occurrence  on  insects;  many 
species  occur  on  trogid  beetle  exteriors  (pers.  obs.)  and  one  species  of 
Pelzneria  has  been  found  underneath  the  elytra  of  Nicrophoms  (Springett, 
1968).  It  is  surprising  that  in  this  sample,  Histiostorna  sp.B.  occurred  only 
on  Trox  underneath  the  elytra,  Histiostorna  sp.A.  occurred  only  on  the 
exterior  of  Nicrophoms,  and  no  mites  occurred  on  Carcinops.  Anoetid  mite 
hypopi  have  been  found  on  Carcinops  in  other  birds'  nests  (pers.  obs.). 

Three  trogid  beetles  harbored  4  Eviphis  females  under  or  over  the 
wings,  and  7  more  Eviphis  were  found  separately  in  the  sample  material. 
Eviphidids  have  not  previously  been  found  associated  with  trogid  beetles, 
but  the  family  generally  disperses  by  phoresy.  AHiphis  halleri  Can.,  for 
example,  is  transported  by  Nicrophoms  (Springett  1968). 

Four  Poecilochims  duetonymphs  were  found  under  the  elytra  and  on 
the  exterior  of  2  trogid  beetles;  the  rest  occurred  similarly  on  2  Nicrophoms. 
Poecilochims  necrophori  Vitz.  deutonymphs  are  typically  phoretic  on 
Nicrophoms,  and  this  relationship  has  been  studied  by  Springett  (1968). 
The  mites  feed  on  small  fly  larvae,  fly  eggs,  and  carrion  encountered  by  their 
beetle  host,  whose  larvae  feed  on  carrion. 

While  some  mites  colonize  owl  nests  with  the  assistance  of  flying 
insects,  other  reach  the  nests  on  various  prey  species.  Three  mammal 
associates  were  found  in  the  sample.  Dermacarus  newyorkensis  Fain  and 
Glycyphagus  hypudaei (Koch)  hypopi  have  posteroventral  claspers  adapted 
for  gripping  hair;  these  species  have  not  previously  been  found  in 
Connecticut.  Both  species  utilize  many  rodent  hosts,  but  D.  newyorkensis 
is  known  from  woodland  jumping  mice,  while  G.  hypudaei  is  known  from 
the  red-backed  vole  ( Whitaker  and  Wilson  1 974),  which  were  the  two  rodents 
whose  remains  were  found  in  the  nest. 

The  only  vertebrate  parasite  found  was  an  engorged  chigger,  Euschoengastia 
peromysci  (Ewing),  which  mainly  parasitizes  white-footed  mice  (Peromyscus 
leucopus  (Raf.)).  Perhaps  white-footed  mice  were  also  among  the  owl's 
prey,  or  the  chigger  might  have  been  parasitizing  one  of  the  rodents  whose 
remains  we  found.  Another  possibility  is  that  white-footed  mice  may 
previously  have  used  the  owl  nest  site  as  a  nest  and  denning  site  of  their  own. 

Most  of  the  other  species  found  were  either  saprovores  or  fungivores. 
Acotyledon  paradoxa  Ouds.  is  a  fungivore  known  from  screech  owl  and 
great  horned  owl  (Bubo  Virginia  nits  Gmelin))  nests  in  New  York,  mice 


Vol.  94,  No.  2.  March  &  April  1983 


63 


nests  in  Maryland,  and  from  the  USSR  (Fain  and  Philips  1978b)  so  this 
find  represents  a  new  record  for  the  State  of  Connecticut.  Cosmoglyphus  is 
another  fungivore,  while  the  oribatid  mites  are  species  associated  with 
decomposing  plant  material.  Overall,  the  community  appears  to  be 
dominated  by  carrion  insects  and  their  associated  mites.  Scavenging  fly 
larvae  serve  as  food  for  predators  like  the  histerid  and  silphid  beetles  and  the 
mesostigmatic  mites,  which  may  also  feed  on  nematodes  and  other  mites. 
The  silphid  beetles  also  feed  directly  on  the  carrion,  while  the  trogid  beetles 
eat  the  hair  from  the  carrion  and  feathers  lost  by  the  owls.  No  avian 
parasites  were  found,  but  the  development  of  anaerobic  conditions  in  the 
sample  before  analysis  caused  our  results  to  be  very  incomplete.  A 
thorough  study  of  saw-whet  owl  nests  is  needed  to  accurately  determine  the 
composition  of  the  arthropod  community,  the  presence  and  density  of 
nidicolous  saw-whet  parasites,  and  how  the  arthropod  community  changes 
during  the  nesting  period. 


Table    I.  Arthropods   from   a   saw-whet   owl   (Aegolius  acadius    (Gmelin))    nest   in 
Connecticut. 


CLASS 


Insecta 


ORDER 


Coleoptera 


Diptera 


Arachnida 


Acarina 

Mesostigmata 


Prostigmata 


Astigmata 


FAMILY  GENUS  &  SPECIES 


Elateridae  Elaterinae  sp. 

Histeridae  Carcinops  sp. 

Silphiade  .Vicrophoms  pustulatus  Hersch. 

Trogidae  Trox  aequalis  Say 

Muscidae  Fannia  sp. 

Scatopsidae  sp. 


Eviphididae  Eviphis  sp. 

Macrochelidae      Macrocheles  n.  sp. 
Parasitidae  Poecilochirus  necrophori  Vitz. 


Pyemotidae  n.g. 

Pygmephondae     Bakerdania  sp. 

Trombiculidae      Euschoengastia  peromysci  (Ewing) 


NUMBER    STAGE 


Oribatei 


Acaridae 


Anoetidae 


Glycyphagidae 


Galumnidae 
Parakalumnidae 


Acotyledon  paradoxa  Ouds 

Cosmoglyphus  sp. 
Histiostoma  sp.A. 
Hisliostoma  sp.B 
Dermacams  newvorkensis  Fain 
Glycyphagus  hypudaei  (Koch) 

Pergalumna  sp. 

Prolokalumma  depressa  (Banks) 


1 
1 

3 
12 

I 
1 


11 

8 

16 


18 

1 
1 


1 
89 

8 
6 

18 

1 
1 


larva 
adult 
adults 
adults 

larva 
larva 


adults 
adults 
adults, 
nymphs 

adults 

adult 

larva 

hypopi. 

nymphs 
hypopus 
hypopi 
hypopi 
hypopi 
hypopi 

adult 
adult 


64  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We  wish  to  express  our  sincere  appreciation  to  Dr.  R.A.  Norton  and  Dr.  A.E.  Newton 
for  reviewing  the  manuscript  and  to  the  following  experts  for  taxonomic  assistance:  R.A. 
Norton  (Oribatei),  A.F.  Newton  (Nicrophnrus)  and  R.M.  Emberson  (Macrocheles). 


LITERATURE  CITED 

Croll,  N.A.  and  B.E.  Matthews.  1977.  Biology  of  nematodes.  Wiley  and  Sons,  N.Y.  201  pp. 
Cross,  E.A.  andG.W.  Krantz.  1964.  Two  new  species  of  the  genus  AcarophenaxNev/stead 

and  Duvall  1918.  (Acarina,  Pyemotidae).  Acarologia  6:  287-295. 
Cross,  W.H.,  W.I.  McGovern  and  E.A.  Cross.  1975.  Insect  hosts  of  parasitic  mites  called 

Pyemotes.  J.  Ga.  Ent.  Soc.  10(1):   1-8. 

Crowson,  R.A.  1981.  The  Biology  of  the  Coleoptera.  Academic  Press,  London.  802  pp. 
Fain,  A.  and  J.R.  Philips.  1977a.  Astigmatic  mites  from  nests  of  birds  of  prey  in  U.S.A.  I. 

Description  of  four  new  species  of  Glycyphagidae.  Int.  J.  Acarol.  3(2):   105-1 14. 
1977b.  Astigmatic  mites  from  nests  of  birds  of  prey  in  U.S.A.  II.  Two  new 

species  of  the  genera  Fusacanis  Michael  and  Blomia  Oudemans  (Glycyphagidae).  Acta 

Zool.  Path.  Ant.  69:    155-162. 

..  1978a.  Astigmatic  mites  from  nests  of  birds  of  prey  in  U.S.A.  III.  Sapracarus 


iuberculatus  g.n.,  sp.  n.  (Acari,  Astigmata,  Saproglyphidae).  Acta  Zool.  Path.  Ant. 
70:  227-231. 

1978b.  Astigmatic  mites  from  nests  of  birds  of  prey  in  the  U.S.A.  IV.  Description 


of  the  life-cycle  of  Acotyledon  paradoxa  Oudemans,  1903.  Zool.  Meded.  53(3):  29-39. 
_.  1979.  Astigmatic  mites  from  nests  of  birds  of  prey  in  the  U.S.A.  V.  Four  new 


species  of  Anoetidae.  Int.  J.  Acarol.  5(2)   147-153. 
Philips,  J.R.  and  D.L.  Dindal.  1977.  Raptor  nests  as  a  habitat  for  invertebrates:  A  review. 

Raptor  Res.  11(4):  86-96. 

1979a.  Decomposition  of  raptor  pellets.  Raptor  Res.  13(4):    102-111. 

1979b.  The  acarine  community  of  nests  of  birds  of  prey.  Pages  559-562  in  J.G. 

Rodriguez  ed.  Recent  Advances  in  Acarology.  Vol.  I.  Academic  Press,  N.Y.  631  pp. 
Springett,  B.P.  1 968.  Aspects  of  the  relationship  between  burying  beetles  Necrophorus  spp. 

and  the  mite  Poecilochirus  necrophori  Vitz.  J.  An.  Ecol.  37:  417-424. 
Vaurie,  P.  1955.  A  revision  of  the  genus  Trox  in  North  America  (Coleoptera:  Scarabaeidae). 

Bull.  Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.  106(1):    1-89. 
Whitaker,  J.O.,  Jr.  and  N.  Wilson.  1974.  Host  and  distribution  lists  of  mites  (Acari), 

parasitic  and  phoretic,  in  the  hair  of  wild  mammals  of  North  America,  north  of  Mexico.  Am. 

Mid.  Nat.  91(1):    1-67. 


Vol.  94,  No.  2,  March  &  April  1983  65 

AN  ANNOTATED  CHECKLIST  OF  THE 
STONEFLIES  (PLECOPTERA)  OF  MAINE1 

Terry  M.  Mingo^ 

ABSTRACT:  A  total  of  92  species  representing  nine  families  and  37  genera  are  contained  in 
the  first  comprehensive  checklist  of  Maine  Plecoptera.  Nineteen  additional  species  which 
occur  in  adjacent  states  and  provinces,  but  which  have  not  yet  been  collected  in  Maine,  are  also 
listed.  County  distributions  and  adult  collection  dates  are  included  for  species  occurring  in  the 
state.  Twenty  one  species  are  reported  from  Maine  for  the  first  time. 

Although  previous  records  of  Plecoptera  from  Maine  are  scattered 
throughout  the  literature,  the  study  of  Maine  species  has  been  generally 
neglected.  Studies  by  Proctor  (1946),  Mingo,  et  al.  (1979).  Rabeni  and 
Gibbs  ( 1 979)  and  Mingo  and  Gibbs  ( 1 980)  have  added  to  the  understanding 
of  Maine  species  but  have  concerned  either  limited  geographic  areas  or 
specific  watersheds. 

The  checklist  presented  herein  represents  the  first  attempt  to  compile  a 
comprehensive  inventory  of  Plecoptera  species  occurring  in  Maine.  It  is 
based  primarily  upon  specimens  collected  by  the  author  and  reports 
contained  in  the  literature.  At  present  it  contains  nine  families,  37  genera 
and  92  species.  In  addition  five  species  new  to  science  have  been  collected 
and  are  currently  under  study. 

The  classification  system  used  in  the  checklist  follows  that  of  lilies 
(1966)  and  Zwick  (1973)  as  reviewed  by  Baumann  (1976).  The  earliest 
and  latest  dates  of  collection  follow  each  species  name  and  are  based  solely 
upon  adult  specimens.  County  distributions  are  included  below  each 
species  name  and  are  based  upon  adult  as  well  as  immature  specimens.  The 
inclusion  of  a  county  name  in  parentheses  following  a  single  date  of 
collection  indicates  that  adults  of  that  species  were  collected  only  from  that 
county  on  the  date  given.  Additional  county  records  listed  for  these  species 
refer  to  immature  specimens  only. 

Nineteen  additional  species  have  been  reported  from  adjacent  states 
and  provinces  but  have  not  yet  been  collected  in  Maine.  These  species  are 
indicated  with  a  double  asterisk.  The  territory  concerned  is  listed  for  each  of 
these  species  and  the  appropriate  literature  citation  is  given.  Nine  species 
previously  reported  from  the  state  but  not  collected  by  the  author  during  this 
study  are  indicated  with  a  plus  sign.  The  county  of  record  is  listed  for  each  of 
these  species  and  the  appropriate  literature  citation  is  given.  New  state 
distribution  records  are  indicated  with  a  single  asterisk. 


1  Received  September  23.  1982 

2  Assistant  Scientist.  Department  of  Entomology.  University  of  Maine,  Orono,  Maine  04469 

ENT.  NEWS  94(2):  65-72.  March  &  April.  1983 


66  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Nemouridae 

Amphinemurinae 

A  mphinemura 

A.   nigritta  (Provancher)  30  July  -  7  September 

Aroostook,  Piscataquis  and  Somerset  County 

A.  wui  (Claassen)  3  June  -  16  August 
Piscataquis  and  Somerset  County 

Nemourinae 
Nemoura 

*N.   trispinosa  Claassen  6  May  -  3  June 

Piscataquis  County 
Ostrocerca 

O.   albidipennis  (Walker)  17  May  (Penobscot  County) 

Penobscot,  Piscataquis  and  Washington  County 
*O.   complexa  (Claassen)  23  May 

Franklin  County 
+O.  prolongata  (Claassen) 

Penobscot  County  (Needham  and  Claassen,  1925) 
O.   tmncata  (Claassen)  nymphs  only 

Hancock,  Piscataquis  and  Somerset  County 
Paranemoura 

P.  perfecta  (Walker)  4  May  -  2  June 

Penobscot,  Piscataquis,  Somerset  and  Washington  Count) 
P.  sp.  A  4  May  -  7  July 

Piscataquis  and  Washington  County 
Podmosta 

P.  macdunnoughi  (Ricker)  5  May  -  15  May 

Hancock,  Piscataquis  and  Washington  County 
Prostoia 

P.  completa  (Walker)  5  May  -  26  June 

Penobscot,  Piscataquis  and  Washington  County 
*P.    similis  (Hagen)  10  June 

Somerset  County 
Ships  a 

S.  rotunda  (Claassen)  4  May  -  11  May 

Penobscot  and  Washington  County 
S.  sp.  A  19  June 

Penobscot  County 
Soyedina 

S.  vallicularia  (Wu)  4  May  -  25  June 

Somerset  and  Washington  County 
*S.  Washington!  (Claassen)  25  May 

Piscataquis  County 
Zapada 

Z  sp.  A  24  April 

Piscataquis  County 

Taeniopterygidae 

Brachypterinae 
Bolotoperla 

B.  rossi  (Prison)  5  May  -  12  May 
Penobscot  and  Washington  County 


Vol.  94,  No.  2,  March  &  April  1983  67 


Oemopteryx 

*O.  contorta  (Needham  and  Claassen)  24  April  -  8  May 

Piscataquis  County 
**O.  glacialis  (Newport) 

Quebec  (Ricker.  et  al..  1968) 
Strophopteryx 

S.  fasciata  (Burmcister)  31  March  -  5  May 

Hancock  and  Penobscot  County 
Taenionema 

*T.  uilanticitm  Ricker  and  Ross  8  May  -  1  June 

Piscataquis  and  Somerset  County 

Taeniopteryginae 
Taeniopteryx 

T.  hurski  Ricker  and  Ross  22  March  -  16  April 

I  lancock,  Penobscot  and  Washington  County 
T.  maura  (Pictet)  7  April  -  16  April 

Penobscot  County 
T.  nivalis  (Fitch)  nymphs  only 

Penobscot.  Piscataquis  and  Washington  County 
T.  pan-ula  Banks  22  March  -  4  May 

Hancock.  Penobscot.  Piscataquis  and  Washington  County 

Capniidae 
Allocapnia 

+A.  illinoensis  Prison 

Southern  Maine  (Ross  and  Ricker.  1971) 
A.  maria  Hanson  9  April  -  29  March 

Hancock  County 
A.  minima  (Newport  I  25  February  -  5  May 

Hancock.  Penobscot.  Piscataquis  and  Washington  County 
**A.  nivicola  (Fitch) 

New  Brunswick  (Ross  and  Ricker.  1971) 
New  Hampshire  (Fiance.  1977) 
Nova  Scotia  (Ross  and  Ricker.  1971) 
Quebec  (Ricker.  et  al..  1968) 
**A.  pechumani  Ross  and  Ricker 

New  Brunswick  (Ross  and  Ricker.  1971 ) 
Nova  Scotia  (Ross  and  Ricker.  1971) 
Quebec  (Ross  and  Ricker.  1971  ) 
A.  pygmaea  (Burmeister)  1  March  -  16  April 

Hancock.  Kennebec.  Penobscot.  Piscataquis  and  Washington  County 
+A.  recta  (Claassen) 

Southern  Maine  (Ross  and  Ricker.  1971) 
**A.  vivipara  (Claassen) 

Quebec  (Ross  and  Ricker.  1971 ) 
+A.  zola  Ricker 

This  species  occurs  in  a  diagonal  band  from  the  southwestern  flanks  of  the  Appalachians 
to  the  hill  country  of  Maine  and  New  Brunswick  (Ross  and  Ricker.  1971 ). 
Capnia 

C.  manitoha  Claassen  14  April     1  June 

Piscataquis  County 
**C.  vernal  is  Newport 

Quebec  (Ricker.  et  al..  1968) 


68  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Nemocapnia 

**N.  Carolina  Banks 

Quebec  (Harper  and  Hynes,  1971  and  Harper,  1971) 
Paracapnia 

P.  angulata  Hanson  13  April  -  27  May 

Hancock,  Penobscot  and  Washington  County 
P.  opis  (Newman)  9  April  -  3  June 

Hancock,  Piscataquis  and  Washington  County 
Utacapnia 
**U.  labradora  (Ricker) 

Quebec  (Ricker,  et  al.,  1968) 

Leuctridae 

Leuctrinae 
Leuctra 

**L.  baddecka  Ricker 

Nova  Scotia  (Ricker,  1965  and  Hitchcock,  1974) 
L.  duplicata  Claassen  1 7  June 

Washington  County 
L.ferniginea  (Walker)  3  June  -  28  September 

Aroostook  and  Piscataquis  County 
L.  grandis  Banks  1  June 

Piscataquis  County 
**L.  laura  Hitchcock 

New  Hampshire  (Hitchcock,  1969  and  1974) 
**L.  maria  Hanson 

New  Hampshire  (Hanson,  1941  and  Hitchcock,  1974) 
L.  sibleyi  Claassen  1  June  -  26  June 

Penobscot,  Piscataquis,  Somerset  and  Washington  County 
L.  tenella  Provancher  14  June  -  16  August 

Hancock  and  Piscataquis  County 
L.  tennis  (Pictet)  25  June  -  23  August 

Piscataquis  and  Washington  County 
**L.  triloba  Claassen 

Quebec  (Ricker,  et  al.,  1968) 
L.  tnmcata  Claassen  7  August  -  22  August 

Hancock  and  Piscataquis  County 
*L.  variablis  Hanson  29  August 

Piscataquis  County 
Paraleuctra 

P.  sara  (Claassen)  29  April  -  10  June 

Aroostook.  Piscataquis  and  Washington  County 

Pteronarcyidae 

In  the  classification  system  used  by  lilies  ( 1966)  and  Zwick(  1973)  the  family  Pteronarcyidae 
contains  two  eastern  genera:  Allonarcys  and  Pteronarcys.  The  validity  of  A llonarcys  has 
been  questioned  and  has  recently  been  placed  into  synonymy  with  Ptcronarcvs  by  Stark  and 
Szczytko(1982). 

Pteronarcys 

P.  biloba  (Newman)  3  June  (Piscataquis  County) 

Aroostook,  Franklin,  Penobscot  and  Piscataquis  County 
P.  co mslocki  (Smith)  nymphs  only 

Aroostook  and  Hancock  County 


Vol.  94,  No.  2,  March  &  April  1983 


69 


P.  dorsal  a  (Say) 

Aroostook,  Hancock,  Oxford  and  Washington  County 
P.  proteus  (Newman) 

Aroostook  and  Piscataquis  County 

Peltoperlidae 

Peltoperlinae 
Peltoperla 

**P.  arciiata  Needham 

Quebec  (Ricker,  et  al.,  1968) 
Tallaperla 

*T.  maria  (Needham  and  Smith) 

Franklin,  Oxford,  Piscataquis  and  Somerset  County 

Perlodidae 

Isoperlinae 
Isoperla 

+1.  bilineata  (Say) 

Hancock  County  (Proctor.  1946) 
**/.  cotta  Ricker 

Quebec  (Ricker,  et  al.,  1968) 
I.  dicala  Prison 

Penobscot  and  Washington  County 
/.  francesca  Harper 

Piscataquis  and  Washington  County 
/.  fiisoni  lilies 

Hancock,  Piscataquis  and  Washington  County 
/.  holochlora  (Klapalek) 

Aroostook  and  Piscataquis  County 
/.  tata  Prison 

Penobscot  and  Washington  County 
*/.  marlynia  Needham  and  Claassen 

Washington  County 
+/.  montana  (Banks) 

Hancock  County  (Needham  and  Classen,  1925) 
*/.  namata  Prison 

Piscataquis  County 
*/.  orata  Prison 

Aroostook  and  Piscataquis  County 
/.  signata  (Banks) 

Hancock,  Penobscot  and  Washington  County 
*/.   similis  (Hagen) 

Piscataquis  and  Washington  County 
+/.  slossonae  (Banks) 

Piscataquis  County  (Prison,  1942) 
/.  transmarina  (Newman) 

Penobscot,  Piscataquis  and  Washington  County 
/.  sp.  A. 

Piscataquis  County 
/.  sp.  B. 

Piscataquis  County 


10  May  -  22  May 
nymphs  only 


9  June  (Somerset  County) 


Arcynopteryx 

*A.  compacta  (MacKacklan) 
Piscataquis  County 


Perlodinae 


10  June-  13  July 

14  June  -  7  July 

10  June  -  12  July 

24  July  -  15  August 

10  June  (Washington  County) 

nymphs  only 

nymphs  only 

nymphs  only 

17  June  -  1  1  July 

19  May  (Washington  County) 

27  May  -  14  June 
23  May  -  3  June 
1  June 

nymphs  only 


70 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Cultus 

*C.  decisus  (Walker)  nymphs  only 

Aroostook,  Piscataquis  and  Somerset  County 
Diura 
**D.  nanseni  Kempny 

New  Hampshire  (Ricker,  1964) 
Quebec  (Ricker,  et  al.,  1968) 
Helopicus 
+H.  subvarians  (Banks) 

Washington  County  (Prison,  1942) 
Isogenoides 
**/.  doratus  (Prison) 

Quebec  (Ricker.  et  a!.,  1968) 
*/.  frontalis  (Newman)  nymphs  only 

Piscataquis  County 
/.  hansoni  Ricker  nymphs  only 

Piscataquis  and  Washington  County 
**/.  olivaceus  (Walker) 

Quebec  (Ricker,  et  al..  1968) 
Malirekus 

M.  hastatus  (Banks)  nymphs  only 

Aroostook,  Piscataquis  and  Washington  County 


Chloroperlidae 

Chloroperlinae 
Alloperla 

A.  atlantica  Baumann 

Piscataquis  and  Washington  County 
*A.  banski  Prison 

Penobscot  County 
A.  caudata  Prison 

Piscataquis  and  Washington  County 
A.  chloris  Prison 

Piscataquis  County 
*A.  concolor  Ricker 

Piscataquis  County 
A.  idei  (Ricker) 

Washington  County 
A.  leonarda  Ricker 

Washington  County 
*A.  voinae  Ricker 

Piscataquis  County 
**A.  vostoki  Ricker 

Nova  Scotia  (Ricker.  1947) 
Hastaperla 

H.  brevis  (Banks) 

Hancock,  Penobscot,  Piscataquis  and  Washington 
H.  orpha  (Prison) 

Hancock,  Penobscot  and  Washington  County 
Rasvena 
**R.  terna  (Prison) 

New  Hampshire  (Fiance,  1977) 
Suwallia 

S.  marginata  (Banks) 
Piscataquis  County 


10  June  -  12  July 
13  July 

10  June  -  7  July 
8  June  -  30  July 
1  June  -  14  June 
6  June  -  13  July 

17  June 

18  July  -  15  August 


10  June  -  30  July 
County 

27  May  -  24  June 


18  July     29  August 


Vol.  94,  No.  2,  March  &  April  1983  71 


Sweltza 

S.  lateralis  (Banks)  25  May  -  1  June 

Piscataquis  County 
S.  mediana  (Banks)  1  June  -  21  June 

Piscataquis  County 
*S.  naica  (Provancher)  20  May  -  3  June 

Piscataquis  County 
5.  onkos  (Ricker)  29  May  -  10  June 

Washington  County 

Paraperlinae 

U taper  la 

**U.  gaspesiana  Harper  and  Roy 

New  Hampshire  (Fiance,  1977) 
Quebec  (Harper  and  Roy,  1975) 

Perlidae 

Acroneuriinae 
Acroneuria 

A.  abnormis  (Newman)  10  June  -  14  July 

Aroostock,  Penobscot,  Piscataquis,  Somerset  and  Washington  County 
A.  arenosa  (Pictet)  30  June  -  3  August 

Penobscot  County 
A.  carolinensis  (Banks)  12  June  -  3  August 

Aroostook  and  Penobscot  County 
A.  lycorias  (Newman)  10  July  (Penobscot  County) 

Penobscot  and  Washington  County 
Perlesta 

P.  placida  (Hagen)  30  June  -  16  August 

Hancock,  Penobscot  and  Washington  County 
Perlinella 

P.  drymo  (Newman)  29  May  -  17  June 

Penobscot  and  Washington  County 

Perlinae 
Neoperla 

*N.  freytagi  Stark  and  Baumann  4  July  -  27  July 

Washington  County 
+N.  mainensis  Banks 

Kennebec  County  (Banks,  1948) 

N.  mainensis  was  originally  described  by  Banks  (1948)  as  a  subspecies  of  Neoperla 
clymene  (Newman).  It  has  since  been  elevated  to  species  status  by  Stark  and  Baumann 
(1978)  in  their  revision  of  the  Neoperla  species  complex. 

*N.  stewarti  Stark  and  Baumann  30  June 

Penobscot  County 
Paragnetina 

P.  immarginata  (Say)  17  June  (Washington  County) 

Aroostook,  Franklin,  Penobscot,  Piscataquis  and  Washington  County 
P.  media  (Walker)  17  June  -  13  July 

Penobscot.  Piscataquis  and  Washington  County 
Phasganophora 

P.  capitata  (Pictet)  10  June  -  20  July 

Aroostook,  Hancock,  Penobscot.  Piscataquis  and  Washington  County 


72  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The  identification  of  various  species  contained  in  this  list  has  been  verified  or  corrected  by 
Richard  W.  Baumann,  Peter  P.  Harper.  Rebecca  F.  Surdick-Pifer  and  Stanley  W.  Szczytko. 
Their  assistance  with  determinations  is  greatly  appreciated. 

The  manuscript  was  reviewed  by  K.  Elizabeth  Gibbs  and  Eben  A.  Osgood. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Banks,  N.  1948.  Notes  on  Perlidae.  Psyche  55:    1 13-130. 

Baumann,  R.W.  1 976.  An  annotated  review  of  the  systematics  of  North  American  stoneflies 

(Plecoptera).  Perla  2:  21-23. 
Fiance,  S.B.  1977.  Distribution  and  biology  of  the  mayflies  and  stoneflies  of  Hubbard  Brook. 

New  Hampshire.  M.S.  Thesis.  Cornell  University.  149  pp. 
Prison,  T.H.  1942.  Studies  on  North  American  Plecoptera,  with  special  reference  to  the 

fauna  of  Illinois.  111.  Nat.  Hist.  Surv.  Bull.  22:   235-355. 
Hanson,  J.F.  1941.  Records  and  descriptions  of  North  American  Plecoptera.  Part  I.  Species 

of  Leuctra  of  the  eastern  United  States.  Am.  Midi.  Nat.  26:    174-178. 
Harper,  P.P.  1971.  Plecopteres  nouveaux  du  Quebec  (Insectes).  Can.  J.  Zool.  49:  685-690. 
Harper,  P.P.  and  H.B.  N.  Hynes.  1971.  The  Capniidae  of  eastern  Canada.  Can.  J.  Zool. 

49:  921-940. 
Harper,  P.P.  and  D.  Roy.  1975.  Utaperla  gaspesiana  sp.  nov.,  le  premier  Plecoptere 

Paraperline  de  I'Est  canadien.  Can.  J.  Zool.  53:    1 185-1 187. 
Hitchcock,  S.W.   1969.  Plecoptera  from  high  altitudes  and  a  new  species  of  Leuctra 

(Leuctridae).  Ent.  News  80:  311-316. 
Hitchcock,  S.W.  1974.  Guide  to  the  insects  of  Connecticut.  Part  VII.  The  Plecoptera  or 

stoneflies  of  Connecticut.  State  Geol.  Nat.  Hist.  Surv.  Conn.  Bull.  107.  262  pp. 
lilies,  J.  1966.  Katalog  der  rezenten  Plecoptera.  Das  Tierreich.  Lieferung  82.  Walter  de 

Gruyter  and  Company,  Berlin.  632.  pp. 
Mingo,  T.M.,  Courtemanch,  D.L.  and  K.E.  Gibbs.  1979.  The  aquatic  insects  of  the  St. 

John  River  drainage.  Aroostock  County.  Maine.  Life  Sci.  and  Agric.  Exp.  Stat.  Tech.  Bull. 

92.  22  pp. 
Mingo,  T.M.  and  K.E.  Gibbs.  1 980.  The  aquatic  insects  of  the  Narraguagus  River.  Hancock 

and  Washington  County,  Maine.  Life  Sci.  and  Agric.  Exp.  Stat.  Tech.  Bull.  100.  63  pp. 
Needham,  J.G.  and  P.W.  Claassen.  1925.  A  monograph  of  the  Plecoptera  or  stoneflies  of 

America  north  of  Mexico.  Thomas  Say  Found.,  Entomol.  Soc.  Amer.  2:    1-397. 
Proctor,  W.  1946.  Biological  survey  of  the  Mount  Desert  region.  Part  VII.  The  insect  fauna. 

Wistar  Inst.  of  Anat.  and  Biol.  pp.  54-55. 
Rabeni,  C.F.  and  K.E.  Gibbs.  1979.  Ordination  of  deep  river  invertebrate  communities  in 

relation  to  environmental  variables.  Hydrobiologia  74:   67-76. 
Ricker,  W.E.  1947.  Stoneflies  of  the  Maritime  Provinces  and  Newfoundland.  Trans,  of  the 

Royal  Can.  Inst..  Toronto.  26:   401-414. 
Ricker,  W.E.  1964.  Distribution  of  Canadian  stoneflies.  Gewasser  und  Abwasser.  34/35: 

50-71. 
Ricker,  W.E.  1965.  New  records  and  descriptions  of  Plecoptera.  J.  Fish.  Res.  Bd.  Can. 

22:  475-501. 
Ricker,  W.E.,  Malouin,  R.,  Harper,  P.P.  and  H.H.  Ross.  1968.  Distribution  of  Quebec 

stoneflies  (Plecoptera).  Nat.  Can.  95:    1085-1 123. 
Ross,  H.H.  and  W.E.  Ricker.  1971.  The  classification,  evolution  and  dispersal  of  the  winter 

stonefly  genus  Allocapnia.  III.  Biol.  Monogr.  45:    1-166. 
Stark,  B.P.  and  R.W.  Baumann.  1978.  New  species  of  Nearctic  Neoperla  (Plecoptera: 

Perlidae)  with  notes  on  the  genus.  Great  Basin  Nat.  38:   97-1  13. 
Stark,  B.P.  and  S.W.  Szczytko.  1982.  Egg  morphology  and  phytogeny  in  Pteronarcyidae 

(Plecoptera).  Ann.  Entomol.  Soc.  Am.  75:   519-529. 
Zwick,  P.  1973.  Insecta:   Plecoptera,  phylogenetisches  system  und  katalog.  Das  Tierreich. 

Lieferung  94.  Walter  de  Gruyter  and  Company,  Berlin.  465  pp. 


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US  ISSN  0013  872X 


MAY  &  JUNE  1983 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Commentaries  in  cultural  entomology.  3.  An  entomological 

explanation  of  Ezekiel's  wheels.  Charles  L.  Hague     73 

Redescription  of  Cicindela  speculans  and  its  relationship 
to  other  neotropical  Cicindela  (Coleoptera:  Cicindelidae) 

Robert  R.  Murray     81 

European  Rhagionidae  in  eastern  North  America:  Records 
of  newly  discovered  species  (Diptera) 

L.L.  Pechuman,  E.R.  Hoebeke     86 

New  species  and  distribution  notes  of  Mexican  and  Bolivian 
Idiodonus  (Homoptera:  Cicadellidae)  Dwight  M.  DeLong     89 

Description  of  female  Hydroptila  jackmanni  (Trichoptera: 

Hydroptilidae),  with  biological  notes  Alexander  D.  Huryn     93 

New  record  of  attacks  of  Pedilus  (Pedilidae)  on  Meloe 

(Meloidae:  Coleoptera)  L.  LeSage,  Y.  Bousquet     95 


Lectotype  designation  for  Euscaphurs  saltator 
(Coleoptera:  Eucinetidae) 


Richard  A.  Rochette     97 


New  records  of  Dryinidae  (Hymenoptera)  in  Tennessee 

R.E.  Kelly,  L.E.  Klostermeyer     98 

Occurrence  of  Ellipes  minutus  (Orthoptera:  Tridactylidae) 


in  Kentucky 


M.  Ann  Phillippi     99 


Amphipoea  velata  (Lepidoptera:  Noctuidae)  attacking  corn 

near  Friendsville,  Maryland  J.W.  Amrine,  Jr.,  L.  Butler  101 

Notes  on  geographical  distribution  of  Gulf  Coast  tick,  Amblyomma 

maculatum  (Acari:   Ixodidae)  /.  Goddard,  B.R.  Norment   103 


125TH  ANNIVERSARY  of  Amer.  Ent.  Soc.  notice 

SOCIETY  MEETINGS  of  March  3  and  April  7,  1983 

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BOOKS  RECEIVED  AND  BRIEFLY  NOTED 


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Vol.  94.  No.  3,  May  &  June  1983 


73 


COMMENTARIES  IN  CULTURAL  ENTOMOLOGY 


3.  AN  ENTOMOLOGICAL  EXPLANATION  OF  EZEKIEL'S 

WHEELS?' 

Charles  L.  Hogue^ 

A  category  of  aberrant  angels  was  created  when  the  Hebrew  prophet 
Ezekiel  recorded  his  vision  of  four  cherubim  by  the  Chebar  canal  in 
Babylon  during  his  exile  there  around  the  year  592  B.C.  (Holy  Bible, 
Ezekiel  1:  1-28).  These  heavenly  creatures,  said  to  be  manlike,  were 
hardly  described  as  such.  In  their  depictions  of  Ezekiel's  vision  through  the 
centuries,  artists  have  had  to  employ  considerable  license  in  anthropomor- 
phizing "four-winged,  four-faced  spirits  with  eyes  over  their  entire  bodies" 
(Figs.  1  a-b).  Only  in  the  twentieth  century  did  an  entomologist  suggest  an 
alternate  explanation  of  the  nature  of  the  cherubim. 


a  b 

Figure  1 .  Artists'  impressions  of  Ezekiel's  vision.  Fig.  la.  Eyed  cherub  [p.  35,  fig.  21  from  E. 
Schimitschek.  1968.  Insekten  als  Nahrung.  in  Brauchtum.  Kult  und  Kultur.  //;  J.C.  Helmcke 
etal.  eds..Kukenthal'sHandbuchderZoologie(2ed.)4(2)  1/10:  \-62.after  G.  Eicke.  1964. 
unpub.  seminar  report.  Forstl.  Fakult.  Univ.  Gottingen].  Fig.  Ib.  Ezekiel  and  his  vision  (p. 
1 25  from  W.L.  Phelps.  1933.  Matthew  Merian's  Illustrated  Bible.  William  Morrow.  New 
York.  ciftfrW.  Merian.  1650.  Bybel  Printen.  Amsterdam. 

In  his  little  book  on  the  relationships  of  beetles  and  human  history, 
"Aus  der  Kaferweld,"  Karl  Sajo  (1910)  offered  the  idea  that  Ezekiel 
actually  recounts  an  eclectic  image  of  scarabaeine  and  coprine  dung  beetles 

|  Received  November  2.  1982.  Accepted  March  5.  1983. 

-Entomology  Section.  Natural  History  Museum  of  Los  Angeles  County.  900  Exposition 
Boulevard.  Los  Angeles.  California  90007. 


ENT.  NEWS.  94(3)  73-80  May  &  June  1983 

I?  . 


OBRARIE? 


74 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


and  their  habits;  that  is  to  say,  the  prophet  envisioned  a  montage  of  the 
several  deified  species  known  in  Egypt  and  the  Middle  East,  namely 
Scarabaeus  sacer,  S.  variolosus,  S.  cicatricosus,  S.  puncticollis,  Kheper 
aegyptiorum,  Gymnopleurus  flagellatus,  Copris  hispanus,  and  Catharsius 
sesostrus  (Bodenheimer,  1928:111,  species  added  by  me)  (Fig.  2).  It  is 


Figure  2.  Three  scarabaeines  and  coprines  deified  in  the  Middle  East  during  ancient  times. 
Fig.  2a.  Copris  hispanus  brooding  dung  ball.  Fig.  2b.  Scarabaeus  cicatricosus  in  flight 
showing  salient  features  discussed  in  text.  Fig.  2c.  Kheper  aegyptiorum  rolling  dung  ball. 

reasonable  to  assume  that,  as  a  priest,  Ezekiel  should  be  intimately  aware  of 
such  beetles  and  their  habits  because  of  the  prominent  religious  status  they 
held  at  the  time  in  area  culture.  Indeed,  the  ball  of  dung  rolled  by  these 
beetles  symbolized  the  sun  to  the  ancient  Egyptians  whose  political 
influence  extended  through  much  of  the  Middle  East  (Weise,  1927). 

Sajd  (p.  50)  briefly  justifies  his  conclusion  on  the  basis  of  physical  clues 
to  the  identity  of  the  cherubim  as  scarabs  as  well  as  apparent  etymological 
similarities  between  names  for  beetles  and  the  word"cherub"  (Heb.  k'rubh, 
kerubh,  kerub). 

He  mentions  the  obvious  references  in  the  Biblical  text  to  beetle  elytra 
and  flight  wings  (paraphrasing  the  Lutheran  translations  of  parts  of  verses 
5-1 1  in  Chapter  1  in  the  Heilige  Schrift):  "Sie  waren  Tiergestalten  und  ihre 
Flugel  gingen  oben  auseinander;  durch  zwei  Flugel  beruhrte  eines  das 
andere  und  zwei  Flugel  bedeckten  ihre  Leiber."  ("They  were  animal-like 
and  their  wings  went  out  above  from  one  another;  by  two  wings  they  touched 
one  another  and  two  wings  covered  their  bodies.")  He  is  further  convinced 
by  the  implications  of  verse  1 2  in  the  10th  chapter  that  the  "eyes"  covering 


Vol.  94,  No.  3,  May  &  June  1983  75 


the  cherubim  bodies  are  equivalent  to  the  pits  found  on  certain  Scarabaeus, 
especially  cicatricosus:  "Und  ihr  ganzer  Leib,  Riicken,  Hande  und  Fliigel, . 
.  .  waren  voll  Augen  um  und  um;  .  .  .  .  "  ("And  their  whole  body,  backs, 
hands  and  wings, .  . .  were  full  of  eyes  all  around; ....")  Further,  because 
he  considers  as  cognates  the  Semitic  k'rubh  (cherub)  and  various  Aryan 
words  for  beetle  and  like  animals,  Skarabaeus,  Carabus  (Latin,  beetle), 
Kerb,  Kerf,  Kafer  (German,  beetle),  there  is  an  etymological  argument  for 
the  beetle  nature  of  the  cherubim  as  well  (Sajo,  1910:47f). 

Even  if  they  are  familiar  with  his  argument,  however,  it  is  unlikely  that 
biblicists  would  be  convinced  by  Sajo's  explanation  of  Ezekiel's  cherubim 
as  non-human  forms.  Haran  ( 1 962),  for  example,  stresses  the  variability  of 
their  form,  which,  though  composite,  is  definitely  human  in  shape  and  not 
comparable  even  with  the  fictitious  griffin  or  similar  Mesopotamian 
mythical  creatures.  Greenberg.  a  linguist  to  whom  I  introduced  Sajo's 
ideas,  also  disagrees  with  Sajo's  etymological  argument.  He  believes 
"kerub"  relates  the  Akkadian  "karibu,"  a  protective  genius,  to  a  basic 
quadriped  form,  like  the  griffin  of  Greek  and  Mesopotamian  mythology  but 
generally  follows  Haran's  views  on  the  humanoid  nature  of  the  cherubim. 
He  summarizes  (Greenberg,  1 980), "...  nothing  either  in  the  texts  or  in  the 
iconography  of  ancient  Israel,  or  of  the  contexts  in  which  the  Akkadian 
supposed  cognate  appear,  lends  the  slightest  support  to  the  view  that  there 
was  anything  beetle-like  about  the  cherubs  ...  I  am  not  suprised,  then,  that 
no  one,  to  my  knowledge,  has  taken  up  Sajo's  notion." 

It  would  seem  fatuous,  therefore,  to  debate  Sajo's  ideas  with  Bible 
scholars.  Yet,  like  Sajo,  I  am  an  entomologist  intrigued  with  the  possible 
connection  between  Ezekiel's  cherubim  and  beetles,  and  therefore,  reintro- 
duce  the  issue  here  as  one  of  interest  to  readers  concerned  with  cultural 
entomology  (Hogue,  1979). 

In  reviewing  the  current  English  versions  of  the  Old  Testament  (King  James- 
KJ,  Modem  Language-ML,  Living  Bible-LB,  Revised  Standard-RS,  New 
American-Standard-NAS  and  Jerusalem  Bible-JB),  I  have  found  consider- 
able support  for  Sajo's  thesis  from  the  descriptive  standpoint,  allowing  for 
imprecise  and  varied  interpretations  of  the  original  language,  redactions, 
and  the  non-scientific  background  of  the  original  authors.  The  text  of  the  LB 
is  expressed  in  a  language  most  closely  approximating  contemporary 
English,  and  I  shall  quote  it  below  as  the  primary  source  for  discussion. 

Cherubim  figure  prominently  in  both  the  first  and  tenth  chapters  of  the 
book,  but  the  account  presented  in  chapter  one  is  probably  closest  to  the 
original  (Irwin,  1943).  The  first  pertinent  verses  are  5-6,  "Then  from  the 
center  of  the  cloud,  four  strange  forms  appeared  that  looked  like  men, 
except  that  each  had  four  faces  and  two  pairs  of  wings!"  The  "four  faces"  I 
shall  take  up  below  (when  detailed  in  verse  10);  the  four  wings,  of  course, 
are  typical  of  Coleoptera  and  insects  in  general.  Verses  7-9  describe 


76  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


anatomical  details:  "Their  legs  were  like  those  of  men  (i.e.  jointed),  but 
their  feet  were  cloven  like  calves'  feet .  .  .  ."  The  latter  phrase  could  be  a 
reference  to  the  bifid  tarsal  claws;  but  a  more  likely  reference,  because 
Ezekiel  presumably  had  no  magnifying  lens,  is  to  the  forked  outline  of  the 
apex  of  the  mid  and  hind  legs  produced  by  the  elongate  apical  tibial  spine 
diverging  from  the  tarsus  itself  and  easily  seen  with  the  naked  eye.  Verse  7, 
continues,  "...  and  shone  like  burnished  brass."  (copper,  bronze?)  a 
possible  allusion  to  the  dull  metallic  greenish  or  coppery  sheen  of  various 
species,  such  as  Kheper  aegyptiorum. 

In  verse  8  he  says,  "And  beneath  each  of  their  wings  I  could  see  human 
hands."  By  "beneath"  he  could  have  meant  either  below  or  on  a  lower  level. 
In  the  former  case  he  may  have  been  likening  to  hands  the  hind  wings  with 
their  heavy,  articulated  veins  radiating  finger-like  from  the  base;  in  the  latter 
case,  his  reference  may  have  been  to  the  five-pointed  ("fingered")  tibio- 
tarsi  of  the  front  legs,  which  can  be  seen  easily  from  above. 

The  beginning  of  verse  9  suggests  a  physical  impossibility  if,  indeed, 
beetles  are  being  described.  "The  four  living  things  were  joined  wing  to  wing 
. .  . ."  This  reference,  however,  is  expanded  upon  in  the  1 1th  verse,  "Each 
had  two  pairs  of  wings  spreading  out  from  the  middle  of  his  back.  One  pair 
stretched  out  to  attach  to  the  wings  of  the  living  beings  on  each  side,  and  the 
other  pair  covered  his  body."  Since  I  doubt  that  beetles  or  angels  would  find 
it  possible  to  fly  in  this  manner,  I  believe  that  the  central  portion  of  verses  1 1 
and  9  could  mean  what  the  rest  of  verse  1 1  explains,  simply  that  there  were 
two  pair  of  wings  basally  attached  to  the  body,  one  pair  of  flight  wings  and  a 
second  pair  of  protective  elytra. 

The  remainder  of  verse  9  reads,  ".  .  .  and  they  flew  straight  forward 
without  turning."  Verse  12  repeats  this,  "Wherever  their  spirit  went  they 
went,  going  straight  forward  without  turning."  The  flight  of  scarabs,  though 
deviating  at  times,  is  forceful  and  persistent,  and  often  directional  (Halffter 
and  Matthews,  1966:90-91). 

Verse  10  is  symbolic,  based,  at  least  in  part,  on  scarab  anatomy,  "Each 
had  the  face  of  a  man  in  front,  with  a  lion's  face  on  the  right  side  of  his  head, 
and  the  face  of  an  ox  on  his  left  side,  and  the  face  of  an  eagle  at  the  back  of  his 
head!"  The  large  lateral  eyes,  and  rounded  clypeal  corona  seen  from  the 
underside  of  the  head  explain  the  first  reference;  the  last  easily  derives  from 
the  horn  on  the  back  of  the  head  of  Copris  and  certain  Catharsius,  which 
resembles  an  eagle's  beak.  The  remaining  two  views  might  be  imagined 
from  material  aspects  of  any  of  the  beetles  and  more  likely  are  absolute 
symbols  to  complete  an  ancient  Mesopotamian  allegorical  animal  tetrad, 
possibly  the  four  leading  deities  of  Babylon:  Nabu,  the  human-faced 
revealer;  Nergal,  the  lion-faced  god  of  the  netherworld;  Marduk,  represented 
by  a  winged  bull;  and  Ninib,  the  eagle-faced  god  of  hunting  and  war  or  are 
from  figures  in  Solomon's  Temple  (Layman,  1971:414;  Pfeiffer  and 


Vol.  94,  No.  3,  May  &  June  1983  77 


Harrison,  1962:  710).  Finally,  the  flashing  colors  of  some  species  and 
darting  flight  are  reiterated  in  verses  13  and  14,  "Going  up  and  down  among 
them  were  other  forms  that  glowed  like  bright  coals  of  fire  or  brilliant 
torches,  and  it  was  from  these  the  lightning  flashed.  The  living  beings  darted 
to  and  fro,  swift  as  lightning." 

Two  points  about  flight  are  added  in  verse  24,  "And  as  they  flew,  their 
wings  roared  like  waves  against  the  shore  .  .  .  When  they  stopped  they  let 
down  their  wings."  Scarab  wings  make  loud  buzzing  noise  in  flight  and  are 
carefully  folded  at  rest. 

Sajd  fails  to  follow  with  what  I  can  suggest  to  be  even  more  exciting 
imagery  in  continuing  verses  of  chapter  one  describing  the  vision  of  the 
wheels.  "Ezekiel's  wheels"  have  puzzled  biblical  scholars  and  religious 
artists  perhaps  even  more  than  the  nature  of  the  cherubim  themselves  (fig. 
lb).3  Assuming  the  correct  precedence  of  the  scarab  as  a  model  for  the 
cherub,  would  it  not  be  logical  to  assume  that  the  wheels  were  originally  not 
such  at  all  but  the  round  dung  balls  fabricated  by  and  closely  tended  by  these 
beetles  (Fig.  2c)? 

The  possibility  of  equivalence  of  the  scarab  ball  and  the  wheel  symbol  is 
suggested  by  the  equation,  dung  ball  =  sun  (Egypt)  =  winged  sun  disc 
(Egypt- Assyria)  =  solar  wheel  (Assyria)  (Goldsmith,  1 929:81  -83, 93-94). 
Several  points  of  comparison,  from  additional  text  in  chapter  1 ,  also  relate 
the  "wheels"  to  dung  balls:  Verse  15  says,  "As  I  stared  at  all  of  this,  I  saw 
four  wheels  on  the  ground  beneath  them,  one  wheel  belonging  to  each."  I 
add  the  emphases  in  this  passage  to  stress  the  fact  that  dung  balls  are  rolled 
on  the  ground  and  that  each  has  a  definite  beetle  "owner." 

In  verse  16  the  color  and  basic  structure  of  the  wheels  (balls)  are 
described,  "The  wheels  looked  as  if  they  were  made  of  polished  amber 
(other  versions  read,  color  of  beryl-KJ,  NAS,  tarshish  stone-ML,  chrysolite- 
RS,  JB)  and  each  wheel  was  constructed  with  a  second  wheel  crosswise 
inside  (footnote,  "Literally,  a  wheel  within  a  wheel  .  .  .  ").  the  color 
comparison  to  "amber"  is  not  entirely  explainable  but,  dull  or  olive  green 
are  compatible  with  the  muddy  green  of  balls  made  from  fresh  bovine  dung, 
although  the  soil-smeared  balls  of  some  may  take  on  a  yellowish  color  upon 
drying.  The  other  color  comparison  might  have  been  inspired  by  the  blue- 
green  and  blue  glazes  applied  to  scarab  amulets  so  common  at  the  time.  The 
LB  translation  adds  the  word  "crosswise"  to  the  description  of  the  wheels' 
construction;  the  other  versions  merely  mention  "wheels  within  wheels,"  an 
arrangement  easily  compared  to  the  layered  structure  that  these  balls  may 
assume  from  the  packing  and  rolling  activities  of  their  beetle  makers 
(Klemperer,  1982a:79;  Halffter  and  Matthews,  1966). 

•> Interpretations  even  include  "flying  saucers"  (M.  Sachs.  1980.  The  UFO  Encyclopedia. 
Perigee  Books,  New  York). 


78  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Verse  17  relates  the  ability  of  the  "wheels"  to  ".  .  .  go  in  any  of  four 
directions  without  having  to  face  around"  a  natural  capability  of  a  rolling 
sphere  as  opposed  to  a  flat  wheel. 

Verse  18  is  incomplete  and  inconsistent  with  the  fuller  corresponding 
verse  1 2  of  the  repeated  account  of  the  nature  of  the  cherubim  and  wheels  in 
Chapter  10,'The  four  wheels  had  rims  and  spokes  (some  translators  note 
confusion  in  the  earliest  Hebrew  manuscripts  at  this  point)  and  the  rims 
were  filled  with  eyes  around  their  edges."  Here  too  the  LB  is  also 
incomplete  and  we  fall  back  to  the  KJ  version,  "And  their  whole  body,  and 
their  backs,  and  their  hands,  and  their  wings,  and  the  wheels,  were  full  of  eyes, 
round  about,  even  the  wheels  that  they  four  had,"  which  clearly  indicates 
that  the  cherubim  were  eyed  all  over  (as  were  the  wheels?). 

This  is  a  very  telling  verse  in  its  reference  to  such  a  bizarre  feature  as 
eyes  on  the  corpus  and  wings  of  the  angels.  Yet  certain  scarabs  of  the  region 
(e.g.  S.  cicatricosus)  display  diffuse  oval  punctae  or  elliptical  depressions 
over  the  entire  body  which  could  appear  to  the  purblind,  lay  viewer  as  eyes. 
In  fact,  this  large  type  of  puncture  is  described  by  beetle  anatomists  as 
"ocellate"  or  "ocelleV'  (Janssen,  1940:9).  Many  depictions  of  cherubim 
show  eyes  dispersed  over  the  body  (Fig.  la). 

It  is  reasonable  to  assume  that  the  reference  to  eyes  on  the  wheels 
(balls)  is  an  embellishment  and  pseudepigraphon  of  the  author  of  Chapter 
10,  who  most  likely  was  a  later  editorializer  of  a  single  original  account  of 
the  nature  of  the  animal  forms  and  associated  structures  (Irwin,  1943), 
although  he  may  be  preserving  a  notation  lost  from  the  primary  narration. 

In  verses  19-20  there  is  a  statement  about  the  control  of  the  "wheels" 
by  the  cherubim,  "When  the  four  living  beings  flew  forward,  the  wheels 
moved  forward  with  them.  When  they  flew  upwards,  the  wheels  went  up 
too.  When  the  living  beings  stopped,  the  wheels  stopped."  This  is  a 
plausible  description  of  the  purposeful  rolling  of  the  dung  ball  by  the 
scarabs.  (I  cannot  explain  the  rising  of  the  balls  with  beetles  in  flight, 
however.) 

Verse  2 1  ascribes  the  "spirits"  of  the  living  beings  to  the  balls,  "For  the 
spirit  of  the  four  living  beings  was  in  the  wheels.  .  ."  could  the  "spirits"  be 
the  larvae  or  pupae  of  the  beetles?  The  idea  is  consistent  with  the  correlation 
made  by  early  Egyptian  scarab  cultists  between  the  metamorphosis  of 
insects  and  the  birth  (egg),  life  (larva),  death  (pupa)  and  resurrection 
(imago)  stages  of  human  life  (Harpaz,  1973:23). 

The  remaining  verses  repeat  earlier  passages  in  the  chapter,  except 
verse  26,  which  in  part  gives  another  clue  to  the  natural  basis  of  the  vision, 
"For  high  in  the  sky  above  them  was  what  looked  like  a  throne . . . ,  and  upon 
it  sat  someone  who  appeared  to  be  a  man."  The  basis  of  this  imagery  might 
lie  in  the  habit  of  some  scarab  females  to  remain  atop  the  dung  ball  brooding 
it  and  keeping  it  upright  during  the  period  of  larval  development.  This 


Vol.  94,  No.  3,  May  &  June  1983  79 


behavior  is  best  developed  in  Copris  (Klemperer,  1982b)  (Fig.  2a),  but 
Scarabaeus  can  assume  a  position  atop  its  ball  for  short  periods  as  well.  Of 
course,  Ezekiel  would  have  had  to  had  special  knowledge  to  know  this  for 
Copris  since  brooding  occurs  only  in  vaulted  underground  chambers.  But 
such  knowledge  could  have  been  common  among  priests  of  the  time  who 
surely  studied  such  an  important  animal  assiduously.  (It  is  interesting  that 
the  ML  uses  the  term  "vault"  to  describe  the  place  occupied  by  the  man  on 
the  throne.) 

Other  references  to  cherubim  (Genesis  3:24,  Exodus  25:18,  II  Samuel 
22:11,  I  Kings  6:23,  Revelations  4:6,  7)  doubtlessly  are  to  separate 
prototypes  and  are  not  necessarily  equal  to  those  in  Ezekiel's  portrait. 

Therefore,  altogether,  we  have  an  elaborate  imagery  consistent  with  a 
natural  phenomenon.  The  etymological  questions  remain  unresolved.  If  the 
Semitic  and  Aryan  words  equated  by  Sajo  are  indeed  true  cognates  or 
others  found  to  relate  beetles  to  cherubim,  our  argument  is  strengthened, 
especially  if  they  have  known  religious  significance,  e.g.  Kheper  (Egyptian, 
to  exist,  the  Father  of  the  Gods,  Creation),  corpus  (Latin,  body,  vehicle  of 
our  earthy  existence,  predecessor  of  the  soul)  (see  Sajo,  1910:49).  That 
cherubim  were  scarabs  is,  of  course,  not  provable;  and  since  it  deviates 
radically  from  traditional  explanations.  Biblical  scholars,  theologians  and 
Fundamentalists  will  probably  find  ludicrous  the  suggestion  that  Ezekiel's 
cherubim  and  wheels  were  based  on  his  supposed  experience  with  dung 
beetles.  However,  the  naturalistic  method  in  Bible  exegesis  is  as  valid  as 
any  and  has  a  basis  in  logic  and  history  unlike  most  canonical,  theosophic 
analyses,  and  surely  represents  as  parsimonious  an  approach  as  literalism 
since  it  answers  more,  and  raises  fewer  questions.  Without  facts  to  follow, 
attempting  to  reconstruct  what  influenced  the  mind  of  authors  in  antiquity 
can  never  be  more  than  speculation;  but  from  their  writings,  however 
fragmented  and  edited,  basic  ideas  often  shine  through.  Thus  it  would 
appear  to  me  that  whoever  recorded  the  original  of  the  story  before  us  in 
Chapter  1  was  a  holy  man  of  the  seventh  to  sixth  centuries  with  personal 
experiences  and  priestly  training  in  Judea  and  Babylonia  where  the 
theophany  of  scarabs  was  understood,  if  not  firmly  believed  and  taught,  as 
in  proximate  Egypt.  The  prophet  appears  to  have  been  trained  in  this  cult 
and  possibly  a  direct  observer  of  the  events  of  scarab  life. 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I  would  like  to  thank  Dr.  W.D.  Edmonds,  scarabaeid  specialist  at  the  California 
Polytechnic  University,  Pomona,  and  Jay  Bisno  of  the  Archaeology  Section  of  my  own 
institution  for  criticising  preliminary  versions  of  this  paper  and  assisting  with  technical  and 
linguistic  matters.  Much  appreciated  also  are  the  many  fine  suggestions  for  improvement  of  the 
manuscript  provided  by  Dr.  D  Keith  McE.  Kevan,  of  McGill  University  and  the  review  of  the 


80  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


final  draft  by  Dr.  Edgar  N.  Raffensperger  of  Cornell  University.  The  cooperation  of  the 
foregoing  individuals  does  not  necessarily  imply  agreement  with  the  ideas  presented. 


LITERATURE  CITED 

Bodenheimer,  F.S.  1928.  Materialien  zur  Geschichte  der  Entomologie.  Junk,  Berlin,  vol.  1, 

x,  498  p. 

Goldsmith,  E.  1 929.  Ancient  pagan  symbols.  G.P.  Putnam's  Sons,  New  York,  xxxvi,  220  p. 
Greenberg,  M.  1980.  Personal  communication,  letter  of  16  January  1980,  1  p. 
Halffter,  G.  and  E.G.  Matthews.  1966.  The  natural  history  of  dung  beetles  of  the  subfamily 

Scarabaeinae.  Folia  Entomologica  Mexicana  12-14:    1-312. 
Haran,  M.  1959.  The  ark  and  the  Cherubim:  Their  symbolic  significance  in  Biblical  ritual. 

Israel  Exploration  Journal  9:30-38,  89-94. 
Harpaz,  I.  1973.  Early  entomology  in  the  Middle  East,  pp.  21-36  inR.P.  Smith,  T.E.  Mittler 

andC.N.  Smith,  1973.  History  of  entomology.  Annual  Reviews  Inc. .Palo  Alto,  California. 

vii,  517  p. 
Hogue,   C.L.    1980.    Commentaries   in   cultural   entomology.    1.   Definition   of  cultural 

entomology.  Entomological  News  91:   33-36. 
Irwin,  W.A.  1943.  The  problem  of  Ezekieh  An  inductive  study.  Univ.  Chicago  Press, 

Chicago,  xx,  344  p. 
Janssens,  A.  1940.  Monographic  des  scarabaeus  et  genres  voisins.  Memoirs  Musee  Royal 

d'Histoire  Naturelle  de  Belgique,  Ser.  2,  fasc.  16,  1-81  p.  3  pi. 
Klemperer,  H.G.1982a.  Normal  and  atypical  nesting  behaviour  of  Copris  lunaris  (L.): 

Comparison  with  related  species  (Coleoptera,  Scarabaeidae).  Ecological  Entomology 

7:69-83. 
Klemperer,  H.G.  1982b.  Parental  behaviour  in  Copris  lunaris  (Coleoptera,  Scarabaeidae): 

Care  and  defence  of  brood  balls  and  nest.  Ecological  Entomology  7:155-167. 
Layman,  C.M.  ed.  1971.  The  interpreter's  one-volume  commentary  on  the  Bible.  Abingdon, 

Nashville,  xiv,  1386  p. 
Pfeiffer,  C.F.  and  E.F.  Harrison.  1 962.  The  Wycliffe  Bible  commentary.  Southwestern  Co., 

Nashville,  xii,  1525  p. 
Sajo,  K.  1910.  Aus  der  Ka'ferwelt.  Mit  Rucksicht  auf  die  Beziehungen  der  Kerfe  zur 

menschlichen  Kulturgeschichte.  Theod.  Thomas  Verlag,  Leipzig.  89  p. 
Weise,  H.B.  1927.  The  scarabaeus  of  the  ancient  Egyptians.  American  Naturalist  61:  353- 

369. 

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Vol.  94,  No.  3,  May  &  June  1983  81 


REDESCRIPTION  OF  CICINDELA  SPECULANS 
BATES  AND  ITS  RELATIONSHIP  TO  OTHER 
NEOTROPICAL  CICINDELA  (COLEOPTERA: 

CICINDELIDAE)1 

Robert  R.  Murray^ 


ABSTRACT:  The  original  description  of  Cicindela  speculans  Bates  is  incomplete  and  in 
error  in  respect  to  the  maculation,  elytral  microserrulations,  and  shape  of  the  aedeagus.  This 
species  has  been  assigned  inaccurately  to  the  subgenus  Cylindera.  The  sculpturing  of  the  head 
and  thorax  and  the  apical  hook  of  the  aedeagus  indicate  that  C.  speculans  is  related  most 
closely  to  C.  hemichrysea  Chevrolat  of  the  C.  argentata  Fab.  species  complex,  subgenus 
Brasiella.  The  male  syntype  is  redescribed  and  illustrated. 

Bates  ( 1 890)  described  Cicindela  speculans  from  a  male  and  female 
collected  by  H.H.  Smith  in  Omilteme,  Guerrero,  Mexico,  el.  8000  ft.  Bates 
indicated  that  the  maculation  consists  of  a  humeral  lunule,  basal  portion  of 
the  middle  line,  and  marginal  line  which  are  mirror-like  or  shining.  The 
apical  margins  of  the  elytra  were  described  as  being  non-serrulate.  Bates 
believed  that  C. speculans  was  most  closely  related  to  C.  praecisa  Bates. 

Cazier  (1954)  presented  a  taxonomic  review  of  the  Mexican  Cicindela 
but  representatives  of  some  species,  including  C.  speculans,  were  not 
available  to  him.  He  indicated  in  a  footnote  that  it  would  probably  key  out 
beyond  couplet  37  but  did  not  otherwise  key  the  species.  His  illustration 
was  copied  from  Bates  ( 1 890)  and  follows  it  in  respect  to  the  maculation. 
Cazier  stated  that  C.  speculans  was  probably  more  closely  allied  to  C. 
viridisticta  Bates  than  to  C.  praecisa  on  the  basis  of  the  smooth  lateral 
elytral  margins  and  non-serrate  elytral  apices. 

Rivalier  (1954)  in  this  division  of  the  American  Cicindela  tentatively 
placed  C.  speculans  in  the  subgenus  Cylindera,  also  without  examining 
specimens. 

Recently  I  have  examined  the  male  syntype  of  C.  speculans  in 
connection  with  studies  of  Mexican  and  Neotropical  cicindelids  and  found 
that  Bates'  observations  pertaining  to  the  maculation  were  incomplete  and 
that  his  description  of  the  elytral  apices  as  being  non-serrulate  was  in  error. 
This  error  probably  caused  Cazier  and  Rivalier  to  misplace  C.  speculans  in 
respect  to  its  relationship  with  other  Mexican  Cicindela.  Cicindela 
speculans  is  redescribed,  illustrated,  and  its  position  within  Cicindela  is 
determined  more  accurately  in  this  paper. 

Deceived  February  1 1,  1983.  Accepted  March  25,  1983. 

^Section  of  Invertebrate  Zoology,  Milwaukee  Public  Museum.  800  W.   Wells  Street, 
Milwaukee.  WI  53233 

ENT.  NEWS,  94(3)  81-85  May  &  June  1983 


82  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Cicindela  speculans  Bates 

(Figures  1,2,3,4) 

Head:  Distinctly  wider  than  thorax,  deeply  excavate  between  eyes.  Labrum  unidentate, 
convex,  tan  to  creamy  white;  anterior  margin  narrow,  dark  brown,  medially  produced;  with 
single  irregular  row  of  8  submarginal  setae;  length  slightly  more  than  half  width.  Antenna 
having  basal  4  segments  cupreous  with  green  reflections,  scape  with  1  erect  subapical  seta, 
several  erect  setae  on  segments  3  and  4;  distal  7  segments  ferrugino-testaceous,  covered  with 
fine  setae,  Clypeus  dark  brown,  glabrous,  finely  alutaceous.  Gena  dark  greenish  black, 
shining,  glabrous,  shallowly  striate.  Frons  and  vertex  brown,  concentrically  striate,  becoming 
rugose  toward  posterior  margin,  bare  except  for  1  pair  anterior  supraorbital  setae  and  1  pair 
medial  supraorbital  setae. 

Thorax:  Pronotum  same  color  as  vertex  of  head,  widest  at  apical  third,  narrowest  at  base, 
without  posterior  angles,  obliquely  striate  anteriorly  and  posteriorly,  becoming  rugose 
medially,  with  scattered  decumbent  setae  laterally  and  anteriorly;  median  longitudinal  line 
shallowly  impressed,  represented  by  broad  depressions  at  anterior  and  posterior  ends;  anterior 
and  posterior  transverse  lines  obscure.  Sternal  region  smooth,  shining,  dark  greenish  black; 
proplura,  prosternum  bare;  mesepisternum,  mesepimeron  each  with  1-2  suberect  setae; 
mesosternum  bare;  metepisternum  with  2-3  suberect  setae  at  anterior  margin,  5-7  suberect 
setae  at  posterior  margin;  metepimeron  bare;  metasternum  with  30  or  more  suberect  setae. 
Legs  with  pro-  and  mesocoxae  having  several  setae  on  anterior  half,  bare  posteriorly; 
protrochanter  with  single  subapical  seta;  femora  greenish  bronze  with  cupreous  reflections, 
becoming  testaceous  at  apex,  setae  sparsely  arranged  in  longitudinal  rows;  tibiae  testaceous, 
becoming  darker  toward  apex,  with  rows  of  sparse  stout  suberect  setae;  tarsi  testaceous  with 
violaceous  or  green  reflections. 

Abdomen:  Venter  dark  greenish  black;  with  few  scattered,  fine,  suberect  setae;  setae 
numerous  at  apical  margin  of  6th  segment. 

Elytra:  Colored  as  vertex,  granulate-punctate;  punctures  shallow,  green,  frequently 
confluent;  foveae  absent;  gradually  widened  to  apical  1/4,  then  narrowing  until  just  before 
apex,  then  turned  obliquely  anteriorly;  apex  with  short  spine.  Maculation  with  humeral  lunule, 
marginal  line  and  base  of  middle  line  connected,  shining  brownish  black;  medial  portion  of 
middle  line  white,  transverse  for  half  elytral  width,  bending  apically,  then  returning  medially 
forming  an  oblique  C;  marginal  line  endingjust  behind  junction  with  middle  line;  basal  portion 
of  apical  lunule  present  as  white  spot  separated  from  lateral  margin  by  1-1.5  times  its 
diameter.  Apical  1/5  of  elytra  finely  microserrulate. 

Genitalia:  Apex  of  aedeagus  of  cf  syntype  protruding,  apex  hooked  at  right  angle,  length 
of  hook  1-1/2  times  length  of  metathoracic  tarsal  claw. 

Measurements:  (in  mm):  Labrum  width  0.78,  labral  length  0.41,  head  width  1.59, 
greatest  width  between  eyes  1.04,  pronotal  width  1.18,  oronotal  length  1.04,  elytral  length 
(apex  of  scutellum  to  apex)  3.33,  total  elytral  length  3.52,  metathoracic  tibial  length  2.26,  total 
length  (frons  to  elytral  apex)  5.38,  apical  hook  of  aedeagus  0.22. 

Label  data  (from  top  to  bottom):  1 )  (disc  with  red  margin  -  printed)  Type;  2)  (printed)  Sp. 
figured.;  3)  (printed)  Omilteme,  Guerrero,  8000  ft..  July.  H.H.  Smith;  4)  (handwritten) 
speculans  Bates  cf;  5)  (inverted  -  printed)  T.E.S.;  1890. 

Diagnosis:  Cicindela  speculans  is  easily  distinguished  from  most  Mexican 
and  Central  American  Cicindela  on  the  basis  of  its  small  size  and  bicolored 
maculation  (Figs.  1 ,2).  It  is  rivaled  in  size  by  C.  hemichrysea  Chevrolat,  C. 
viridisticta  Bates  and  C.  wickhamiW.  Horn.  It  can  be  distinguished  from 
C.  viridisticta  by  having  apical  microserrulations  (Fig.  4).  It  can  be 
distinguished  from  C.  hemichrysea  and  C.  wickhami  by  the  bicolored, 


Vol.  94,  No.  3,  May  &  June  1983 


83 


CM 


I  ; 


j 

E 


'S  - 


T  -^ 

—    c 
r: 

' 


, 

Li.    E 


84  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


almost  complete  maculation.  Cicindela  hemichrysea  usually  has  greatly 
reduced  maculation,  typically  represented  by  the  internal  portion  of  the 
middle  line  and  basal  portion  of  the  apical  lunule  which  are  white.  Cicindela 
\\ickhami  likewise  has  totally  white  maculation.  The  female  syntype  of  C. 
speculans  in  the  BMNH  was  examined  by  G.G.  Kibby,  and  the  bicolored 
maculation  is  similar  to  that  of  the  male  (pers.  comm.). 

DISCUSSION 

Bates  (1890)  did  not  completely  describe  the  maculation  of  C. 
speculans.  It  was  illustrated  as  being  totally  dark.  Furthermore,  the  elytral 
apices  were  described  as  being  non-serrulate  when  in  fact  they  are  distinctly 
microserrulate.  Cazier  ( 1 954)  perpetuated  the  error  with  his  discussion  and 
copy  of  Bates'  illustration  of  C.  speculans.  These  authors  believed  that  C. 
speculans  is  most  closely  related  to  C.  praecisa  or  C.  viridisticta.  Rivalier 
(1954)  placed  C.  speculans  (as  specularis)  in  the  genus  Cylindera  without 
having  seen  specimens.  He  also  placed  C.  praecisa  and  C  viridisticta  in 
Cylindera.  The  genera  used  by  Rivalier  are  recognized  only  as  subgenera 
by  most  American  cicindelid  specialists.  In  this  same  paper  Rivalier 
described  the  genus  Brasiella  as  containing  species  of  small  size  (around  7 
mm  in  length)  with  a  short  labrum  having  6-10  submarginal  setae, 
protruding  eyes,  elytra  with  metallic  spots,  and  often  fragmented  or 
partially  reduced  maculation.  Furthermore,  Rivalier  states  that  the  genus  is 
best  defined  by  the  shape  of  the  aedeagus  which  is  almost  always  provided 
with  a  sharp,  right-angled  hook  and  by  the  absence  of  a  flagellum  in  the 
internal  sac.  These  characters,  with  the  exception  of  those  of  the  internal 
sac.  which  was  not  dissected,  are  all  possessed  by  C.  speculans. 

In  a  subsequent  paper  (Rivalier  1955)  Brasiella  is  divided  into  3 
species  groups  based  on  genitalic  characters.  1 )  The  typical  (C.  argentata 
Fab.)  species  complex  is  characterized  by  the  distinct,  right-angled 
aedeagal  hook  and  by  all  4  components  of  the  internal  sac  being  strongly 
sclerotized  with  the  arciforrn  piece  being  spiny  and  oriented  longitudinally. 
The  13  species  of  this  group, including  C.  hemichrysea  (C.  argentata 
hemichrysea  in  Cazier  (1954)).  range  from  the  southwestern  US  to 
Paraguay  and  Argentina.  2)  A  Brasilian  group  containing  2  species  is 
characterized  by  a  sharply  hooked  aedeagus,  a  large  oblique  arciforrn  piece 
in  the  internal  sac  and  a  lightly  sclerotized  foliaceous  appearing  shield- 
shaped  piece  in  the  internal  sac.  3)  A  Central  and  South  American  group 
containing  2  species  is  characterized  by  the  apical  hook  of  the  aedeagus 
being  reduced  or  absent  and  by  the  complicated  architecture  of  the  internal 
sac. 

On  the  basis  of  the  shape  of  the  aedeagus  and  distributional  data,  in 


Vol.  94,  No.  3,  May  &  June  1983  85 


addition  to  its  similarity  in  respect  to  head  and  pronotal  sculpturing,  C. 
speculans  appears  to  be  most  closely  related  to  the  C.  argentata  species 
complex  and  probably  is  nearest  to  C.  hemichrysea. 

Cicindela  speculans  will  key  to  C.  argentata  (=  C.  hemichrysea}  in 
couplet  43  of  Cazier  ( 1 954).  These  2  species  can  be  separated  as  follows. 

A.         Maculation   unicolored.   white;   maculation   usually   reduced,   occasionally   nearly 

complete  but  without  marginal  line:  elytral  coloration  black  or  dark  brown 

C.  hemichrysea 

A'.  Maculation  bicolored  ( Figs.  1,2);  marginal  line,  humeral  lunule  and  base  of  middle  line 

shining  brownish  black,  remainder  of  middle  line  and  remnant  of  apical  lunule  white; 

maculation  nearly  complete,  with  marginal  line;  elytral  coloration  brown 

C.  speculans 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

My  thanks  are  extended  to  G.G.  Kibby,  British  Museum  (Natural  History)  forthe  loan  of 
the  male  syntype  of  C.  speculans  and  his  drawing  of  the  maculation  of  the  female  syntype. 
E.G.  Bashaw.  USDA.  SEA.  College  Station,  Texas  graciously  allowed  me  to  use  the 
photographic  equipment  in  his  care.  H.R.  Burke  and  J.C.  Schaffner.  Texas  A&M  University 
critically  reviewed  the  manuscript  and  contributed  helpful  suggestions  for  its  improvement. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Bates.  H.W.  1 890.  Additions  to  the  Cicindelidae  fauna  of  Mexico:  with  remarkes  on  some  of 
the  previously  recorded  species.  Trans.  Entomol.  Soc.  London.  1890.  pt.  3:  439-510. 

Cazier,  M.A.  1  954.  A  review  of  the  Mexican  tiger  beetles  of  the  genus  Cicindela  (Coleoptera, 
Cicindelidae).  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.  103:  227-310. 

Rivalier,  E.  1954.  Demembrement  du  genre  Cicindela  Linne  II.  Faune  americaine.  Revue 
franc.  d'Ent.  21:  249-268. 

Rivalier,  E.  1955.  Les  Brasiella  du  groupe  de  argentata  F.  (Col.  Cicindelidae).  Revue  franc. 
d'Ent.  22:  77-101. 


INSECT  AND  SPIDER  COLLECTIONS  OF  THE  WORLD 

A  new  work  entitled  "Insect  and  Spider  Collections  of  the  World"  is  now  being  compiled 
by  Dr.  Ross  H.  Arnett.  Jr.,  Florida  State  Collection  of  Arthropods,  P.O.  Box  1269. 
Gainesville.  FL  32601.  Dr.  G.  Alan  Samuelson,  Bishop  Museum.  P.O.  Box  19000-A. 
Honolulu.  HI  96819.  Drs.  Robert  E.  Woodruff  and  John  B.  Heppner.  Division  of  Plant 
Industry.  P.O.  Box  1269,  Gainesville,  FL  32601.  and  Dr.  Gerardo  Lamas.  Museo  de 
Historia  Natural  "Javier  Prado,"  Universidad  Nacional  Mayor  de  San  Marcos.  Aptd.  434. 
Lima  14.  Peru. 

The  purpose  of  this  work  is  to  produce  a  standard  list  of  museums  and  collections  of  the 
world  containing  specimens  of  insects  and  spiders  useful  for  study  of  systematists;  to  provide  a 
suitable  coden  for  each  collection  for  use  in  journals  and  monographs  to  refer  to  the  place  of 
deposit  of  specimens  of  insects  and  spiders:  and  to  describe  these  collections,  including  the 
size,  type  of  housing,  and  similar  data. 

Questionnaires  are  being  sent  to  all  institutions  listed  in  previous  works.  Any  collections 
not  included  in  previous  lists  may  be  added  by  writing  to  the  compilers  for  information  and  a 
questionnaire. 


86  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

EUROPEAN  RHAGIONIDAE  IN  EASTERN 

NORTH  AMERICA:  RECORDS  OF  NEWLY 

DISCOVERED  SPECIES  (DIPTERA)1 

L.L.  Pechuman,  E.  Richard  Hoebeke^ 

ABSTRACT:  The  Palearctic  species  Rhagio  strigosus  Meigen  (Diptera:  Rhagionidae)  is 
newly  discovered  in  New  York  State;  this  is  a  new  North  American  record.  In  addition,  R. 
tringarius  (L.)  is  reported  from  Massachusetts  and  New  York  which  represent  new  United 
States  records.  Diagnostic  characters  ofR.  strigosus  are  illustrated  to  aid  in  its  separation  from 
other  native  and  introduced  species  in  North  America.  An  existing  key  to  the  eastern  species  of 
Rhagio  is  modified  to  include  R.  strigosus.  A  possible  means  of  introduction  is  hypothesized. 

The  discovery  of  Rhagio  strigosus  Meigen  in  the  Genesee  Region  of 
New  York  State  is  the  first  record  of  this  common  European  species  in 
North  America.  A  collection  of  5  specimens  at  Bergen  (Genesee  County), 
New  York,  in  1981-82,  by  Patricia  Ferris,  would  seem  to  indicate  that  this 
species  may  be  established  here.  A  male  specimen  was  taken  from  a  garage 
window  around  August  8,  1981,  and  a  female  specimen  was  taken 
September  3,  1982.  Three  dead  and  damaged  specimens  also  were  taken 
from  sills  of  garage  windows  at  the  same  location  in  early  August  1 982;  one 
specimen  was  a  male,  while  the  sex  of  the  other  specimens  were  not 
determined  as  they  lacked  the  head  or  most  of  the  abdomen.  Further 
attempts  to  collect  this  distinctive  species  in  the  vicinity  of  Bergen  in  late 
July  and  early  August  1982  proved  unsuccessful. 

In  eastern  North  America,  the  genus  Rhagio  Fabricius  is  comprised  of 
15  species,  4  of  which  are  introduced.  Chillcott  (1965)  revised  the  eastern 
nearctic  species  and  reported  for  the  first  time  the  presence  of  the  European 
species  R.  tringarius  (L.)  (from  Lockeport,  Nova  Scotia)  and  R.  Hneola  F. 
(from  Ottawa,  Ontario).  Thompson  (1969)  reported  the  occurrence  in 
North  America  of  a  third  European  species,  R.  scolopaceus  (L.),  based  on 
collections  of  specimens  from  the  metropolitan  Boston  area  (Massachusetts)  in 
June  1949,  1963,  and  1968.  Our  discovery  of  R.  strigosus  in  New  York 
marks  the  fourth  European  species  of  Rhagio  to  be  found  introduced  into 
North  America. 

Rhagio  strigosus,  a  species  common  throughout  much  of  Europe,  is 
easily  separated  from  most  other  eastern  North  American  Rhagio.  R. 
strigosus  looks  like  scolopaceus  in  habitus  and  is  likely  to  be  confused  with 
it.  Thompson  (1969)  modified  Chillcott's  (1965)  key  to  the  eastern 
nearctic  species  of  Rhagio  to  include  R.  scolopaceus.  Here,  Thompson's 


1  Received  September  2,  1982.  Accepted  March  5,  1983. 

^Professor  Emeritus  and  Extension  Associate,  respectively,  Department  of  Entomology, 
Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  NY  14853. 

ENT.  NEWS,  94(3)  86-88  May  &  June  1983 


Vol.  94,  No.  3,  May  &  June  1983 


87 


couplet  #4  (p.  142)  is  modified  to  incorporate  R.  strigosus. 

4.          Notopleural  shelf  and  metepimeron  bare 4a. 

Notopleural  shelf  and  metepimeron  haired 5. 

4a.        Wings  strongly  patterned;  proepisternum  bare  and  haired 4b. 

Wings  clear;  proepisternum  bare tringarius  (L.) 

4b.        Proepisternum  bare;  stigma  of  wing  isolated  from  radial  fork  (Fig.  1);  third  antennal 

segment  smaller  than  the  second,  ovate  or  broader  than  long  (Fig.  2) 

strigosus  Meigen 

Proepisternum  haired;  stigma  usually  connected  to  radial  fork  by  dark  patch;  third 
antennal  segment  larger  than  second,  longer  than  broad  (Fig.  3) scolopaceus(L.) 

The  specimens  of/?,  strigosus  from  Bergen,  NY,  key  out  readily  in  the 
European  literature  (Lindner,  1 925;  Oldroyd,  1969).  The  determination  by 
us  was  verified  by  comparison  with  several  European  specimens  identified 


Figs.  1-3.  Rhagio  spp.  1,  Wing  of  R.  strigosus  Meigen.  2,  Antennal  segments  1-3,  R. 
strigosus  (after  Oldroyd,  1969).  3,  Antennal  segments  1-3,  R.  scolopaceus  (L.)  (after 
Oldroyd,  1969). 


88  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


by  E.  Lindner,  and  given  to  the  Cornell  University  Insect  Collection 
through  the  kindness  of  Wolfgang  Schacht  (Zoologische  Staatssammlung, 
Munich). 

Chillcott  (1965)  noted  that  the  "larvae  of  Rhagio  are  frequently 
intercepted  in  the  soil  on  imported  plant  materials. . .".  It  would  then  seem 
probable  that  R.  strigosus,  like  the  other  introduced  Rhagio  species,  was 
introduced  through  nursery  importation.  In  the  second  half  of  the  nineteenth 
century,  the  city  of  Rochester  (Monroe  County),  New  York,  had  the  proud 
claim  to  the  title  of  "The  Flower  City:  Center  of  Nurseries  and  Fruit 
Orchards."  It  is  well  documented  (McKelvey,  1940)  that  some  of  the 
prominent  nurseries  of  the  greater  Rochester  area  (notably  the  Ellwanger 
and  Barry  nurseries)  in  the  mid-1800's  acquired  extensive  purchases  of 
nursery  stock  from  abroad,  especially  Europe.  This  early  and  extensive 
importation  of  nursery  and  floriculture  stock  in  New  York,  prior  to  any  U.S. 
imposed  quarantine  restrictions,  may  be  responsible,  at  least  in  part,  for  the 
presence  of  other  exotic  species  in  the  area  surrounding  Rochester.  We 
offer  this  hypothesis  as  one  possible  explanation  for  the  mode  of  introduction 
for  R.  strigosus. 

A  thorough  search  was  made  of  the  Cornell  University  Insect  Collection's 
unidentified  Rhagionidae  for  additional  specimens  of  R.  strigosus.  No 
material  was  found.  However,  2  specimens  of  another  introduced  species  of 
Rhagio  were  discovered  which  represent  new  U.S.  records,  R.  tringarius, 
first  reported  in  North  America  by  Chillcott  ( 1 965 )  from  Lockeport,  Nova 
Scotia,  is  now  recorded  from  Massachusetts  and  New  York.  The  following 
locality  records  extend  its  known  distribution  in  eastern  North  America: 

UNITED  STATES:  Massachusetts:  Berkshire  Co.,  Lenox  (Eastover),  7  July  1982,  L.L. 
Pechuman,  coll.  (1  tf).  New  York:  Chenango  Co.,  Jam  Pond  Bog  nr.  German,  7  August 
1980,  D.J.  Bickle,  coll.  (cf) 

These  specimens  key  to  R.  tringarius  in  the  European  literature  and  in 
Chillcott  ( 1 965 ).  They  also  compare  well  with  European  representatives  of 
R.  tringarius  in  the  Cornell  collection. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Chillcott,  J.F.   1965.  A  revision  of  the  eastern  nearctic  species  of  Rhagio  Fabricius 

(Diptera:   Rhagionidae).  Can.  Entomol.  97:   785-795. 
Lindner,  E.  1925.  20.  Rhagionidae  (Leptidae)  49  pp.  +  2  pis.,  29  figs.  In  E.  Lindner's  Die 

Fliegen  der  Palaearktischen  Region.  E.  Schweizerbart'sche  Verlagsbuchhandlung,  Stuttgart. 
McKelvey,  B.  1 940.  The  Flower  City:  Center  of  Nurseries  and  Fruit  Orchards,  pp.  1 2 1  - 1 69. 

In  B.  McKelvey's  (ed.).  Part  I.  Foreign  Traveler's  Notes  on  Rochester  and  the  Genesee 

County  before  1 840.  Part  II.  Nurseries,  Farm  Papers,  and  selected  Rochester  Episodes. 

The  Rochester  Historical  Society,  Publications  XVIII,  Rochester. 
Oldroyd,  H.  1 969.  Diptera  Brachycera.  Section  (a),  Tabanoidea  and  Asiloidea.  Vol.  IX.  Part 

4,  132  pp.  In  Handbooks  for  the  Identification  of  British  Insects,  Royal  Entomological 

Society  of  London,  London. 
Thompson,  F.C.  1969.  First  record  of  Rhagio  scolopaceus  (Linne)  in  North  America 

(Diptera:  Rhagionidae).  Proc.  Entomol.  Soc.  Wash.  71(2):   141-43. 


Vol.  94,  No.  3,  May  &  June  1983  89 

NEW  SPECIES  AND  DISTRIBUTION  NOTES  OF 

MEXICAN  AND  BOLIVIAN  IDIODONUS 

(HOMOPTERA:  CICADELLIDAE)1 

Dwight  M.  DeLong^ 

ABSTRACT:  Six  new  species  of  Idiodonus,  I.  albifrons  n.sp.,  E.  sexpunctatus  n.sp.  /. 
marginatus  n.sp.,  /.  pallidus  n.sp.,  /.  nigrifrons  n.sp.,  all  from  Mexico  and  /.  costatus  n.sp. 
from  Bolivia  are  described.  A  new  name  Idiodonus  beamerellus  is  proposed  for  /.  beameri 
DeLong  ( 1 946)  preoccupied  by  /.  beameri  Ball  (1937).  New  distribution  notes  are  given  for  /. 
wickhami  Ball. 

The  Idiodonus  of  Mexico  were  treated  by  DeLong  (1946)  who  listed 
35  species,  32  of  which  were  described  as  new.  Six  species  are  being 
described  at  this  time,  five  from  Mexico  and  one  from  Bolivia.  A  new  name 
Idiodonus  beamerellus  is  proposed  for  /.  beameri  DeLong  (1946), 
preoccupied  by  /.  beameri  Ball  (1937).  Notes  on  new  distribution  records 
of  I.  wickhami  Ball  are  cited. 

The  male  genital  structures  in  this  genus  are  of  little  or  no  specific  value. 
Color  patterns  and  the  female  7th  sternum  are  therefore  used  for  species 
identifications.  All  types  are  in  the  DeLong  collection,  Ohio  Stae  University. 


Idiodonus  albifrons  n.sp. 

(Figs.  1,  7) 

Length  of  female  4.5  mm.  Male  unknown.  Crown  broadly  rounded,  appearing  parallel 
margined  2  1/2  times  as  wide  between  eyes  at  base  as  long  at  middle.  Color:  face  white  without 
markings.  Crown  sordid  yellow  with  a  large  black  spot  just  above  margin  next  to  each  eye  and  2 
smaller  black  spots  between  them.  Pronotum  gray,  tinged  with  yellow.  A  small  black  spot  near 
anterior  margin  behind  each  eye.  Scutellum  yellow,  2  proximal  small,  black  spots  at  middle. 
Forewings  grayish  subhyaline,  veins  brownish. 

Female  seventh  sternum  with  posterior  margin  excavated  about  1/4  distance  to  base,  and 
bearing  a  spatulate  process  which  extends  to  length  of  lateral  angles. 

Holotype  female:  Chilpancingo,  Gro.  Mexico  25-X- 1 94 1 ,  DeLong.  Good  and  Caldwell 
colls. 

/.  albifrons  is  related  to  /.  schwartzi  (Ball)  ( 1 9 1 1 ,  p.  197)  and  can  be 
separated  from  it  by  the  2  large  black  spots  close  to  the  eyes,  the  2  smaller 
central  proximal  spots,  the  2  black  spots  on  the  pronotum,  the  2  proximal 
minute  black  spots  on  the  scutellum  and  by  the  mesally  spatulate  7th 
sternum  of  the  female. 


1  Received  June  21.  1982.  Accepted  March  25.  1983. 
^Department  of  Entomology.  Ohio  State  University,  Columbus,  Ohio. 
ENT.  NEWS,  94(3)  89-92  May  &  June  1983 


90  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Idiodonus  sexpunctatus  n.sp. 

(Figs.  2,  8) 

Length  of  female  5.5  mm.  Male  unknown.  Crown  slightly  produced,  approximately  1  1/2 
times  as  wide  at  base  between  eyes  as  long  at  middle.  Color:  face  pale  yellowish  with 
remnants  of  black  arcs  and  a  black  spot  just  below  each  ocellus  next  to  each  eye.  Crown 
yellowish,  tinted  with  orange,  with  2  proximal  large  black  spots  at  apex  and  2  minute  round 
black  spots  just  basad  of  larger  spots.  Pronotum  tinted  with  a  faint  dark  brown  transverse  mark 
at  center.  Forewings  pale  gray  subhyaline,  veins  brown. 

Female  7th  sternum  with  posterior  margin  slightly  produced  between  the  lateral  angles, 
bearing  a  median  squarish  notch  1/6  length  of  segment,  with  a  convexly  rounded  base. 

Holotype  male:  Mexico,  Rio  Frio,  D.F.  (K-47)  18-X-1941,  DeLong,  Plummer, 
Caldwell,  Good  colls. 

/.  sexpunctata  is  related  to  /.  andanus  DeLong  (1946,  p.  29)  and  can 
be  separated  from  it  by  the  2  small  proximal  black  spots  on  the  middle  of  the 
crown,  by  the  absence  of  small  spots  on  the  pronotum  and  by  the  squarish 
excavation  of  the  7th  sternum  of  the  female. 

Idiodonus  marginatus  n.sp. 

(Fig.  3) 

Length  of  male  4.5  mm.  Female  unknown.  Crown  broadly  rounded,  only  slightly 
produced,  half  as  long  at  middle  as  wide  at  base  between  eyes.  Color:  face  pale  yellow.  Crown 
pale  brown  with  a  broad  marginal  black  transverse  band  between  eyes.  Pronotum  pale 
brownish  with  dark  gray  coloration  on  caudal  margin.  Scutellum  yellowish  with  a  dark  brown 
T-shaped  mark  at  middle.  Forewings  grayish  subhyaline,  veins  mostly  brown  except  white 
claval  veins. 

Male  genital  plates  elongate,  triangular,  3  times  as  long  as  wide  at  middle,  apices  pointed. 

Holotype  male:  Mexico,  Tulancingo,  Hidalgo  (K-129)  25-X-1945,  Stone,  DeLong, 
Hershberger,  Elliot  colls. 

/.  marginatus  is  related  to  /.  turpiter  DeLong  ( 1 946,  p.  28)  and  can  be 
separated  from  it  by  the  black  transverse  band  on  the  margin  of  the  crown. 

Idiodonus  pallidus   n.sp. 

(Figs.  4,  9) 

Length  of  female  5  mm,  male  4.6  mm.  Crown  slightly  produced  and  broadly  rounded,  1 
1/2  times  as  wide  at  base  between  eyes  as  long  at  middle.  Color:  face  pale  yellowish  with 
remnants  of  brown  arcs  each  side.  A  small  round  black  spot  next  each  eye  below  ocellus. 
Anterior  coronal  margin  narrowly  whitish  with  4  transverse  elongate  black  spots,  2  near  apex, 
2  near  eyes.  Remainder  of  crown  brown  with  darker  brown  coloration  along  with  the  white 
margin.  Pronotum  brown,  scutellum  brown  with  a  white  V-shaped  wedge  at  middle  each  side. 
Forewings  brown,  veins  brown  except  the  terminal  portion  of  claval  veins  next  to  commissure 
and  the  veins  of  posterior  apical  cells,  which  are  white. 

Female  7th  sternum  with  posterior  margin  slightly  produced  and  broadly  shallowly 
notched  at  center,  1/6  distance  to  base. 

Male  plates  elongate,  triangular,  5  times  as  long  as  wide  at  middle. 
/.  pallidus  is  related  to  /.  anademus  DeLong  (1946,  p.  29)  and  can  be 
separated  from  it  by  the  elongate  spots  on  the  crown,  the  white  spots  on  the 


Vol.  94,  No.  3,  May  &  June  1983 


91 


scutellum  and  the  white  claval  veins  of  the  forewing. 

Idiodonus  nigrifrons  n.sp. 

(Fig.  5) 

Length  of  male  5  mm.  Female  unknown.  Crown  slightly  produced,  broadly  rounded,  half 
as  long  at  middle  as  wide  at  base  between  eyes.  Color:  face  black,  crown  yellow  with  a  black 
transverse  band  in  front  of  eyes.  Pronotum  yellow,  a  large  irregular  shaped  spot  behind  each 
eye  with  a  black,  broken,  transverse  band  extending  across  basal  part  of  pronotum,  brownish 
irregular  pigment  on  apical  protion.  Scutellum  yellowish  with  a  dark  brown  spot  near  each 
basal  angle.  Forewings  grayish  subhyaline,  veins  brown. 

Male  genital  plates  elongate,  triangular,  4  times  as  long  as  wide  at  middle,  apices  sharply 
pointed. 


Fig.  1.  Idiodonus  albifrons  n.sp.  head,  pronotum  and  scutellum.  Fig.  7  female  7th  sternum. 
Fig.  2.  /.  sexpunctata  n.sp.  head,  pronotum  and  scutellum.  Fig.  8,  female  7th  sternum.  Fig. 
3.  /.  marginatus  n.sp.  head,  pronotum  and  scutellum.  Fig.  4.  /.  pallidus,  n.sp.  head, 
pronotum  and  scutellum.  Fig.  9  female  7th  sternum.  Fig.  5.  /.  nigrifronsn.sp.  head,  pronotum 
and  scutellum.  Fig.  6.  /.  costatus  n.sp.  head,  pronotum  and  scutellum. 


92  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Holotype  male:  Mexico,  Huanchinango,  Puebla  (K.-170)  25-X-1945,  Stone,  DeLong, 
Hershberger,  Elliott  colls. 

/.  nigrifrons  is  related  to  /.  vinculus  DeLong  ( 1 946,  p.  1 5)  and  can  be 
separated  from  it  by  the  black  face,  the  black  transverse  band  on  the  apical 
portion  of  the  crown  and  the  black  spots  on  the  pronotum  and  scutellum. 

Idiodonus  cost  at  us  n.sp. 
(Fig.  6) 

Length  of  male  4.2  mm.  Female  unknown.  Crown  scarcely  produced,  almost  3  times  as 
wide  at  base  between  eyes  as  long  at  middle.  Color:  face  white,  crown  white,  basal  portion 
along  margin  brownish.  Pronotum  brownish,  scutellum  brownish,  caudal  half  sordid  whitish, 
basal  angles  dark.  Forewings  brown  with  costal  margin  broadly  white. 

Male  genital  plates  elongate,  triangular,  3  times  as  long  as  wide  at  middle,  apices  tapered, 
pointed. 

Holotype  male:  Bolivia,  Santa  Cruz,  19-VIII-1980,  Donald  Foster  coll. 

/.  costatus  is  related  to  /.  rubellus  DeLong  (1946,  p.  15)  and  can  be 
separated  from  it  by  the  white  crown,  the  absence  of  black  spots  on  the 
crown,  the  absence  of  red  coloration  and  the  broad  white  costal  wing 
margin. 

Idiodonus  beamerellus  n.n.  for  /.  beameri  (1946)  preoccupied  by 
Idiodonus  beameri  Ball  (1937) 

Idiodonus  wickhami  Ball  was  described  from  specimens  collected  in 
Arizona.  It  has  been  collected  abundantly  in  Mexico,  especially  at  higher 
altitudes,  6,000  to  9,000  feet.  Records  at  hand  are:  Mt.  Popo,  D.F.  1 1 ,000 
ft.,  Mexico  City  D.F.  7,500  ft.,  La  Guarda  D.F.  8,500  ft.,  Chapingo,  D.F. 
9,900  ft.,  Toluca  D.F.  9,700  ft.,  Rio  Frio  D.F.  10,300  ft.,  Zitacuara,  Mich. 
6,700  ft.,  Carapan,  Mich.  5,000  ft.,  Zacapu,  Mich.  6,500  ft.  and  Pueblo, 
Pue.  8,500  ft. 

A  reddish  form  has  been  collected  at  Santa  Cruz,  Bolivia  by  Donald  L. 
Foster. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Ball,  E.D.  1911.  Additions  to  the  Jassid  Fauna  of  N.A.  (Homoptera)  Canad  Entomol. 

43:   197-204. 
1937.  Some  New  Species  of  Leafhoppers  in  Groups  Recently  Segregated  from 

Thamnotettix.  Bull  Brook.  Entomol.  Soc.  32(1):  26-31. 
DeLong,  D.M.  1946.  The  Mexican  species  of  Idiodonus  ( Homoptera:  Cicadellidae).  Ohio 

Jour.  Sci.  46(1):    13-30. 

BOOKS  RECEIVED  AND  BRIEFLY  NOTED 

ORTHOPTERAN  MATING  SYSTEMS.  D.T.  Gwynne  &  G.K.  Morris, 
eds.  1983.  Westview  Press,  Boulder,  Colo.  376  pp.  $30. 

Comprehensive  study  of  diverse  reproductive  ecology  and  reproductive  behavior  of  orthopteran 
insects.  Based  on  symposium  at  1980  E.S.A.  meeting. 


Vol.  94,  No.  3,  May  &  June  1983  93 


A  DESCRIPTION  OF  THE  FEMALE  OF 

HYDROPTILA  JACKMANNI  BUCKLE 

(TRICHOPTERA:  HYDROPTILIDAE),  WITH 

BIOLOGICAL  NOTES1 

Alexander  D.  Huryn^ 

ABSTRACT:  A  description  of  the  female  of  Hydroptila  jackmanni  Blickle  is  given. 
Included  are  notes  on  the  flight  period,  distribution,  and  habitat  of  this  species  as  it  occurs  in 
Ohio. 

During  a  recent  survey  of  the  caddisflies  inhabiting  the  Little  Muskingum 
River  watershed,  Monroe  and  Washington  Counties,  Ohio  (Huryn  1982), 
an  undescribed  female  of  the  genus  Hydroptila  was  encountered.  Through 
associations  of  male  and  female  flight  periods,  local  distributions,  and 
terminalia  morphologies,  I  determined  this  female  to  be  H.  jackmanni 
Blickle. 

In  Ohio,  H.  jackmanni  is  restricted  to  the  Appalachian  Plateau  with 
collections  being  made  in  Monroe,  Portage  and  Summit  Counties.  Light 
trap  collections  of  associated  males  and  females  were  made  at  Haskell  Run, 
Cuyahoga  Valley  National  Recreation  Area,  Summit  County  (June  27, 
1980;  12  males,  48  females),  and  Wildcat  Run,  Perry  Township,  Monroe 
County  (June  9,  1981;  10  males,  61  females).  Both  collections  were  made 
along  relatively  unperturbed,  second  order  streams  of  moderate  gradient, 
which  flowed  through  dense,  mixed-deciduous  forest  areas.  Other  members 
of  Hydroptila  collected  in  association  with  H.  jackmanni  were  H.  amoena 
Ross,  H.  callia  Denning,  H.  consimilis  Morton  and  H.  waubesiana  Betten. 
Hydroptila  jackmanni  apparently  is  univoltine  with  peak  emergence 
occurring  in  mid-June  (Huryn  1982). 

Hydroptila  jackmanni  Blickle 

Male.  —  Blickle  (1963). 

Female.  --  Length  from  front  of  head  to  tip  of  abdomen  2.8-3.8  mm  (N  =  10).  Eighth 
abdominal  segment  as  in  Figure  1.  Conspicuous,  well  sclerotized,  "flange-like"  clasper 
grooves  are  lateral  (Figure  1A).  Internally,  anterior  margins  of  clasper  grooves  are  sites  of 
attachment  of  apodemes  of  eighth  segment.  Eighth  sternite  short  and  trapezoidal  in  outline 
(Figure  IB).  Posterior  margin  of  eighth  sternite  emarginate  with  a  group  of  four  stout  setae  at 
each  apex.  Eighth  tergite  showing  a  similar  setal  arrangement  but  with  no  posteromesal 
emargination.  Approximately  midway  between  the  dorsal  and  ventral  setal  groups  are  two 
smaller  setae. 

Females  of//,  jackmanni  are  easily  distinguished  from  other  described 
Deceived  November  15,  1982.  Accepted  March  5,  1983. 

Department  of  Biological  Sciences,  Kent  State  University,  Kent,  Ohio  44240.  Present 
address:   Department  of  Entomology,  University  of  Georgia,  Athens,  Georgia  30602. 

ENT.  NEWS.  94(3)  93-94  May  &  June  1983 


94 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


members  of  the  genus  by  the  presence  of  the  conspicuous  clasper  grooves. 
However,  as  females  are  known  for  only  about  one-quarter  of  the  60  species 
offfydroptila  recorded  from  North  America  (Blickle  1 979),  determination 
of//,  jackmanni  based  on  collections  of  females  without  associated  males 
should  be  regarded  as  tentative. 

Specimens  of  H.  jackmanni  are  depositied  in  the  collection  at  the 
University  of  Georgia. 


ant. 


0.1  mm 


Figure  1.  Eighth  abdominal  segment  of  the  female  of  H.  jackmanni.  A.  lateral  view.  B. 
sternite.  (AP=apodeme,  CG=clasper  groove). 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The  Ohio  Biological  Survey  provided  partial  funding  for  this  study.  The  drawings  were 
executed  by  M.  Shomack  at  the  Cleveland  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Blickle,  R.L.  1963.  New  species  of  Hydroptilidae  (Trichoptera).  Bull.  Brooklyn  Entomol. 
Soc.  58:   17-22. 

1979.   Hydroptilidae  (Trichoptera)  of  American  north  of  Mexico.   New 

Hampshire  Agr.  Exp.  Sta.  Bull.  509:   1-97. 
Huryn,  A.D.  1 982.  The  caddisflies  (Trichoptera)  of  the  Little  Muskingum  River,  Washington 

and  Monroe  Counties,  Ohio.  Unpublished  M.S.  Thesis.  Kent  State  University,  Kent, 

Ohio.  177  pp. 


Vol.  94,  No.  3,  May  &  June  1983  95 

A  NEW  RECORD  OF  ATTACKS  BY  PEDILUS 

(PEDILIDAE)  ON  MELOE  (MELOIDAE: 

COLEOPTERA)1 

Laurent  LeSage,  Yves  Bousquet^ 

ABSTRACT:  Two  specimens  of  the  pedilid  beetle,  Pedilus  lugubris  (Say),  were  found  on  a 
male  meloid,  Meloe  angusticollis  Say  in  Rigaud,  Quebec.  They  had  severely  damaged  the 
meloid  beetle  by  partially  chewing  the  elytra.  Photographs  of  the  beetles  and  of  the  elytral 
damage  are  provided. 

The  first  North  American  record  of  Pedilus  attacking  Meloe  adults  was 
reported  by  Say  (1826),  who  stated  that  the  type-specimen  of  Pedilus 
impressus  (Say)  was  found  attached  to  the  side  of  an  adult  Meloe 
angusticollis  Say.  Leech  (1934)  observed  elytra  of  Meloe  niger  Kirby 
partially  eaten  by  Pedilus  monticola( Horn),  and  Pinto  &  Selander(1970) 
made  similar  observations  involving  Pedilus  terminalis  (Say)  attacking 
Meloe  angusticollis  Say  and  M.  americanus  Leach.  The  purposes  of  this 
note  are  to  present  a  new  record  of  attack  by  Pedilus  and  to  illustrate  the 
damage  caused  to  the  elytra  of  meloid  beetles. 

During  a  collecting  trip  at  Rigaud,  Quebec  (45°  29'N;  74°  18'W)  on 
May  17,  1982  we  found  a  male  and  a  female  of  the  blister  beetle  Meloe 
angusticollis  Say  crawling  on  a  trail  in  a  deciduous  forest.  The  male  meloid 
(Fig.  la)  attracted  attention  because  it  was  bearing  two  smaller  black 
beetles,  Pedilus  lugubris  (Say)  (Fig.  Ib)  on  its  dorsal  surface.  All  beetles 
were  brought  to  the  laboratory  and  placed  together  in  a  transparent  plastic 
container  for  observations.  Apparently  the  meloid  beetles  did  not  pay 
attention  to  the  two  Pedilus  but  seemed  stressed  by  their  confinement  in  the 
plastic  container.  The  two  Pedilus  were  very  active,  crawling  on  the  dorsal 
surface  of  the  male  meloid  and  feeding  on  its  elytra;  indeed,  the  examination 
of  the  gut  content  of  one  Pedilus  revealed  several  setae  and  small  pieces  of 
cuticle  similar  to  those  found  on  Meloe.  They  also  quickly  located  the 
meloid  female  and  began  the  same  activity  on  its  elytra.  Maximum  elytral 
damage  was  not  observed  because  the  Pedilus  were  killed  and  preserved  for 
determination.  The  purpose  of  such  a  chewing  behavior  is  still  a  mystery. 

An  examination  of  the  Meloe  beetles  in  the  Canadian  National 
Collection,  about  400  specimens,  did  not  reveal  any  specimens  with  similar 
damage  to  the  elytra.  Consequently,  attack  by  Pedilus  on  Meloe  seems  to 
be  a  rare  phenomenon.  However,  more  material  and  additional  observa- 


1  Received  October  12,  1982.  Accepted  March  5,  1983. 

^Biosystematics   Research   Institute,   Agriculture   Canada,  Ottawa,  Ontario,  K1A  OC6 
Canada. 

ENT.  NEWS,  94(3)  95-96  May  &  June  1983 


96 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


tions  are  needed  to  determine  if  this  rarity  is  real  or  apparent,  and  we  hope 
our  note  will  stimulate  research  in  this  area. 

We  would  like  to  acknowledge  Mr.  C.  Beddoe  for  the  habitus 
photographs  and  our  colleagues  Drs.  J.M.  Campbell  and  E.G.  Becker  for 
the  determination  of  the  beetles  and  their  comments  on  the  manuscript. 


Figure  1 .  Dorsal  view  of:  left,  Meloe  angusticolis  Say;  right,  Pedilus  lugubris  (Say);  both  at 
the  same  scale  (enlargement:  about  3  times). 


LITERATURE  CITED 

Leech,  H.B.  1934.  Almost  a  cannibal.  Bull.  Brookl.  ent.  Soc.  29:  41. 

Pinto,  J.D.  and  R.B.  Selander.  1 970.  The  bionomics  of  blister  beetles  of  the  genus  Meloe  and 

a  classification  of  the  new  world  species.  111.  biol.  Mono.  42:    1-222. 
Say,  T.  1 826.  Description  of  new  species  of  coleopterous  insects  inhabiting  the  United  States. 

J.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.  5:  237-284. 


Vol.  94,  No.  3,  May  &  June  1983  97 


LECTOTYPE  DESIGNATION  FOR  EUSCAPHURUS 

SALTATOR  CASEY  (COLEOPTERA: 

EUCINETIDAE)1 

Richard  A.  Rochette2 

ABSTRACT:  A  lectotype  and  eight  paralectotypes  are  designated  for  Euscaphurus  saltator 
Casey. 

Casey  ( 1 885 )  described  Euscaphurus  saltator  from  California  without 
designating  a  type.  Vit  ( 1 977)  later  redescribed  it  from  a  specimen  (female) 
from  the  Horn  collection  without  designating  a  lectotype.  The  purpose  of 
this  note,  therefore,  is  to  select  a  lectotype  for  this  species. 

There  are  nine  specimens  in  the  "type"  series  from  the  Casey 
collection.  Spec.  Nr.  1-8:  "Cal'VCasey  bequest  1925"/"Paratype  NMNH 
(orange-red  label,  National  Museum  of  Natural  History)  series  #49232"; 
Spec.  Nr.  9:  Same  data  except,  "Holotype  NMNH  series  #49232".  With 
Casey  (1885)  not  mentioning  any  type  designation  in  his  paper,  one 
questions  the  validity  of  the  holo-  and  paratype  labels.  These  labels  were 
probably  added  later.  Therefore,  a  male  in  good  condition  with  the  genitalia 
exposed  is  hereby  designated  as  the  lectotype.  The  label  ''Lectotype 
Euscaphurus  saltator  Casey  des.  R.A.  Rochette  XI/3/82"  was  attached  to 
it.  All  remaining  specimens  in  this  series  are  hereby  designated  paralecto- 
types. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I  thank  Dr.  John  M.  Kingsolver  for  bringing  this  nomenclatural  problem  to  my  attention; 
and  also  Drs.  Richard  W.  Spellenberg  and  James  R.  Zimmerman  for  reviewing  this  note. 

REFERENCES  CITED 

Casey,  T.L.  1 885.  New  genera  and  species  of  California  Coleoptera.  Bull.  Cal.  Acad.  Sci.  1 : 

283-336. 
Vit,  S.  1977.  Contribution  a  la  connaissance  des  Eucinetidae  (Coleoptera).  Revue  suisse 

Zool.  84:  917-935. 


Deceived  December  16,  1982.  Accepted  March  5,  1983. 

^Department  of  Biology,  New  Mexico  State  University,  Las  Cruces,  New  Mexico  88003 


ENT.  NEWS,  94(3)  97  May  &  June  1983 


98  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

NEW  RECORDS  OF  DRYINIDAE 

(HYMENOPTERA)  IN  TENNESSEE1 

R.E.  Kelly,  L.E.  Klostermeyer2 

ABSTRACT:  The  known  ranges  of  the  dryinids,  Gonatopus  ashmeadi  Kieffer,  Neogonatopus 
agropyrus  (Fenton),  Dicondylus  americanus  (Perkins),  and  Pseudogonatopus  stenocrani 
Perkins  are  extended  to  include  Tennessee. 

Seven  specimens  of  Dryinidae  were  collected  with  a  D-Vac®  suction 
sampler  in  a  1980-1981  survey  of  leafhoppers  associated  with  a  mixed  tall 
fescue  (Festuca  arundinacea  Schreb.)  pasture  at  the  University  of 
Tennessee's  Plateau  Experiment  Station,  Grassland  Farm,  located  12.9 
km  south  of  Crossville,  Cumberland  County,  Tennessee  (Kelly,  1982). 
Only  females  were  collected  and  were  identified  by  Dr.  Paul  H.  Freytag, 
Department  of  Entomology,  University  of  Kentucky,  Lexington,  as 
follows: 


Gonatopus  ashmeadi  Kieffer  —  1  specimen  each  on  19  August  1980,  1 1  June  1981  and  8 

July  1981. 
Neogonatopus  agropyrus  (Fenton)  —  1  specimen  each  on  10  June  1980  and  8  July  1981. 

Freytag  1977  transferred  agropyrus  from  Gonatopus  to  Neogonatopus. 
Dicondylus  americanus  (Perkins)  —  1  specimen  on  27  May  1980.  Giri  and  Freytag  (1982) 

transferred  americanus  from  Haplogonatopus  to  Dicondylus. 
Pseudogonatopus  stenocrani  Perkins  —  1  specimen  on  14  October  1980. 


These  species  are  new  records  from  the  state  of  Tennessee. 

REFERENCES  CITED 

Giri,  M.K.  and  P.H.  Freytag.  1982.  A  new  generic  placement  for  Haplogonatopus 

americanus  Perkins  (Hymenoptera:  Dryinidae).  Entomol.  News  93(4):   121-4. 
Freytag,  P.H.  1977.  A  review  of  the  genus -/Veogo/taro/JH.?  for  North  America  (Hymenoptera: 

Dryinidae).  Ann.  Entomol.  Soc.  Am.  70:  569-76. 
Kelly,  R.E.  1982.  Leafhoppers  (Homoptera:  Cicadellidae)  associated  with  a  mixed  tall 

fescue  pasture  on  the  Cumberland  Plateau  in  Tennessee.  Knoxville,  TN:  Univ.  of 

Tennessee.  M.S.  Thesis.  59  p. 


Deceived  November  8,  1982.  Accepted  March  26,  1983. 

2  Department  of  Entomology  and  Plant  Pathology,  University  of  Tennessee,  Knoxville,  TN 
37901. 


ENT.  NEWS,  94(3)  98  May  &  June  1983 


Vol.  94,  No.  3,  May  &  June  1983  99 


THE  OCCURRENCE  OF  ELLIPES  MINUTUS 
(SCUDDER)  (ORTHOPTERA:  TRIDACTYLIDAE) 

IN  KENTUCKY1 

M.  Ann  Phillippi^ 

ABSTRACT:  Tridactylids  collected  from  ten  counties  across  Kentucky  have  been  identified 
as  Ellipes  minutus  (Scudder).  Reports  of  the  species  across  North  America  are  sporadic  and 
undoubtedly  reflect  the  paucity  of  collections  from  their  riparian  habitat.  Ellipes  minutus  has 
not  been  previously  reported  from  Kentucky. 

The  orthopteran  family,  Tridactylidae,  is  represented  by  four  species  in 
North  America  (Guenther  1977),  Neotridactylus  apicialis  (Say),  Ellipes 
gurneyi  Guenther,  E.  minutus  (Scudder),  and  E.  monticolus  Guenther. 
Across  the  United  States,  locality  records  for  the  species  are  widespread 
(Guenther  1975,  1977,  1 980)  but  scarce  (Urquhart  1937),  most  likely  due 
to  the  paucity  of  collections  from  their  riparian  habitat  and  the  difficulty  in 
capturing  these  fast,  small,  exceptionally  strong  jumpers  (Blatchley  1920, 
Goodwin  and  Powders  1968).  This  author  inquired  into  the  distribution  of 
the  family  after  a  single  individual  of  E.  minutus  was  collected  in  a  Surber 
sample  from  a  stream  in  eastern  Kentucky. 

There  are  no  published  reports  of  the  family  from  Kentucky,  and  there 
are  no  Kentucky  specimens  housed  at  the  University  of  Michigan  Museum 
of  Zoology  in  Ann  Arbor;  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  in  Philadelphia; 
the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History  in  Washington,  D.C.;  or  the 
Eastern  Kentucky  University  Insect  Collection  in  Richmond.  Ninety 
specimens  of  E.  minutus  were  found  in  two  museums,  the  University  of 
Louisville  and  the  University  of  Kentucky  from  the  following  counties: 
Breathitt,  Fayette,  Graves,  Henry,  Jefferson,  Knox,  Leslie,  Meade, 
Oldham,  and  Pendleton.  Collection  dates  were  April  12,18,19,26,  and  30; 
May  3,  18,  19,  26,  26,  and  27;  June  30;  July  16;  and  Sept.  11  and  24. 

These  specimens  are  from  ten  counties  scattered  across  Kentucky 
including  several  physiographic  regions  as  follows:  extreme  western 
Kentucky  in  the  Gulf  Coastal  Plain  Province  (Graves  Co.);  in  the  central 
Bluegrass  (Fayette  Co.);  along  the  Ohio  River  in  north-central  Kentucky 
(Meade,  Oldham,  Jefferson,  Pendleton,  and  Henry  Cos.);  and  in  the 
Cumberland  Plateau  of  eastern  Kentucky  (Breathitt,  Knox,  and  Leslie 
Cos.).  Based  on  these  few  definite  records  in  a  wide  geographic  area,  it  is 
probable  that  E.  minutus  is  more  common  and  widespread  than  is  presently 
known  throughout  Kentucky  and  perhaps  throughout  much  of  North 


'Received  December  24,  1982.  Accepted  January  13.  1983. 

ZT.H.  Morgan  School  of  Biological  Sciences,  University  of  Kentucky,  Lexington,  KY  40506 

ENT.  NEWS,  94(3)  99-100  May  &  June  1983 


100  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


America  (Merritt  and  Cummins  1978)  primarily  due  to  the  scarcity  of 
collections  in  its  habitat. 

Unfortunately,  information  referring  to  the  purported  riparian  habitat  of 
E.  minutus  is  limited  to  general  statements.  Blatchley  ( 1 920)  observed  that 
E.  minutus  is  "more  abundant  about  ponds  and  lakes  than  along  flowing 
streams,"  and  other  authors  refer  to  its  apparent  preference  for  "lakes  and 
watercourses"  (Hebard  1934),  "moist  habitats"  (Goodwin  and  Powders 
1968),  "streams  on  moist  sand  banks  where  they  closely  resemble  their 
background"  (Rentz  1965),  and  "lentic  and  lotic  margins  near  quiet  water 
away  from  wave  or  splash  effects"  (Merritt  and  Cummins  1978).  The  Knox 
County,  Kentucky,  specimen  came  from  a  stream  with  trees,  shrubs,  and 
herbaceous  plants  on  the  immediate  sandy,  silty  shore  with  adjacent 
cornfields.  The  stream  was  clear,  and  the  substrate  consisted  of  a  stony, 
sandy  bottom  with  silt  accumulating  in  the  pools.  It  is  postulated  that  E. 
minutus  was  accidental  in  the  Surber  sample  and  is  typically  a  riparian  or 

semi-aquatic  species. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Blatchley,  W.S.    1920.   Orthoptera  of  northeastern  America.   The   Nature   Publishing 

Company,  Indianapolis. 
Goodwin,  J.T.,  and  V.N.  Powders.  1968.  The  Gryllotalpidae  and  Tridactylidae  (Orthoptera) 

of  Tenneessee.  J.  Tenn.  Acad.  Sci.  43(1):  28-29. 
Guenther,  K.K.  1975.  Das  genus  Neotridactylus  Guenther,  1972.  (Tridactylidae:  Saltatoria 

Insecta).  Mitt.  Zool.  Mus.  Berlin  51:   305-365. 
1977.  Revision  der  Gattung  Ellipes  Scudder,  1902  (Saltatoria,  Tridactylidae). 

Dtsch.  Ent.  Zeit.  N.F..  24:  47-122. 

_.  1980.  Katalog  der  Caelifera — Unterordnung  Tridactylodea  (Insecta).  Dtsch. 


Ent.  Zeit.,  N.F.,  27:    149-178. 
Hebard,  M.  1934.  The  Dermaptera  and  Orthoptera  of  Illinois.  111.  Nat.  Hist.  Surv.  Bull. 

20:    125-279. 
Merritt,  R.W.,  and  K.W.  Cummins.  1978.  An  introduction  to  the  aquatic  insects  of  North 

America.  Kendall/Hunt  Publishing  Company,  Dubuque,  Iowa. 
Rentz,  D.C.  1 965.  Additional  locality  records  of  Tridactvlus  minutus.  Pan  Pacific  Entomol. 

4(1):   70. 
Urquhart,  F.A.  1937.  Some  notes  on  the  sand  cricket,  (Tridactvlus  apicalis  Say).  Canad. 

Field  Naturalist  51:  28-29. 


BOOKS  RECEIVED  AND  BRIEFLY  NOTED  (Continued) 

POPULATION  BIOLOGY  OF  TROPICAL  INSECTS.  A.M.  Young. 
1982.  Plenum  Press.  511  pp.  $57.50. 

Author  describes  major  developments  in  study  of  insect  populations  in  tropical  environments 
and  brings  together  various  concepts  and  related  studies  that  explain  spatial  and  temporal 
patterns  of  tropical  insect  diversity. 


Vol.  94,  No.  3,  May  &  June  1983  101 


AMPHIPOEA  VELATA  (WALKER)  (LEPIDOPTERA: 

(NOCTUIDAE)  ATTACKING  CORN  NEAR 

FRIENDSVILLE,  MARYLAND1  2 

James  W.  Amrine,  Jr.,  Linda  Butler^ 

ABSTRACT:  The  noctuid,  Amphipoea  velata  (Walker),  was  observed  attacking  20-30  cm 
corn  in  early  June  in  Garrett  Co.  Md.  Larvae  made  nests  by  tying  leaves  together  with  silk. 
Feeding  habits  included  general  defoliation,  tunneling  in  the  stalk,  and  cutting  through  the  base 
of  the  stalk.  The  larvae  fed  on  several  species  of  weeds  in  addition  to  corn.  Infestations 
occurred  in  grassy-weedy  patches  and  averaged  6.2  larvae  per  corn  plant.  Carbaryl  treatment 
produced  40%  mortality  (many  larvae  were  protected  by  their  leafy  retreats). 

On  June  4,  1980,  a  sample  of  "leaf-tying"  larvae  was  submitted  to  us 
for  identification.  The  larvae  were  collected4  from  corn  on  a  farm,  4  miles 
west  of  Friendsville,  Garrett  Co.,  Maryland.  Using  the  larval  key  of  Crumb, 
1956,  the  specimens  were  identified  to  the  genus  Septis,  a  synonym  of 
Amphipoea  (=Apamea)  (Lepidoptera:  Noctuidae).  Approximately  75 
larvae  were  placed  on  cabbage  looper  media;  the  majority  fed  and  moulted 
to  pupae  but  only  5  adults  emerged.  Adults  were  then  identified  by  Linda 
Butler,  and  confirmed  by  Eric  Quinter,  American  Museum  of  Natural 
History,  as  Amphipoea  velata  (Walker). 

The  infested  field  was  visited  on  June  5,  1980;  the  corn  plants  were  20 
to  30  cm  tall.  The  field  was  located  along  the  top  of  a  ridge.  Cultivation  was 
no-till,  and  numerous  weeds  occurred  in  random  patches.  The  crop  was 
planted  on  May  5,  1980  with  an  application  of  fonofos  insecticide.  The  A. 
velata  infestation  was  generally  confined  to  weedy-grassy  areas.  The  larvae 
made  silken  retreats  by  joining  leaf  margins  together,  thus  forming  curled 
tubes  in  corn  and  grass  leaves,  or  leafy  nests  in  broad-leaved  weeds.  Small 
larvae  formed  retreats  by  merely  folding  over  leaf  margins.  Feeding  habits 
included  general  defoliation,  tunneling  in  the  stalk,  and  cutting  through  the 
base  of  the  stalk.  Numerous  plants  were  severely  defoliated  or  cut  off  at  the 
base.  Damage  to  the  corn  crop  was  serious  enough  that  the  farmer 
considered  plowing  and  replanting.  A  survey  of  another,  distant  corn  field 
(5  km  S.)  indicated  a  light  infestation  along  the  forest  margin  ( 1  larva  per  50 

1  Received  September  30,  1982.  Accepted  March  5,  1983. 

^Published  with  the  approval  of  the  Director  of  the  West  Virginia  Agricultural  and  Forestry 
Experiment  Station  as  Scientific  Article  #  1  796.  This  research  was  supported  with  funds 
appropriated  under  the  Hatch  Act. 

•^Division  of  Plant  and  Soil  Sciences,  West  Virginia  University,  Morgantown,  WV  26506 

4By  Charles  B.  Sperow,  Extension  Specialist,  Division  of  Plant  and  Soil  Sciences,  West 
Virginia  University,  Morgantown,  WV  26506 

ENT.  NEWS,  94(3)  101-102  May  &  June  1983 


102  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


corn  plants).  A  survey  of  larvae  in  a  sample  of  20  infested  corn  plants  within 
a  weedy  patch  yielded  an  average  of  6.2  larvae  (2nd  to  5th  instar)  per  plant 
(range  of  1  to  14).  Weeds  found  were  quackgrass  (Agropyron  repens(L.)), 
pokeweed  (Phytolacca  americana  L.),  jimson  weed  (Datura  stramonium 
L.),  blackberry  (Rubus  spp.),  and  milkweed  (Asclepias  syriaca  L.).  Larval 
nests  and  feeding  damage  were  found  in  all  weed  plants  except  pokeweed. 

The  infestation  was  treated  with  carbaryl  insecticide  and  dicamba 
herbicide  on  June  4,  1 980,  and  by  the  following  day,  approximately  40%  of 
the  larvae  were  dead  or  moribund.  Apparently,  the  balance  of  the  larvae 
were  protected  by  their  silken  retreats. 

A  literature  search  revealed  no  previous  report  of  attack  by  this  insect 
on  corn  or  other  crops.  Forbes  (1954),  using  the  name  Apamea  velata 
Walker,  relates  that  it  feeds  on  grasses  and  is  sometimes  common  but  not 
injurious.  Dethier  (1944)  described  the  larva  and  pupa  and  gave  the 
following  life  history  details  for  Massachusetts:  overwintering  pupae 
produce  adults  in  the  spring  and  eggs  hatch  in  early  May;  second  generation 
adults  appear  in  early  June  and  a  third  generation  of  adults  appears  in  late 
July  and  August,  producing  larvae  which  develop  to  overwintering  pupae. 
The  adult  male  is  illustrated  by  Grote  and  Robinson  (1867)  as  Apamea 
sera. 

No  larvae  of  A.  velata  were  observed  causing  injury  during  the  1981 
growing  season.  Apparently,  this  is  a  fine  example  of  a  normally  innocuous 
insect  which  has  the  potential  to  become  a  pest  when  conditions  are 
favorable.  Because  of  its  voracious  feeding  habits  and  immense  reproductive 
potential,  future  surveillance  for  outbreaks  of  this  insect  is  warranted. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Crumb,  S.E  1956.  The  larvae  of  the  Phalaenidae  [Noctuidae].  USDA  Tech.  Bui.  No.  1 1 35. 

356  pp. 
Dethier,  V.G.  1944.  Observations  on  the  life  history  of  Apamea  velata  Wlk.  Canadian 

Entomologist  76:   223-225. 
Forbes,  W.T.M.  1954.  LepidopteraofNew  York  and  neighboring  states.  Part  III.  Noctuidae. 

Cornell  Univ.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta.  Mem.  329.  p.  189. 
Grote,  A.R.  and  C.T.  Robinson.  1867.  Description  of  American  Lepidoptera,  No.  3.  Trans. 

Amer.  Entomol.  Soc.  1:   323-360.  (Fig.  55,  plate  7). 


BOOKS  RECEIVED  AND  BRIEFLY  NOTED  (Continued) 

PHENETICS  &  ECOLOGY  OF  HYBRIDIZATION  IN  BUCKEYE 
BUTTERFLIES.  J.E.  Hafernik,  Jr.  1983.  Univ.  of  Calif.  Press.  109  pp. 
$16.50. 

This  paper  analyzes  interrelationships  among  North  and  Central  American  representatives  of 
Junonia,  exclusive  of  the  Caribbean  region. 


Vol.  94,  No.  3,  May  &  June  1983  103 

NOTES  ON  THE  GEOGRAPHICAL  DISTRIBUTION 

OF  THE  GULF  COAST  TICK,  AMBLYOMMA 
MACULATUM  (KOCH)  [ACARI:  IXODIDAE]12 

Jerome  Goddard,  B.R.  Norment-' 

ABSTRACT:  1982,  six  specimens  of  the  Gulf  Coast  tick,  A  mblyomma  maculatum  (Koch), 
were  taken  in  two  northern  Mississippi  Counties.  Additional  specimens  were  taken  during  a 
trip  to  southwestern  Kentucky. 

The  Gulf  Coast  tick,  Amblyomma  maculatum  (Koch),  is  a  three  host 
species  found  in  the  southern  United  States,  generally  in  areas  bordering  the 
Gulf  of  Mexico  and  Atlantic  Ocean  (Bishopp  and  Trembley,  1945). 
According  to  Bishopp  and  Hixson  (1936),  it  is  seldom  found  in  large 
numbers  farther  inland  than  100  miles.  Cooley  and  Kohls  (1944)  published 
on  the  distribution,  hosts,  and  taxonomy  of  this  species .  The  Gulf  Coast  tick 
has  been  reported  from  Florida,  Georgia,  South  Carolina,  North  Carolina, 
Virginia,  and  Delaware  on  the  Atlantic  coast  and  also  from  Arizona, 
Arkansas,  and  California  (Bishopp  and  Hixson,  1936;  Lancaster,  1973).  It 
is  well  established  in  northeastern  Oklahoma  (Semtner  and  Hair,  1973) 
and  is  also  known  to  exist  in  southeastern  Kansas.  A  few  specimens  taken  at 
Dallas,  Texas  and  Memphis,  Tennessee  were  suggested  to  have  been 
brought  in  on  livestock  shipped  from  the  coastal  region.  Amblyomma 
maculatum  has  been  reported  twice  from  Arkansas  (Lancaster,  1973)  and 
is  considered  relatively  rare  in  Alabama  occurring  only  in  the  southern  one- 
third  of  the  state  (Cooney  and  Hays,  1972). 

In  a  current  research  project  concerning  the  rickettsial  organisms 
associated  with  the  Lone  Star  tick,  Amblyomma  americanum  (L.),  ticks 
were  collected  weekly  throughout  the  1 982  season  in  northern  Mississippi, 
with  occasional  collecting  trips  to  the  TVA  Land  Between  the  Lakes  region 
in  southwestern  Kentucky.  Ticks  were  collected  by  dragging  with  a  flannel 
cloth  in  the  study  area.  Six  specimens  of  the  Gulf  Coast  tick  were  collected 
in  northern  Mississippi;  four  in  Noxubee  Co.  and  two  in  Oktibbeha  Co. 
These  locations  are  200-250  miles  from  the  Gulf  Coast.  Also,  one 
specimen  was  collected  in  the  Land  Between  The  Lakes  region  of 
southwestern  Kentucky.  Subsequently,  a  search  through  the  student 
collections  in  the  Medical  Entomology  collection  at  Mississippi  State 


'Received  September  30,  1982.  Accepted  March  5.  1983. 
^Publication  no.  5265,  Mississippi  Agricultural  Experiment  Station. 

^Department  of  Entomology,  Mississippi  State  University,  Mississippi  State.  Mississippi 
39762. 

ENT.  NEWS,  94(3)  103-104  May  &  June  1983 


104  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


University  revealed  1 1  more  specimens  from  northern  Mississippi,  repre- 
senting Lafayette,  Lowndes,  and  Oktibbeha  counties. 

The  majority  of  these  specimens  were  collected  in  July  or  early  August 
(see  records)  which  is  consistent  with  the  findings  of  Hixson  (1940)  who 
reported  an  adult  peak  in  July.  These  records  further  expand  the  known 
range  of  this  species.  Bishopp  and  Hixson  (1936)  suggested  that  northern 
records  may  represent  specimens  brought  in  on  livestock  from  the  coastal 
region;  however,  all  of  the  ticks  collected  in  Noxubee  Co.,  Miss,  were  found 
in  a  national  wildlife  refuge  isolated  from  pastureland.  Also,  the  specimen 
from  Kentucky  was  collected  in  an  area  free  of  any  known  livestock.  These 
records  indicate  that  either  the  previously  reported  range  ofAmblyomma 
maculatum  may  be  incomplete  or  this  species  is  extending  its  range 
northward. 

New  Records  of  Amblyomma  maculatum 

Material  examined  —  Lafavette  Co.,  MS,  Oxford,  21-V-1974,  L.  Thead,  2  9  (SC)*; 
Lowndes  Co..  MS,  Crawford,  14-IV-1982,  B.  Hinkle,4  9  1  cf(SC);  Marshall  Co.,  KY,  6  mi. 
E.  Aurora,  2- VIII- 1982,  J.  Goddard,  1  cf;  Noxubee  Co.,  MS,  Noxubee  Wildlife  Refuge,  5- 
VI-1982,J.Goddard.  1  9;  Noxubee  Wildlife  Refuge,  2-VII- 1982,  J.  Goddard,  1  cf;  Noxubee 
Wildlife  Refuge,  8-VII-1982,  J.  Goddard,  1  9  1  cf;  Oktibbeha  Co.,  MS,  Starkville,  4-VII- 
1974,  D.  Wigle.  4cf  (SC);  Starkville,  l-VII-1982,  S.  Winters,  Icf  (SC);  Starkville,  10- VII- 
1982,  J.  Goddard,  1  9. 

All  of  these  specimens  are  deposited  in  the  Mississippi  Entomological 
Museum,  Mississippi  State  University. 

*Student  Collection 


LITERATURE  CITED 

Bishopp,  F.C.,  and  H.  Hixson.  1936.  Biology  and  economic  importance  of  the  Gulf  Coast 

tick.  J.  Econ.  Entomol.  29:    1068-1076. 
Bishopp,  F.C.  and  Trembley,  H.L.  1945.  Distribution  and  hosts  of  certain  North  American 

ticks.  J.  Parasit.  31:    1-54. 
Cooley,  R.A.,  and  Kohls,  G.M!  1944.  The  genus  Amblyomma  (Ixodidae)  in  the  United 

States.  J.  Parasit.  30:   77-111. 
Cooney,  J.C.  and  Hays,  K.L.  1972.  The  ticks  of  Alabama.  Auburn  Univ.  Agr.  Exp.  Sta.  Bull. 

426.  p. 
Hixson,  H.  1940.  Field  biology  and  environmental  relationships  of  the  Gulf  Coast  tick  in 

southern  Georgia.  J.  Econ.  Entomol.  33:    179-189. 
Lancaster,  J.L.  1973.  A  guide  to  the  ticks  of  Arkansas.  Univ.  Arkansas  Agr.  Exp.  Sta.  Bull. 

779  p. 
Semtner,  P.J.  and  J.A.  Hair.  1973.  Distribution,  seasonal  abundance,  and  hosts  of  the  Gulf 

Coast  tick  in  Oklahoma.  Ann.  Entomol.  Soc.  Amer.  66:    1264-1268. 


Vol.  94,  No.  3,  May  &  June  1983 


105 


125th  ANNIVERSARY  OF  THE  AMERICAN 
ENTOMOLOGICAL  SOCIETY 

The  American  Entomological  Society,  publisher  of  "Entomological 
News,"  "Transactions,"  and  "Memoirs"  was  founded  in  February, 
1859  as  the  Entomological  Society  of  Philadelphia.  Therefore,  our 
Society  is  observing  its  125th  Anniversary  this  year.  A  special  meeting 
to  mark  the  occasion  will  be  held  on  February  15,  1 984  at  the  Academy 
of  Natural  Sciences,  Philadelphia.  Members  and  friends  of  the  Society 
are  invited. 

Tentative  plans  include  exhibits  of  early  insect  collections,  publica- 
tions, photographs  of  pioneer  entomologists,  and  a  series  of  short  talks 
on  outstanding  entomologists  who  were  active  in  the  Society  in  its  early 
years.  Details  will  be  announced  in  the  fall  of  1983. 

W.H.  Day 


SOCIETY  MEETING  OF  MARCH  3,  1983 

The  American  Entomological  Society's  fourth  meeting  of  the  1982-83  year  was  held 
Thursday,  March  3.  in  Agricultural  Hall  on  the  University  of  Delaware  campus.  Eight 
members  and  twenty-four  guests  attended  the  evening  lecture  on  the  "Biology  of  Mayflies," 
presented  by  Mr.  David  Funk  of  the  Stroud  Water  Research  Center,  Avondale.  PA.  Dr.  Paul 
Burbutis  introduced  the  subject  with  a  spirited  reading  from  Benjamin  Franklin's  "The 
Ephemera:  An  Emblem  of  Human  Life,"  written  in  1778.  Mr.  Funk,  winner  of  the 
Photographic  Society  of  America's  Silver  Medal  for  Best  of  Show  at  last  year's  North  Central 
Insect  Salon  held  at  the  Entomological  Society  of  America's  North  Central  Branch  Meeting, 
integrated  beautiful  slides  of  mayflies,  their  habitats,  and  natural  history  with  a  contemporary 
ecological  analysis  of  species  distribution  and  behavior. 

Of  the  approximately  2000  species  of  mayflies  known,  about  600  occur  in  the  United 
States.  The  larvae  of  most  species  graze  on  algae  and  leaf  litter  on  the  bottom  of  streams  or 
rivers.  They  display  a  variety  of  body  shapes  which  are  related  to  current  speed,  substrate 
types  and  behavioral  patterns.  Adults  are  sexually  dimorphic  with  males  usually  having  long 
forelegs  and  enlarged  dorsal  surfaces  of  their  compound  eyes.  The  eyes  in  some  species  are 
extremely  specialized  and  have  distinctive  shapes  and  colors.  Studies  on  the  Salmon  River  in 
Idaho  and  White  Clay  Creek  in  Pennsylvania  suggest  that  within  a  watershed,  related  species 
have  evolved  to  minimize  competition  in  a  variety  of  ways.  Closely  related  species  may  occur 
in  different  areas  of  the  watershed  and  show  an  upstream-downstream  distributional 
relationship.  Temperature  variance,  both  geographic  and  within  a  watershed,  may  effectively 
limit  a  species'  distribution  by  lowering  fecundity  in  areas  where  the  annual  temperature 
regime  is  not  optimal.  Where  related  species  coexist  their  life  history  patterns  may  be 
displaced  temporarily  thereby  minimizing  overlap  in  their  periods  of  maximal  growth.  A 
similar  displacement  in  the  emergence  period  minimizes  the  possibility  of  interbreeding.  In  the 
ensuing  question  period  there  was  considerable  interest  in  the  subimago,  a  stage  found  in  no 
other  insect  order. 

In  notes  of  local  entomological  interest,  Roger  Fuester  said  that  he  had  observed  mating 
mourning  cloak  butterflies  within  the  past  week  and  that  ticks,  Dermacentor  variabilis.  are 
now  active.  Dr.  Dale  Bray  added  that  a  new  species  of  tick  close  to  Ixodes  scapular!*. 
appeared  in  the  area  last  year.  It  has  a  painful  bite.  Dr.  William  Day  commented  on  the  warm 
winter  we  have  had  and  how  spring  flowers  are  blooming  very  early  this  year.  With  continued 
mild  weather  we  may  observe  an  early  emergence  of  many  insects. 

Harold  W.  White 
Corresponding  Secretary 


106  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


SOCIETY  MEETING  OF  APRIL  7,  1983 

The  last  regular  meeting  of  The  American  Entomological  Society  for  the  1982-83  year 
was  held  Thursday  April  7,  1983  at  the  University  of  Delaware.  Eight  members  and  nine 
guests  listened  to  Dr.  John  Lublinkhof  of  Biochem  Products  Montchanin,  Delaware  speak  on 
"Integrated  Use  of  Microorganisms  and  Chemicals  for  Managing  Insect  Populations." 

The  main  part  of  Dr.  Lublinkhof  s  talk  dealt  with  Nosema  pyrausta,  a  protozoan  parasite 
on  the  European  corn  borer,  Ostrinia  nubilalis.  As  a  well-adapted  parasite,  in  the  laboratory 
Nosema  does  not  normally  kill  its  host  despite  high  levels  of  infection.  The  primary  effects  of 
infection  are  reduced  fecundity  and  longevity  of  the  host.  It  was  reasoned  that  infected 
individuals  would  be  weakened  and  therefore  more  susceptible  to  killing  by  other  agents  in  a 
field  situation.  Such  an  effect  was  demonstrated  for  concurrent  Bacillus  thuringensis  infection 
and  for  treatment  with  carbaryl  or  carbofuran. 

At  the  AES  Council  meeting  President  Charles  Mason  announced  the  following 
committee  assignments  for  the  1983-84  year: 

Finance  -  William  Day  (Chairman),  Paul  Burbutis,  Harold  White,  and  Jessie  Freese. 

Libran'  -  Selwyn  Roback  (Chairman),  Joseph  Sheldon,  Howard  Boyd,  and  Roger 
Fuester. 

Publications  -  Selwyn  Roback  (Chairman),  Howard  Boyd,  Daniel  Otte,  and  Charles  Mason. 

Membership  -  Joseph  Sheldon  (Chairman),  and  Ronald  Romig. 

Program  -  Harold  White  (Chairman),  and  Carla  Ritter. 

125th  Anniversary  Program  -  Charles  Mason,  (Chairman).  William  Day,  Howard 

Boyd, Harold  White,  Joseph  Sheldon,  and  Selwyn 
Roback. 

Harold  B.  White 
Corresponding  Secretary 

BOOKS  RECEIVED  AND  BRIEFLY  NOTED  (Continued) 

TIGER  BEETLES  OF  GENUS  CICINDELA  IN  ARIZONA.  J. 

Bertholf.  1983.  Texas  Tech  Univ.  44  pp.  $7.00. 

Systematics  and  species  accounts  of  the  37  species  found  in  Arizona. 

ANTS  OF  WESTERN  TEXAS:  MYRMICINAE.  J.V.  Moody  &  O.F. 
Francke.  1982.  Texas  Tech  Univ.  80  pp.  $12.00. 

Study  objective  was  to  determine  which  ant  species  inhabit  western  Texas,  define  their 
geographic  regions,  and  explore  factors  limiting  their  distributions. 

BIOLOGY  &  POPULATION  OF  TIGER  BEETLE  CICINDELA 
JAPONICA.  M.  Hori.  1 982.  Physiology  &  Ecology  Japan,  Kyoto.  2 1 2  pp. 

Life  history,  growth,  development,  and  dynamics  of  natural  population  were  studied  for  8 
years  by  tracing  labeled  larval  burrows  and  marked  adults. 

AUSTRALIAN  CRICKETS.  D.  Otte  &  R.D.  Alexander.  1983.  Mono- 
graph 22,  Academy  Natural  Sciences  of  Philadelphia.  477  pp.  $45.00. 

A  taxonomic  survey  and  study  of  492  species,  of  which  376  are  new. 

GUIDE  TO  LARVAE  OF  NEARCTIC  DIAMESINAE  (DIPTERA: 
CHIRONOMIDAE).  J.S.  Doughman.  1983.  U.S.  Geological  Survey.  57 
pp. 

Keys  and  decriptions  to  known  species  of  Boreoheptagyia,  Protanvpus,  Diamesa,  and 
Pseudokiefferiella  present  in  clean,  cool  arctic-alpine  waters. 


Vol.  94,  No.  3,  May  &  June  1983  107 


CHECKLIST  OF  BEETLES  OF  NORTH  AND  CENTRAL 
AMERICA  AND  THE  WEST  INDIES 

Several  years  ago  I  started  the  North  American  Beetle  Fauna  Project  which  was  aborted  in 
1 98 1  because  of  lack  of  funds.  We  were  able  to  produce  the  "Red  Version"  of  the  "Checklist  of 
the  Beetles  of  Canada,  United  States,  Mexico,  Central  America,  and  the  West  Indies"  and 
two  families  of  the  "Yellow  Version"  of  that  checklist.  The  "Red"  list  was  completed  with  the 
help  of  now  Professor  Emeritus  Richard  E.  Blackwelder.  Only  a  limited  number  of  copies  were 
produced  and  it  immediately  went  out  of  print. 

Meantime  several  parts  of  the  U.S.  Department  of  Agriculture's  "A  Catalog  of  the 
Coleoptera  of  America  north  of  Mexico"  have  been  issued.  Also  four  additional  parts  of  the 
"Yellow  Version"  have  been  published  elsewhere. 

Continued  requests  for  the  checklist  parts  have  forced  me  to  have  some  of  that  work 
reprinted  and  to  undertake  revision  of  these  parts.  To  do  this,  I  have  incorporated  the  new 
sections  of  the  "Yellow  Version"  mentioned  above  and  changed  the  arrangement  and 
renumbered  the  families  included  in  the  work  to  conform  with  the  recent  changes  in  the 
classification. 

This  new  work  is  entitled,  "The  Checklist  of  the  Beetles  of  North  and  Central  America  and 
the  West  Indies."  It  covers  the  same  geographical  area  as  intended  in  the  original  Project.  It  is 
compiled  and  edited  by  myself.  The  present  set  of  volumes  ( 10)  includes  renumbered  parts  of 
the  "Red"  list,  some  with  minor  updating,  except  for  the  new  parts  mentioned  above. 

It  is  my  intention  to  continuously  revise  this  work  as  the  need  and  time  permits.  All  of  the 
new  parts  are  entered  into  computer  storage  for  ease  in  updating  and  revising.  Various  beetle 
specialists  are  invited  to  revise  or  help  revise  these  sections. 

New  family  sections  may  be  replaced  or  added  to  the  work  according  to  the  wishes  of  the 
owner  of  the  set.  All  of  the  volumes  are  stored  in  looseleaf  notebooks. 

Each  volume  contains  a  table  of  contents.  One  volume  is  published  elsewhere  (the 
Weevils)  but  may  be  supplied  to  those  wishing  the  complete  set.  The  final  volume  is  the 
bibliography.  To  find  references  given  in  the  text  use  the  name  of  the  author  of  a  taxon,  the  year 
of  publication,  and  the  page  number  (these  appear  as  citations  in  the  Checklist).  However, 
please  note  that  the  present  set  includes  references  from  1758  through  1947.  Later  references 
will  be  included  in  future  parts. 

These  10  volumes  complete  this  work  as  it  now  stands;  revisions  will  be  issued  as 
separate  works.  The  titles  of  the  10  volumes  follow. 

Vol.  1.      The  Ground  Beetles,  Water  Beetles,  and  related  groups. 

Vol.  2.      The  Rove  Beetles  and  related  groups. 

Vol.  3.      The  Scarab  Beetles,  Buprestid  Beetles,  and  related  groups. 

Vol.  4.      The  Click  Beetles,  Fireflies,  Checkered  Beetles,  and  related  groups. 

Vol.  5.      The  Ladybird  Beetles  and  related  groups. 

Vol.  6.      The  Darkling  Beetles,  Strepsiptera,  and  related  groups. 

Vol.  7.      The  Longhorned  Beetles. 

Vol.  8.      The  Leaf  Beetles  and  the  Bean  Weevils. 

Vol.  9.      The  Fungus  Weevils,  Bark  Beetles,  Weevils,  and  related  groups. 

Vol.  10.  Bibliography  of  the  Coleoptera  of  North  America  north  of  Mexico,  1758- 
1948. 

Ross.  H.  Arnett,  Jr.  Florida  State  Collection  of  Arthropods, 
Div.  of  Plant  Industry,  P.O.  Box  1269.  Gainesville,  FL  32601 


108  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


INTERNATIONAL  COMMISSION  ON  ZOOLOGICAL 

NOMENCLATURE 

c/o  BRITISH  MUSEUM  (NATURAL  HISTORY),  CROMWELL  ROAD, 

LONDON,  SW7  5BD 

ITZN  59  6  April  1983 

The  following  Opinions  have  been  published  by  the  International  Commission  on 
Zoological  Nomenclature  in  the  Bulletin  of  Zoological  Nomenclature,  volume  40,  part  1,  on 
29  March  1983: 

Opinion  No. 

1239  (p.  25)        Attelabus  Linnaeus,  1758  (Insecta,  Coleoptera):  type  species  designated. 

1 240  (p.  27)        HESPERIIDAE  Latreille,  1 809  (Insecta,  Lepidoptera):  added  to  Official 

List. 

1244  (p.  37)        Stethaspis  Hope,  1837  (Coleoptera,  Scarabaeidae):  designation  of  type 

species. 

1245  (p.  39)        Linyphia  tenebricola  Wider,  1834  (Arachnida):  to  be  interpreted  in  the 

sense  of  Kulcyzynski,  1887. 

The  Commission  regrets  that  it  cannot  supply  separates  of  Opinions. 

ITZN  11/4 
(A.N.  (S.)  125) 

The  Commission  hereby  gives  six  months  notice  to  the  possible  use  of  its  plenary  powers 
in  the  following  cases,  published  in  the  Bulletin  of  Zoological  Nomenclature,  volume  40,  part 
1,  on  29  March  1983,  and  would  welcome  comments  and  advice  on  them  from  interested 
zoologists. 

Correspondence  should  be  adddressed  to  the  Secretary  at  the  above  address,  if  possible 
within  six  months  of  the  date  of  publication  of  this  notice. 

Case  No. 

1688  PseudopontiaPlotzv.  GonophlebiaFe\der (Insecta, Lepidoptera):  settlement 

of  case. 
2233  Request  for  a  ruling  to  correct  homonymy  in  names  of  the  family-groups  based 

on  Myrmecia  (Insecta)  and  Myrmecium  (Arachnida). 

2269  On  family-group  names  based  on  Eurhin,  Eurhinus  and  Eurhynchus  (Coleoptera). 

2389  Myzusfestucae Theobald,  19 17  (Insecta,  Aphidoidea):  proposed  conservation. 

2153  Calaphis  Walsh,  1862  and  Callaphis  Walker,  1870  (Insecta,  Hemiptera, 

Aphididae):  proposals  to  remove  the  confusion. 
2373  UROPLAT  --  as  the  stem  of  family-group  names  in  Amphibia  and  Insecta 

(Coleoptera):  proposals  to  remove  the  homonymy. 
2358  Oeciacus  vicarius  Horvath,  1912  (Insecta,  Hemiptera,  Cimicidae):  proposed 

conservation. 

R.V.  MELVILLE 

Secretary 


When  submitting  papers,  all  authors  are  requested  to  ( 1 )  provide  the  names  of  two  qualified 
individuals  who  have  critically  reviewed  the  manuscript  beforeil  is  submitted  and  (2)  submit 
the  names  and  addresses  of  two  qualified  authorities  in  the  subject  field  to  whom  the 
manuscript  may  be  referred  by  the  editor  for  final  review.  All  papers  are  submitted  to 
recognized  authorities  for  final  review  before  acceptance. 

Titles  should  be  carefully  composed  to  reflect  the  true  contents  of  the  article,  and  be  kept  as 
brief  as  possible.  Classification  as  to  order  and  family  should  be  included  in  the  title,  except 
where  not  pertinent.  Following  the  title  there  should  be  a  short  informative  abstract  (not  a 
descriptive  abstract)  of  not  over  1 50  words.  The  abstract  is  the  key  to  how  an  article  is  cited  in 
abstracting  journals  and  should  be  carefully  written.  The  author's  complete  mailing  address, 
including  zip  code  number,  should  be  given  as  a  footnote  to  the  article.  All  papers  describing 
new  taxa  should  include  enough  information  to  make  them  useful  to  the  nonspecialist. 
Generally  this  requires  a  key  and  a  short  review  or  discussion  of  the  group,  plus  references  to 
existing  revisions  or  monographs.  Illustrations  nearly  always  are  needed.  All  measurements 
shall  be  given  using  the  metric  system  or,  if  in  the  standard  system,  comparable  equivalent 
metric  values  shall  be  included.  Authors  can  be  very  helpful  by  indicating,  in  pencil  in  the 
margin  of  the  manuscript,  approximate  desired  locations  within  the  text  of  accompanying 
figures,  tables  and  other  illustrations. 

Illustrations:  For  maximum  size  and  definition,  full  page  figures,  including  legends,  should 
be  submitted  as  nearly  as  possible  in  a  proportion  of  4/6.  Maximum  size  of  printed  illustration, 
including  all  legends,  is  4!/z  x  6W  inches.  Authors  will  be  charged  for  all  text  figures  and  half- 
tones at  the  rate  of  $7.50  each,  regardless  of  size. 

Books  for  review  and  book  publication  announcements  should  be  sent  to  the  editor.  Howard 
P.  Boyd.  For  address,  see  under"manuscripts"  above.  Literature  notices,  books  received  and 
short  reviews  will  be  published  in  The  Entomologist's  Library  on  books  dealing  with 
taxonomy,  systematics,  morphology,  physiology  ecology,  behavior  and  similar  aspects  of 
insect  life  and  related  arthropods.  Books  on  applied,  economic  and  regulatory  entomology,  on 
toxicology  and  related  subjects  will  not  be  considered. 

Short  notes  will  be  published  promptly  in  The  Entomologist's  Record. 

Study  notices,  want  items  and  for  sale  notices  are  published  in  The  Entomologist's  Market 
Place. 

Page  charges:  A  charge  of  $25. 00  is  made  for  each  published  page  of  an  article,  plus  costs  of 
all  illustrations.  If  any  charges  are  not  paid  within  120  days  of  date  of  billing,  authors  will  be 
charged  an  additional  $5.00  per  page.  Papers  may  be  published  ahead  of  their  regularly 
scheduled  time  at  a  cost  of  $35.00  per  page. 

Unemployed  and  retired  amateur  and  scientist  members  of  the  American  Entomological 
Society  who  are  without  institutional  support  or  are  not  subsidized  by  grants  and  who  are 
without  funds  for  publishing  may  apply  for  financial  assistance  at  the  time  their  manuscript  is 
submitted.  Such  application  must  include  an  explanation  of  the  author's  status  ( unemployed  or 
retired).  Page  charges  for  these  individuals  are  negotiable,  with  a  minimum  of  $7. 00  per  page. 

Reprints:  (without  covers)  may  be  ordered  when  corrected  page  proofs  are  returned  to  the 
editor.  Schedule  of  reprint  costs  will  appear  on  order  form. 


The  Entomologist's  Market  Place 

Advertisements  of  goods  or  services  for  sale  are  accepted  at  SI  .00  per  line, 
payable  in  advance  to  the  editor.  Notices  of  wants  and  exchanges  not 
exceeding  three  lines  are  free  to  subscribers.  Positions  open,  and  position 
wanted  notices  are  included  here  and  may  be  referred  to  by  box  numbers.  All 
insertions  are  continued  from  month  to  month,  the  new  ones  are  added  at  the 
end  of  the  column,  and,  when  necessary,  the  older  ones  at  the  top  are 
discontinued. 


FREE  PUBLICATION:  Thomas  D.  &  F.  Werner  (1981)  Grass  Feeding  Insects  of  the 
Western  Ranges:  An  Annotated  Checklist.  Send  requests  to  either  author.  Dep't.  of 
Entomology.  University  of  Arizona.  Tucson,  AZ  85721. 

FOR  SALE:  Over  5000  different  butterfly  and  beetle  species  from  Philippines,  China, 
Indonesia,  New  Guinea,  Brazil,  Africa,  Europe,  and  many  other  areas.  Also:  Insect  pins 
(famous  Austrian  trade  mark),  IMPERIAL  black,  $14.90  per  thousand.  Write  to:  Kamer 
Co.  Ltd..  Weilg.  3.  A-l  191  WIEN.  Austria  (Europe). 

WANTED:  Books,  bibliographies,  and  other  comprehensive  works  on  ticks  (Ixoidoidea), 
worldwide.  Please  write  beforehand,  stating  condition  and  price.  Richard  G.  Robbins,  Dept.  of 
Entomology,  Smithsonian  Institution,  NHB  127,  Washington,  DC  20560. 

FOR  SALE:  Journal  of  Medical  Entomology,  Vols.  5  ( 1968)  to  16  ( 1979)  complete.  Make 
offer.  D.  Hilton,  Bishop's  University.  Lennoxville,  P.Q.  JIM  1Z7  Canada. 

WANTED:  Information  (esp.  old  correspondence  and  collection  data)  on  Ernest  John  Oslar 
(1859-1944)  general  collector  of  western  insects.  Send  information  to  Dave  Ruiter,  1588  S. 
Clermont,  Denver,  CO  80222  for  inclusion  in  detailed  biography.  All  material  can  be  returned. 

WANTED:  Studies  on  the  Comparative  Ethology  of  Digger  Wasps  of  the  Genus  Bembix  by 
Evans:  Beetles  of  the  Pacific  Northwest  by  Hatch  (5  vol.);  Biology  of  the  Leaf  Miners  by 
Hering;  The  Ecology  of  Plant  Galls  by  Mani.  Write  stating  condition  and  price  to  John  E. 
Holzbach,  229  Maywood  Drive,  Youngstown,  Ohio  44512. 

FOR  SALE:  Bee  Flies  of  the  World.  1973.  687  pp..  $20.00  and  Robber  Flies  of  the  World. 
1962, 907  pp..  $20.00:  both  by  F.M.  Hull.  Order  fro  C.S.  Hull.  Box  1553.  Oxford.  Miss.  38655. 

RUSSIAN  &  GERMAN  TRANSLATION  service.  Negotiable  prices.  E.g..  Makarchenko 
( 1 978.  1 980)  available  in  modern  (chironomid)  terms  for  $2.50.  P.  Spitzer,  1 625  McLendon. 
Ap't.  4,  Atlanta,  GA  30307. 

WANTED:  A  copy  of  Arnett's  The  Beetles  of  the  United  States.  Joseph  A.  Lankalis,  1  East 
High  St.,  Coaldale,  PA  18218. 

FOR  SALE:  Republication  of  Frederick  Valentine  Melsheimer's  1806  "A  Catalogue  of 
Insects  of  Pennsylvania,"  the  first  separate  work  devoted  to  American  insects.  The  facsimile 
lists  more  than  1300  species  of  Coleoptera  (other  orders  were  not  completed),  and  includes  a 
short  biography  of  Melsheimer.  Price:  U.S.,  $5.00  (overseas,  airmail  $6.50).  Checks 
payable  to  Entomological  Society  of  Pennsylvania,  c/o  Entomology  Dept.,  Pennsylvania 
State  University,  University  Park,  PA  16802,  U.S.A. 


US  ISSN  0013-872X 


Vol.  94 


SEPTEMBER  &  OCTOBER  1983 


No.  4 


t 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Variation  in  structure  of  ligula  of  Tanypodine  larvae  (Diptera: 

Chironomidae)  K.J.  Tennessen,  P.K.  Gottfried  109 

Four  acalyptrate  Diptera  reared  from  dead  horseshoe 

crabs  Allen  L.  Norrbom  117 

Biology  of  Euxesta  quaternaria  (Diptera:  Otitidae) 

J.S.  Yoon,  M.T.  Mathew,  R.E.  Holman  122 

New  species  of  Loreta  &  Icaia  (Homoptera:  Cicadellidae) 

from  Bolivia  &  Peru  Dwight  M.  DeLong  127 

Stygnocoris  rusticus:  new  records  in  eastern  No.  America, 

with  a  review  of  its  distribution  A.G.  Wheeler,  Jr.  131 


New  records  of  No.  American  Odonata 


Sidney  W.  Dunkle  136 


New  record  for  Ixodes  texanus  (Acarina:  Ixodidae)  in  Missis- 
sippi with  a  new  host  record  /.  Goddard,  B.R.  Norment  139 

New  record  of  mayfly  Baetisca  rubescens  for  West 

Virginia  D.C.  Tarter,  D.K.  Peltry  141 

A  mutillid  mimic  of  an  ant  (Hymenoptera: 

Mutillidae  &  Formicidae)  George  C.  Wheeler  143 

An  aggregation  of  Chalybion  californicum  (Hymenoptera: 

Sphecidae)  in  a  bell  K.  Schoenly,  D.M.  Calabrese  145 

Insects  visiting  flowers  of  wild  red  raspberry  in  spruce-fir 

forested  areas  of  eastern  Maine  R.  W.  Hensen,  E.A.  Osgood  147 

Biology  of  Trichadentotecnum  alexanderae  (Psocoptera: 

Psocidae):  its  habitat,  life  stages  &  events  B.  W.  Betz  152 


BOOK  REVIEW  &  BRIEF  EDITORIAL  COMMENT 


159 


BOOKS  RECEIVED  &  BRIEFLY  NOTED 


116,  130,  135, 
140,  142,  159,  160 


THE  AMERICAN  ENTOMOLOGICAL  SOCIETY 


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Vol.  94,  No.  4,  September  &  October.  1983  109 

VARIATION  IN  STRUCTURE  OF  LIGULA  OF 

TANYPODINAE  LARVAE  (DIPTERA: 

CHIRONOMIDAE)1 

K.J.  Tennessen,  P.K.  Gottfried2 

ABSTRACT:  Variations  in  the  structure  of  the  ligula  of  Tanypodinae  larvae  (Diptera: 
Chironomidae)  were  found  in  six  of  nine  genera  examined.  About  3  percent  of  the  2370  larvae 
examined  were  considered  abnormal,  possessing  either  fewer  or  greater  numbers  of  teeth  than 
typically  found,  or  teeth  that  were  bifid,  curved,  or  otherwise  asymmetrical. 

Findings  indicate  that  taxonomic  keys  which  rely  primarily  on  the  number  of  ligula  teeth 
should  be  used  with  caution.  Basic  shape  and  color  of  the  ligula,  besides  number  of  teeth,  are 
important  characteristics;  combinations  of  other  characters  are  provided  here  to  aid  in 
identifying  certain  genera. 

The  number,  shape,  and  color  of  teeth  on  the  ligula  of  Tanypodinae 
larvae  have  been  used  as  key  characters  in  separating  tribes  and  genera 
(Beck  1 976;  Mason  1 973;  Roback  1 978,  1 980;  Webb  and  Brigham  1 982). 
We  have  found  that  the  ligula  is  a  variable  structure  in  certain  species, 
especially  in  regard  to  the  number  of  teeth,  and  this  variation  can  lead  to 
mistaken  determinations  using  present  keys  which  overemphasize  ligula 
morphology.  Some  larvae  simply  cannot  be  keyed  to  ligula  characteristics 
alone. 

We  examined  nine  genera  and  found  atypical  ligulas  in  six  of  them.  For 
each  genus  in  which  we  have  observed  abnormal  ligulas.  we  describe  and 
illustrate  the  major  types  of  variations  and  give  a  combination  of  characters 
by  which  the  larvae  may  be  reliably  identified.  All  specimens  examined  are 
from  northern  Alabama.  The  drawings  were  made  by  tracing  photographs; 
the  paraglossae  were  included  since  they  can  be  useful  in  confirming 
identifications. 

Ablabesmyia 

The  ligula  typically  bears  five  black  teeth,  the  tips  of  which  are  often 
translucent;  the  median  tooth  is  shorter  than  the  first  lateral  teeth  in  most 
species.  The  ligula  of  A.  annulata  ( Say)  is  unusual  in  that  the  median  tooth 
is  at  least  as  long  as  the  first  laterals  and  the  apices  of  these  three  teeth  are 
truncate  (Figure  1).  One  larva  from  Alabama  (25  examined)  has  a  ligula 
with  an  extra  lateral  tooth,  for  a  total  of  six  teeth  (Figure  2).  Ablabesmyia 
larvae  may  be  recognized  by  the  presence  of  more  than  one  basal  palpal 
segment,  and  most  species  have  one  or  two  dark  claws  on  the  anal  prolegs. 


'Received  March  3.  1983.  Accepted  May  21,  1983. 

^Div.  of  Air  &  Water  Resources,  Tennessee  Valley  Authority,  Knoxville.  Tennessee  37902 

ENT.  NEWS  94(4):    109-1 16.  September  &  October.  1^X3    \\\  I 

I     OCT 181983 


110 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Figures  1-2.   Typical  ligula  (1)  and  abnormal  ligula  (2)  of  Ablabesmyia  annulata. 

Clinotanypus 

The  typical  Clinotanypus  ligula  has  six  clear  amber  teeth  (Figure  3). 
Several  C.  pinguis  (Loew)  larvae  we  observed  had  five  or  seven  teeth 
(Figures  4  and  5),  while  another  larva  had  a  ligula  with  six  asymmetrical 
teeth  (Figure  6).  A  total  of  9  larvae  (3.16  percent)  out  of  the  285  larvae 
examined  possessed  atypical  ligulas. 


5  6 

Figures  3-6.   Typical  ligula  (3)  and  abnormal  ligulas  (4-6)  of  Clinotanypus  pinguis. 


Vol.  94,  No.  4,  September  &  October,  1983  1  1  1 


Because  of  the  variations  in  the  number  of  teeth  between  specimens  of 
the  same  species,  the  number  of  ligula  teeth  is  not  a  totally  reliable 
diagnostic  character.  In  addition,  other  genera  may  have  the  same  number 
of  teeth  as  Clinotanypus,  Roback  (1974)  reported  Colelotanypus  concinnus 
(Coquillett)  larvae  with  six  to  eight  teeth  (the  usual  number  of  ligula  teeth 
for  this  genus  is  seven). 

Characters  that  distinguish  Clinotanypus  larvae  from  those  closely 
related  include:  (1)  head  about  1-1/2  times  as  long  as  wide,  (2)  antennae 
about  3/4  as  long  as  head,  and  ( 3 )  mandibles  hook-like.  In  addition,  a  small, 
lateral  spur-like  process  between  the  second  and  third  thoracic  segments  of 
Coelotanypus  larvae  will  help  to  differentiate  them  from  Clinotanypus. 

Djalmabatista 

The  typical  ligula  of  the  only  North  American  species,  D.  pulcher 
(Johannsen),  has  four  black  teeth  (Figure  7)  (See  Roback  and  Tennessen 
1978).  We  have  found  a  high  degree  of  variation  in  the  number  and  shape  of 
teeth  in  several  populations.  Of  1545  larvae  examined,  50  (3.24  percent) 
were  atypical.  The  number  of  teeth  varied  from  three  to  six:  other 
configurations  included  asymmetrical,  bifid,  and  curved  teeth  (Figures  8- 
16).  The  most  common  abnormal  type  of  ligula  had  five  symmetrical  teeth 
(Figure  12)  resembling  the  Procladius  ligula  and  larvae  of  two  South 
American  species  of  Djalmabatista  (Roback  1980).  Larvae  with  three 
teeth  cannot  be  keyed. 

Other  diagnostic  characters  for  the  genus  which  should  be  used  in 
addition  to  ligula  characteristics  for  accurate  taxonomic  identification 
are:  ( 1 )  blade  of  antennal  segment  1  much  longer  than  combined  length  of 
antennal  segments  2-4  and  (2)  mandible  with  bilobed  inner  tooth  (Roback 
1980). 

Larsia 

The  ligula  typically  has  five  dark  brown  teeth  (Figure  17).  Out  of  1 10 
larva  examined,  1  had  6  teeth  (Figure  18).  The  genus  is  characterized  by  the 
combination  of:  ( 1 )  teeth  of  ligula  in  concave  configuration,  with  first 
laterals  pointed  anteriorly;  (2)  preanal  papillae  less  than  five  times  as  long 
as  wide:  and  (3)  antennas  yellow,  ant  >nnal  ratio  ±  4.0. 

Procladius 

The  typical  ligula  of  both  subgenera  (Psilotanypus  and  Procladius)  has 
five  black  teeth,  the  outer  laterals  longest,  the  median  shortest  (Figures  19 
and  24).  We  examined  223  larvae  of  P.  (Psilotanypus)  bellus(Loew)  and 
observed  that  10,  or  4.48  percent,  had  atypically  shaped  ligulas.  Variations 
included  four  teeth  (Figure  20),  five  asymmetrical  teeth  (Figures  21  and 
22),  and  six  or  seven  teeth  (Figure  23). 


112 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Figures  7  16.   Typical  ligula  (7)  and  abnormal  ligulas  (8-16)  of  Djalmabatista  pulcher. 


Vol.  94,  No.  4,  September  &  October,  1983 


113 


17 


18 


Figures  17-18.   Typical  ligula  (17)  and  abnormal  ligula  (18)  of  Lars ia  sp. 


23 


Figures  19-23.  Typical  ligula  (19)  and  abnormal  ligulas  (20-23)  of  Procladius  bellus. 

A  reliable  combination  of  other  characteristics  for  P.  bellus  includes: 
( 1 )  blade  of  antennal  segment  2  subequal  in  length  to  antennal  segments  2- 
4,  (2)  single  tooth  on  inner  margin  of  mandible,  (3)  hypopharyngeal  pecten 
with  4-8  teeth,  (4)  smallest  one  or  two  claws  of  posterior  prolegs  usually 
toothed,  and  (5)  ligula  of  instar  IV  61-87  /x  (based  on  Roback  1980). 

One  specimen  out  of  fifty-eight  P.  (Procladius)  sublet tei  Roback  larvae 
examined  had  an  aberrant  ligula,  with  six  teeth  (Figure  25 ).  Part  of  one  of  the 
median  teeth  on  this  specimen  was  broken  off.  Otherwise,  the  specimen 
resembles  an  aberrant  larvae  reported  by  Roback  (1980.  Figure  25). 


114 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


25 

Figures  24-25.   Typical  ligula  (24)  and  abnormal  ligula  (25)  of  Procla dins  sublettei. 

Larvae  of  the  subgenus  Procladius  differ  little  among  the  species.  Roback 
( 1 980)  offered  a  provisional  key  based  on  size  differences.  As  a  group,  they 
differ  from  Psilotanypus  in  their  larger  size  and  the  longer  apical  tooth  of  the 
paraglossae  (compare  Figures  19  and  24). 

Tanypus 

The  typical  ligula  is  pale  to  light  brown,  with  five  teeth;  the  median  tooth 
and  first  lateral  teeth  are  as  long  as  or  longer  than  the  outer  laterals  (Figure 
26).  We  have  1  specimen  of  T.  punctipennis  Meigen  with  6  teeth  (Figure 
27 );  we  examined  1 2  specimens.  The  genus  is  recognizable  by  the  following 
combination  of  characteristics:  ( 1 )  the  presence  of  dorsomental  teeth,  (2) 
ligula  pale,  teeth  with  tips  in  convex  or  straight  configuration,  (3)  body  with 
conspicuous  lateral  hair  fringe,  an  (4)  mandibles  thick  and  bulging  in  basal 
three-fourths  of  their  length. 


26  27 

Figures  26-27.  Typical  ligula  (26)  and  abnormal  ligula  (27)  of  Tanypus  punctipennis. 

DISCUSSION 


Examination  of  over  2370  Tanypodinae  larvae  from  northern  Alabama 


Vol.  94,  No.  4.  September  &  October,  1983  115 


revealed  that  slightly  over  3  percent  possessed  an  abnormal  ligula,  with 
either  more  or  fewer  teeth  than  dictated  for  the  taxa,  or  with  some  type  of 
asymmetry.  Although  the  incidence  of  ligular  abnormalties  is  low,  it  shows 
that  most  keys  rely  too  heavily  on  the  ligula  as  a  character  for  distinguishing 
genera. 

The  majority  of  larvae  examined  were  fourth  instar,  although  a  few 
abnormalities  were  found  in  second  and  third  instar  larvae.  Our  data 
indicate  that  the  ligula  within  the  Procladiini  is  more  variable  than  within 
the  Pentaneurini.  For  example,  some  monthly  samples  of  Djalmabatista 
pulcher  consisted  of  over  6  percent  abnormal  larvae. 

Hamilton  and  Saether  (1971)  observed  deformed  chironomid  larvae  in 
Lake  Erie  and  in  two  lakes  in  British  Columbia.  Approximately  1  percent  of 
the  larvae  were  affected,  the  most  common  deformity  being  an  extremely 
thickened  integument;  a  few  had  deformed  mouthparts.  An  analysis  of  the 
distribution  of  deformed  larvae  in  these  lakes  showed  that  they  occurred  in 
areas  receiving  industrial  discharge  or  agricultural  runoff. 

The  majority  of  larvae  we  examined  were  from  two  man-made  lakes 
and  three  ponds  formed  in  pits  from  which  coal  had  been  stripped  in 
Marion  County,  Alabama.  The  percentage  of  ligula  deformities  was  slightly 
higher  in  the  combined  strip-mine  pond  samples  (Table  1),  but  was  not 
significantly  different  that  the  percentages  found  in  the  man-made  lakes. 
Whether  certain  environmental  variables  are  causative  agents  during  larval 
development  is  unknown. 

Table  1 .  Number  of  larvae  with  a  deformed  ligula  from  three  locations  in  Marion  County, 
Alabama.  Numbers  in  parentheses  are  numbers  of  larvae  examined. 

Marion  Strip-Mine  Buttahatchee 

County  Lake  Ponds  Lake 

Ablabcsmyia  1  (29)  0  (50)                       0       (22) 

Clinotanypus  1  (35)  4  (73)                      4(177) 

Djalmabatista  10  (547)  40  (1014)                       0          (2) 

Larsia  0  (4)  1  (99)                       0          (7) 

Procladius  0  (24)  1  (36)  10     (240) 

Tanypus  0  (0)  0  (2)                        1        (12) 

Totals  12  (639)  46  (1274)  15     (460) 

1.88%  3.61%                           3.26% 


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

This  work  was  supported  by  the  Environmental  Protection  Agency  under  terms  of 
Interagency  Agreement  D8-E721-DS  with  the  Tennessee  Valley  Authority.  Energy  Accomplish- 
ment Plan  80-BDS.  We  thank  Dr.  Selwyn  S.  Roback  for  advice  and  comments  on  the 
manuscript. 


116  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


LITERATURE  CITED 

Beck,  W.M.,  Jr.  1976.  Biology  of  the  larval  chironomids.  State  of  Florida  Dept.  Environ. 

Reg..  Tech.  Series,  2(1):    1-58. 
Hamilton,  A.L.  and  O.A.  Saether.  1 97 1 .  The  occurrence  of  characteristic  deformities  in  the 

chironomid  larvae  of  several  Canadian  Lakes.  Can.  Entomol.  103:363-368. 
Mason,  W.T.,  Jr.  1973.  An  introduction  to  the  identification  of  chironomid  larvae.  U.S.  EPA 

Analytical  Quality  Control  Lab..  Cincinnati.  90  pp. 
Roback,  S.S.   1974.  The  immature  stages  of  the  genus  Coelotanypus  (Chironomidae; 

Tanypodinae:  Coelotanypodini)  in  North  America.  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.  126:  9- 

19. 
Roback,  S.S.  1978  The  immature  chironomids  of  the  eastern  United  States.  III.  Tanypodinae- 

Anatopyniini.  Macropelopiini  and  Natarsiini.  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.  129:    151- 

202. 
Roback,  S.S.  1 980.  The  immature  chironomids  of  the  eastern  United  States.  IV.  Tanypodinae- 

Procladiini.  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.  132:    1-63. 
Roback,  S.S.  and  K.J.  Tennessen.  1978.  The  immature  stages  of  Djalmabatista  pulcher 

[=  Prodadius  (Calotanypus)  pulcher (Joh.)].  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.  1 30:    1 1-20. 
Webb,  D. W.  and  W.U.  Brigham.  1 982.  Aquatic  Diptera.  pp.  1 1 . 1  - 1 1 . 1 1 1 .  In  A.R.  Brigham, 

W.U.  Brigham.  and  A.  Guilka,  eds.  Aquatic  insects  and  oligochaetes  of  North  and  South 

Carolina.  Midwest  Aquatic  Enterprises,  Mahomet,  Illinois. 


BOOKS  RECEIVED  AND  BRIEFLY  NOTED 

A  BIOSYSTEMATIC  STUDY  OF  THE  EUROPEAN  STRATIOMYIDAE  (DIPTERA), 

Vol.  2.  R.  Rozkosny.  1983.  Dr.  W.  Junk  BV,  Pub.  431  pp.  $87.00. 

This  volume  deals  with  the  sub-families  Cliterllariinae,  Hermetiinae,  Pachygasterinae,  plus 
bibliography. 

DIAPAUSE  AND  LIFE  CYCLE  STRATEGIES  IN  INSECTS.  V.  Brown  and  I.  Hodek, 
Eds.  1983.  Dr.  W.  Junk  BV,  Pub.  283  pp.  $59.50. 

Fourteen  papers  on  mechanics  regulating  seasonal  adaptation,  life  cycle  polymorphism,  and 
evolution  of  life  cycle  strategies. 

METABOLIC  ASPECTS  OF  LIPID  NUTRITION  IN  INSECTS.  T.  Mittle  &  R.  Dadd, 
Eds.  1983.  Westview  Press.  252  pp.  $27.50. 

Twelve  papers  from  the  1 980  World  Congress  on  the  study  of  essential  fatty  acids  and  fat- 
soluble  vitamins  in  insects,  and  in  work  on  insect  sterol  nutrition  and  metabolism. 

INSECT  BEHAVIOR:  A  SOURCEBOOK  OF  LABORATORY  AND  FIELD  EXER- 
CISES. J.  &  R.  Matthews,  Eds.  1982.  Westview  Press.  324  pp.  $20.00. 

A  concept  oriented  collection  of  34  laboratory  and  field  behavioral  exercises  using  insects  as 
uniquely  suitable  animals  for  behavioral  studies. 


Vol.  94,  No.  4,  September  &  October,  1983  117 

FOUR  ACALYPTRATE  DIPTERA  REARED 
FROM  DEAD  HORSESHOE  CRABS1 2 

Allen  L.  Norrbom^ 

ABSTRACT:  Four  species  of  acalyptrate  Diptera  were  reared  from  dead  horseshoe 
crabs:  Hecamede  albicans  (Meigen)  (Ephydridae),  Conioscinella  hinkleyi  (Malloch) 
(Chloropidae),  Coproica  vagans  (Haliday)  and  C.  hirtula  (Rondani)  (Sphaeroceridae).  The 
third  instar  larvae  and  puparia  of  H.  albicans  and  C.  hinkleyi  are  described,  and  Urolepsis 
rufipes  (Ashmead)  (Hymenoptera,  Pteromalidae)  is  reported  as  a  parasitoid  of  H.  albicans. 

In  spring  and  early  summer,  the  beaches  of  Delaware  Bay  in  the 
vicinity  of  Town  Bank,  New  Jersey,  become  littered  with  the  carcasses  of 
horseshoe  crabs,  Limulus polyphemus  L.,  which  crawl  ashore  to  mate  and 
lay  their  eggs.  The  decaying  crabs  provide  an  excellent  larval  substrate  for  a 
number  of  Diptera,  including  the  following  four  species  that  I  was  able  to 
rear:  Hecamede  albicans  (Meigen)  (Ephydridae),  Conioscinella  hinkleyi 
(Malloch)  (Chloropidae),  Coproica  vagans  (Haliday),  and  C.  hirtula 
(Rondani)  (Sphaeroceridae).  These  records  probably  represent  an  oppor- 
tunistic use  of  this  locally  abundant,  temporary  resource,  as  all  four  species 
appear  to  be  generalist  scavengers. 

The  flies  developed  from  fifteen  dead  horseshoe  crabs  collected  from 
the  beach  on  June  19  and  July  5,  1982.  The  viscera  of  most  of  the  crabs 
were  dried  up  or  were  previously  consumed  by  muscid  and  calliphorid 
larvae,  leaving  mainly  the  outer  sclerotized  parts,  muscle,  and  connective 
tissue.  The  crabs  were  placed  with  moist  sand  in  rearing  jars  and  were 
stored  at  18-23°C.  Water  was  occasionally  added  to  prevent  desiccation. 
Several  crabs  were  dissected  and  the  dipteran  larvae  and  pupae  in  them 
collected  and  preserved  or  reared  separately  to  allow  association  with  the 
adults.  This  paper  presents  biological  observations  on  these  flies  and 
descriptions  of  some  of  their  immature  stages.  The  morphological  terminol- 
ogy of  Teskey  (1981)  is  followed  in  descriptions  of  the  immatures.  All 
specimens  studied,  unless  otherwise  noted,  were  deposited  in  the  Frost 
Entomological  Museum,  The  Pennsylvania  State  University  or  the  National 
Museum  of  Natural  History,  Smithsonian  Institution,  Washington,  D.C. 


1  Received  February  19,  1983.  Accepted  March  31,  1983. 

^Authorized  on  February  9,  1983  for  publication  as  Paper  No.  6604  in  the  Journal  Series  of 
the  Pennsylvania  Agricultural  Experiment  Station.  A  contribution  from  the  Frost  Entomo- 
logical Museum  (AES  Proj.  No.  2594). 


Frost  Entomological  Museum,  Department  of  Entomology,  The  Pennsylvania  State 
University,  University  Park,  PA  16802. 

ENT.  NEWS  94(4):    117-121.  September  &  October,  1983 


1 1 8  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Hecamede  albicans  (Meigen) 

H.  albicans  is  a  common  maritime  ephydrid  found  from  Massachusetts 
to  Maryland  and  also  in  Europe  ( Wirth  1 965 ).  It  has  been  reared  previously 
from  rotting  lettuce  and  excrement  (Simpson  1976  andpers.  comm.)  and  its 
congener,  H.  persimilis  Hendel,  has  been  found  in  "foul  smelling  sand 
beneath  a  human  carcass"  (Bohart  and  Gressitt  1951)  and  bred  from 
seaweed  (Tenorio  1 980).  Both  species  probably  develop  in  a  wide  range  of 
decaying  organic  materials. 

Adults  of//,  albicans  were  very  common  on  the  dead  horseshoe  crabs, 
walking  about  on  their  surface  and  crawling  inside  them.  They  frequently 
extended  their  mouthparts  to  feed,  or  perhaps  simply  to  obtain  moisture. 
Over  200  individuals  were  reared  from  the  crabs.  The  larvae  were  present 
mainly  between  the  gills  and  on  other  moist  membranous  surfaces,  and 
pupation  occurred  within  the  crabs,  in  the  sand,  and  on  the  sides  of  the 
rearingjar.  Descriptions  of  the  third  instar  larva  and  the  puparium  are  given 
below.  In  both  stages,  H.  albicans  is  very  similar  to  H.  persimilis  (see 
Bohart  and  Gressitt  1951;  Tenorio  1980),  but  the  tentoropharyngeal 
sclerite  tapers  more  gradually  anteriorly  and  there  are  3  pairs  of  tubercles 
on  the  last  segment  of  the  larva. 

One  pupa  of  H.  albicans  was  parasitized  by  the  pteromalid  Urolepsis 
rufipes  ( Ashmead).  This  wasp  previously  has  been  reared  from  two  western 
Nearctic  ephydrids,  Hydropvrus  hians  (Say)  and  Setecera  pacifica 
(Cresson)  (Burks  1979)". 

Third  Instar  Larva  (Figs.  4-9):  Opaque  white;  length  4.00  -  4.50  mm;  cylindrical, 
tapering  anteriorly,  truncate  posteriorly.  Cephalic  segment  bilobed  anteriorly;  antenna  (Fig. 
5)  two  segmented,  basally  surrounded  by  broader  membranous  evagination;  cephalopharyngeal 
skeleton  about  0.65-0.70  mm  long;  mandibles  (Figs.  6-7)  strongly  sclerotized,  separate, 
strongly  curved  anteriorly,  with  short  ventral  process  at  about  their  midpoint,  and  with  small 
circular  window  present  at  base  of  ventral  process;  hypopharyngeal  sclerite  strongly 
sclerotized;  parastomal  bar  very  slender,  not  connected  posteriorly  to  tentoropharyngeal 
sclerite;  tentoropharyngeal  sclerite  gradually  tapering  anteriorly  to  acute  apex,  broad  between 
cornua,  strongly  sclerotized  medially  and  anteriorly,  gradudally  weakening  dorsally,  ventrally, 
and  on  apical  half  of  ventral  corua;  dorsal  cornu  with  small  window  apically;  ventral  cornu 
with  larger  mesaily  bent  window  dorsally  near  base;  pharynx  ventrally  with  longitudinal 
ridges,  and  with  2  small  dark  spots  near  tips  of  ventral  cornua;  anterior  spiracle  (Fig.  8)  short, 
fan-shaped,  six-lobed.  Posterior  spiracle  tube  short  and  cylindrical,  slightly  projecting  in 
lateral  view;  spiracular  plate  (Fig.  9)  moderately  sclerotized,  with  inner  margins  of  3 
spiracular  openings  and  ecdysial  scar  indistinct,  and  with  4  sets  of  fine,  many-branched  hairs. 
Terminal  body  segment  with  3  pairs  of  small  tubercles  (Fig.  4),  1  pair  dorsolaterally,  1  pair 
ventroapically,  and  1  pair  ventrolaterally. 

Puparium  (Figs.  1-3):  Medium  brown,  partially  translucent;  length  2.25  -  2.75  mm, 
width  1.00  -  1.25  mm.  Segmentation  obvious,  delimited  by  distinct  transverse  sutures  and 
ridges.  Posterior  spiracles  very  short. 

Conioscinella  hinkleyi  (Malloch) 

The  chloropid  C.  hinkleyi  occurs  from  Kansas  and  Pennsylvania  south 
to  Georgia  and  Louisiana  (Sabrosky  1965).  Kulman  (1965)  has  reared  it 
previously  from  tents  of  the  eastern  tent  caterpillar,  Malacosoma  americanum 


Vol.  94,  No.  4,  September  &  October,  1983  119 


Figs.  1-3.   H.  albicans:  puparium  in  dorsal,  ventral,  and  lateral  views. 

(F.),  and  Berisford  and  Tsao  (1975),  from  larval  cases  of  the  bagworm 
Thyridopteryx  ephemeraeformis  (Haworth).  Two  females  were  reared  in 
this  study;  the  pupal  stage  of  one  was  observed  to  last  7  days.  An  adult 
female  was  also  collected  on  a  dead  horseshoe  crab,  and  a  pupa  which  failed 
to  develop  was  found  lying  on  the  sand  beneath  a  crab.  A  phoretic  hypopus 
of  a  histiostomatid  mite  was  present  on  the  captured  adult.  Descriptions  of 
the  puparium  and  the  remains  of  the  cephalopharyngeal  skeleton  of  the  third 
instar  larva  are  given  below. 

Third  Instar  Larva:  Cephalopharyngeal  skeleton  (Fig.  10)  about  0.45  mm  long; 
mandibles  separate,  strongly  sclerotized,  narrow  and  slightly  curved  anteriorly,  with  narrow 
ventral  process  arising  just  behind  middle,  and  with  small  circular  window  present  at  base  of 
central  process;  hypostomal  sclerite  moderately  sclerotized;  parastomal  bar  extremely 
slender,  connected  to  tentoropharyngeal  sclerite  posteriorly;  tentoropharyngeal  sclerite 
weakly  sclerotized,  especially  cornua,  anteriorly  tapering  to  finger-like  process;  dorsal  and 
ventral  cornua  apparently  without  windows;  pharynx  with  longitudinal  ridges. 

Puparium  (Fig.  1 1 ):  Very  light  golden  brown,  translucent:  length  2.40  mm,  width  0.85 
mm.  Surface  transversed  by  numerous  thin,  wrinkle-like  ridges.  Anterior  spiracle  (Fig.  12) 
small,  with  about  5  short  lobes.  Posterior  spiracles  slightly  projecting. 

Coproica  vagans  (Haliday) 

C.  vagans  is  a  very  common,  cosmopolitan  sphaerocerid  frequently 
found  on  dung  and  compost  (Richards  1973).  Coffey  (1966)  reared  it  from 
chicken,  horse,  cow,  and  pig  excrement  and  collected  adults  on  mink 
droppings.  I  have  also  reared  it  from  CMSA  media  (putrefying  mixture  of 
alfalfa  meal  and  wheat  bran).  Adults  of  C.  vagans  were  very  common  on  the 
dead  horseshore  crabs  and  larvae  and  pupae  were  present  mainly  in  the  gills 
and  other  moist  membranous  parts.  Over  300  individuals  were  reared.  A 
second  generation  also  developed  in  the  same  crabs,  although  fewer  in 
number  than  the  first  generation.  Complete  development  in  the  crabs  and  in 
the  CMSA  media  required  19-23  days,  14-17  for  the  egg  and  larval  stages 
and  5-6  for  the  pupal  stage.  Goddard  (1938)  previously  described  the 
cephalopharyngeal  skeleton  of  the  third  instar  larva  of  C.  vagans,  as  well  as 
the  puparium  which  is  nearly  transparent. 


120 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


8 


6 


7 


12 


9 


Figs  4-9.  //.  albicans:  third  instar  larva;  4  -  lateral  habitus;  5  -  antenna;  6  -  cephalopharyngeal 
skeleton,  lateral  view;  7  -  mandibles,  hypopharynge'al  sclerite,  dorsal  view;  8  -  anterior 
spiracle;  9  -  posterior  spiracular  plate. 


Figs.  10-12.   C.  hinkleyi:   10  -third  instar  larva,  cephalopharyngeal  skeleton;  11  -puparium. 
dorsal  habitus;  12  -  puparium,  anterior  spiracle. 


Vol.  94,  No.  4,  September  &  October,  1983  121 


Coproica  hirtula  (Rondani) 

C.  hirtula  is  also  a  cosmopolitan  sphaerocerid,  very  similar  in  habit  to 
C.  vagans,  being  frequently  found  in  association  with  dung  and  refuse  of 
confined  animals  (Richards  1973).  Coffey  (1966)  reared  it  (as  Leptocera 
exiguella  sp.  A)  from  cow,  pig,  chicken,  human,  and  mink  excrement  and 
collected  it  on  sheep  dung.  A  single  male  emerged  from  the  dead  horseshoe 
crabs. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

My  sincere  thanks  are  due  to  Eric  Grissell  and  Curtis  Sabrosky.  Systematic  Entomology 
Laboratory,  USDA,  for  providing  identifications  of  Urolepsis  riijlpes  and  Conioscinella 
hinkleyi,  respectively,  and  to  Wayne  Mathis.  Smithsonian  Institution,  for  his  advice  and  for 
confirming  my  determination  of  Hecamede  albicans.  I  am  also  indebted  to  Karl  Simpson  for 
generously  sharing  his  unpublished  information  on  H.  albicans,  and  to  Karl  Valley  for  kindly 
referring  me  to  the  publications  on  C.  hinkleyi.  I  would  also  like  to  thank  Mrs.  Thelma 
Brodzina  for  typing  the  manuscript  and  Peter  Adler,  K.C.  Kim,  and  C.W.  Rutschky  for 
reading  earlier  drafts  of  this  paper. 


LITERATURE  CITED 

Berisford,  Y.C.  and  C.H.  Tsao.  1975.  Parsitism,  predation,  and  disease  in  the  bagworm, 

Thvridopen'x  ephemeraeformis  (Haworth)  ( Lepidoptera:  Psychidae).  Env.  Enomol. 

4:  549-554. 
Bohart,  G.E.  and  J.L.  Gressitt.  1 95 1 .  Filth-inhabiting  flies  of  Guam.  Bull.  B.P.  Bishop  Mus. 

204,  152pp. 
Burks,  B.D.  1979.  Family  PteromaJidae.  In:  Catalog  of  Hymenoptera  in  America  North  of 

Mexico,  Vol.  1.  K.V.  Krombein  et  al.,  eds.  Smithsonian  Institution  Press.  Washington, 

D.C.  pp.  768-835. 
Coffey,  M.D.  1966.  Studies  on  the  association  of  flies  (Diptera)  with  dung  in  southeastern 

Washington.  Ann.  Entomol.  Soc.  Amer.  59:  207-218. 
Goddard,  W.H.   1938.  The  description  of  the  puparia  of  fourteen  British  species  of 

Sphaeroceridae  (Borboridae,  Diptera).  Trans.  Soc.  Brit.  Entomol.  5:  235-258. 
Kulman,  H.M.  1 965.  Natural  control  of  the  eastern  tent  caterpillar  and  notes  on  its  status  as  a 

forest  pest.  J.  Econ.  Entomol.  58:  66-70. 
Richards,  O.W.  1 973.  The  Sphaeroceridae  ( =Borboridae  or  Cypselidae;  Diptera,  Cyclorrhapha) 

of  the  Australian  Region.  Aust.  J.  Zool.,  Suppl.  Ser.  22:  297-401. 
Sabrosky,  C.W.  1965.  Family  Chloropidae.  In:  A  Catalog  of  the  Diptera  of  America 

North  of  Mexico.  A.  Stone  et  al.,  eds.  USDA  Agr.  Handbook  No.  276.  pp.  773-793. 
Simpson,  K.W.  1976.  Chapter  17  -  Shore  flies  and  brine  flies  (Diptera:  Ephydridae). 

//;.-  Marine  Insects.  L  Cheng,  ed.  North-Holland  Pub.  Co.,  Amsterdam,  pp.  465-495. 
Tenorio,  J.A.  1 980.  Family  Ephydridae,  Shore  Hies.  In:  Insects  of  Hawaii.  E.D.  Zimmerman, 

ed.  Volume  13  -  Diptera:  Cyclorrhapha  III,  by  D.E.  Hardy  and  M.D.  Delfmado.  The 

Univ.  Press  of  Hawaii,  Honolulu,  pp.  251-351. 
Teskey,  H.J.  1981.  Chapter  3:   Morphology  and  Terminology  -  Larvae.  //;:  Manual  of 

Ncarctic  Diptera,  Vol.  1 .  J.F.  McAlpine,  et  al.,  eds.  Agriculture  Canada.  Ottawa,  pp.  65- 

88. 
Wirth,  W.W.  1965.  Family  Ephydridae.  //;:  A  Catalog  of  the  Diptera  of  America  North  of 

Mexico.  A.  Stone  et  al.,  eds.  USDA  Agr.  Handbook  No.  276.  pp.  734-759. 


122  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


BIOLOGY  Q?  EUXESTA  QUATERNARIA 
LOEW  (DIPTERA:  OTITIDAE)  !  2 

Jong  S.  Yoon,  M.T.  Mathew,  R.E.  Holman^ 

ABSTRACT:  The  picture-winged  fly,  Euxesta  quarternaria  Loew,  was  found  in  southern 
Florida,  closely  associated  with  coconut  palm  trees.  The  life-cycle  is  completed  within  37-42 
days  at  22°C.  This  species  has  2N=12  chromosomes  andean  be  reared  in  the  laboratory.  The 
larvae  feed  in  the  apical  meristem  and  other  soft  growing  parts  of  the  palm  trees,  especially 
those  damaged  by  lethal  yellowing  disease. 

The  life  histories  of  most  species  of  Otitidae  are  not  known.  According 
to  Allen  and  Foote  (1967)  approximately  450  species  have  been  described, 
but  the  larval  feeding  habits  are  known  for  only  some  40  species 
representing  21  genera.  The  morphology  of  the  immature  stages  has  been 
studied  even  less.  Thus  far,  the  larvae  and  pupae  have  been  described  for 
about  10  species  in  8  genera,  and  no  adequate  descriptions  of  the  eggs  or 
earlier  instar  larvae  have  been  published. 

The  genus  Euxesta  includes  more  than  70  species,  most  of  which  are 
distributed  in  tropical  and  subtropical  areas  (  Steyskal,  1  968).  The  larvae  of 
several  species  have  been  found  in  fruits  such  as  oranges,  pineapples, 
melons  and  apples  (see  Allen  and  Foote,  1967).  They  also  attack  rotting  or 
damaged  onion  bulbs  and  roots  of  yams.  Larvae  have  been  found  under  the 
loosened  bark  of  pecan,  hickory,  American  elm,  and  in  the  husks  of  walnuts. 
The  adults  of  some  Euxesta  species  have  been  reared  from  larvae  in 
sugarcane  and  ears  of  corn  (see  Allen  and  Foote,  1967).  Nearly  all  of  the 
reared  species  of  this  genus  have  saprophagous  larvae,  and  very  few  of  the 
North  American  species  are  phytophagous  (Oldroyd,  1964). 

Euxesta  quaternaria  Loew  is  known  to  be  present  in  the  West  Indies 
(Bahamas,  Cuba,  Saint  Thomas,  Jamaica)  and  Panama  (Steyskal,  1968). 
Recently  the  authors  found  large  numbers  of  these  flies  on  palm  trees  in 
southern  Florida  even  though  the  presence  of  them  was  known  earlier  in  this 
area  (Steyskal,  1983,  personal  communication).  These  flies  were  associated 
mainly  with  palm  trees  affected  by  diseases  including  "lethal  yellowing/'  In 
an  attempt  to  discover  any  possible  relationship  between  E.  quaternaria 
and  palm  tree  diseases,  a  study  of  the  biology  of  this  species  was 
undertaken. 


'Received  March  24,  1983.  Accepted  May  23,  1983. 
2This  work  was  supported  by  NSF  Grant  DEB  80-1 1552. 

3  Department  of  Biological  Sciences,  Bowling  Green  State  University,  Bowling  Green,  Ohio 
43403 

ENT.  NEWS  94(4):    122-126.  September  &  October,  1983 


Vol.  94,  No.  4.  September  &  October,  1983  123 


MATERIALS  AND  METHODS 

Studies  were  conducted  on  both  field-collected  and  laboratory-reared 
specimens.  Eggs  and  larvae  were  collected  from  the  soft  growing  parts 
(cambial  tissues)  of  the  coconut  palm  trees  (Cocos  nucifera  and  Malayan 
dwarf)  in  southern  Florida.  These  eggs  along  with  the  cambial  tissue  were 
brought  to  the  laboratory  and  placed  in  vials.  The  hatched  larvae  were  fed 
on  modified  Drosophila  food  (Yoon  et  al.,  1972)  and/or  young  coconut 
fruits.  Larval  vials  were  kept  in  mason  jars  with  moistened  sand  in  the 
bottom.  The  3rd  instar  larvae  pupated  in  the  sand.  The  adults  were  studied 
in  both  natural  and  laboratory  conditions.  The  laboratory  rearing  was  done 
at  room  temperature  (22  C)  with  a  relative  humidity  of  70%. 

The  chromosomes  were  prepared  by  removing  the  brain  ganglia  of  the 
iarvae  in  pnysioiogicai  saline  and  allowing  them  to  swell  in  a  hypotomc 
solution  of  1%  sodium  citrate  for  10  minutes.  The  ganglia  were  then 
transferred  to  aceto-orcein  stain  for  10-15  minutes,  mounted  in  45%  acetic 
acid  solution  and  then  squashed  with  thumb  pressure.  Slides  were  examined 
and  photographed  on  a  Zeiss  phase  photomicroscope.  Kodak  panatomic-x 
35  mm  film  and  Kodak  poly  contrast  rapid  paper  F  were  used  in 
photography  (Yoon  et  al.,  1972). 

OBSERVATION  AND  DISCUSSION 

The  life  cycle  of  the  picture-winged  fly,  E.  quaternaria,  is  shown  in 
Figure  1 .  The  eggs  are  deposited  on  the  soft  growing  parts  of  the  palm  trees. 
The  elongate,  oval-shaped  eggs  (Fig.  I.  D),  2-3  mm  long,  vary  in  numbers 
from  approximately  100-300  per  female.  The  eggs  are  bone  white  in  color 
and  they  hatch  within  2-4  days  at  room  temperature  (22  C). 

The  larvae  (Fig.  I.  E)  undergo  two  molts  and  develop  into  3rd  instar 
larvae.  The  third  instar  larvae  are  about  8-10  mm  long  and  1.4-1.7  mm  in 
width.  Well-developed  mouth  hooks  are  present  in  the  larvae  (Fig.  II. 
B2).  It  was  observed  in  nature  that  all  larval  instars  were  very  active  and  fed 
on  the  soft  parts  of  the  palm  tree  (Fig.  II.  B),  including  apical  meristem. 
inflorescence  and  young  fruits.  Generally  larvae  require  about  21  days  to 
pupate  at  22  C.  In  laboratory  conditions,  due  to  unknown  reasons,  some 
larvae  took  more  than  one  month  to  pupate.  It  was  found  that  in  the 
laboratory  they  pupated  in  moist  paper  tissues  and/or  moistened  sand.  In 
nature  the  larvae  pupate  in  sand  at  the  base  of  the  palm  trees.  They  remain 
in  the  pupal  stage  (Fig.  I.  F)  for  about  14-16  days.  The  pupae  are  light 
brown  in  color. 

The  adults  (Fig.  I.  A.  &  B)  emerged  on  the  14- 16th  day  after  pupation. 
The  adults  are  about  5-6  mm  long.  The  females  can  be  distinguished  easily 
by  their  elongated  pointed  telescoping  ovipositor  (3-4  mm  in  length)  which 


124 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


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Vol.  94,  No.  4,  September  &  October,  1983 


125 


Figure  II.  Damage  to  the  Coconut  Tree  by  E.  c/iiuicrnaria.  A.  Adult  laying  eggs  on  soft  parts 
of  the  stem.  (In  the  circle).  Al.  Female  fly.  (Notice  the  ovipositor).  B.  Larvae  (magnified  view 
in  B 1 )  feeding  on  the  apical  region  of  palm  tree.  Enlarged  mouth  hooks  are  shown  in  Fig.  B2.  C. 
A  young  coconut  palm  tree  severely  damaged  by  lethal  yellowing  and/or  by  these  insects.  D. 
Earlier  stages  (foreground)  of  infestation  of  lethal  yellowing  disease  on  mature  trees  and  its 
final  stages  (dead  trees). 


126  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


is  made  up  of  3  abdominal  segments  (Fig.  I.  B).  Females  have  conspicuous 
yellow  color  on  the  dorsum  of  the  abdomen.  In  nature,  adults  are  found 
frequently  on  the  trunks  of  palm  trees.  The  adults  were  observed  throughout 
the  year,  in  the  early  morning  or  late  afternoon,  sitting  on  the  sunny  side  of 
the  trunks.  The  adults  were  peculiar  in  their  wing-waving  behavior.  They 
move  slowly,  and  constantly  wave  their  dark-banded  wings  in  a  to-and-fro 
motion  similar  to  that  of  many  species  of  Tephritidae.  This  wing-waving  is 
probably  related  to  their  courtship  behavior.  Both  sexes  are  found  to  behave 
in  this  manner.  This  wing-waving  behavior  was  noticed  also  in  the 
laboratory  (Fig.  II.  Aj). 

It  was  found  that  E.  quaternaria  has  12  chromosomes  (2=12) 
including  one  pair  of  microchromosomes  (Fig.  I.  C).  Their  polytene 
chromosomes  are  ectopically  paired  as  predicted  since  the  metaphase 
chromosomes  have  many  heterochromatic  segments  in  their  genome. 

On  the  basis  of  the  present  data  available,  it  is  concluded  that  the  life 
cycle  of  E.  quaternaria  is  associated  with  palm  trees  as  one  of  the  host 
plants.  The  present  study  indicates  that  E.  quaternaria  can  be  reared  in  the 
laboratory  conditions,  therefore  it  may  be  possible  to  establish  a  direct 
cause-relationship  between  the  insects  and  such  diseases  as  "lethal 
yellowing,"  by  obtaining  more  data  on  the  biology  and  ecology  of  these 
flies. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We  wish  to  thank  Dr.  B.A.  Foote,  Department  of  Biological  Sciences,  Kent  State 
University,  Kent,  Ohio  and  Mr.  George  C.  Steyskal.  U.S.  Department  of  Agriculture, 
Washington,  D.C.  for  their  valuable  suggestions  and  assistance  in  the  identification  of  the  flies 
in  this  study.  We  are  grateful  to  Dr.  Robert  C.  Graves.  Bowling  Green  State  University,  for  his 
helpful  comments  on  the  study  and  for  critically  reading  the  manuscript. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Allen,  E.J.  and  B.A.  Foote.  1967.  Biology  and  immature  stages  of  three  species  of  Otitidae 
(Diptera)  which  have  saprophagous  larvae.  Ann.  Ent.  Soc.  Amer.  60:  828-836. 

Oldroyd,  H.  1964.  The  natural  history  of  Hies.  Weidenfeld  and  Nicolson,  London,  pp.  324. 

Steyskal,  G.C.  1968.  Family  Otitidae.  Catalogue  No.  54:  1-31  (Ortalidae:  including 
Pterocallidae,  Ulidiidae).  //;:  A  catalogue  of  the  Diptera  of  the  Americas  south  of  the 
United  States.  Departomento  de  Zoologia,  Secretaria  da  Agricultura,  Sao  Paulo. 

Yoon,  J.S.,  K.  Resch  and  M.R.  Wheeler.  1972.  Cytogenetic  relationships  in  Hawaiian 
species  of  Drosophila.  I.  The  Drosophila  hystricosa  subgroup  of  the  "Modified  Mouthparts" 
species  groups.  Studies  in  genetics  VII.  Univ.  of  Texas  Publ.  7213:  179-199. 


Vol.  94,  No.  4,  September  &  October,  1983  127 

NEW  SPECIES  OF  LORETA  AND  ICAIA 

(HOMOPTERA:  CICADELLIDAE)  FROM 

BOLIVIA  AND  PERU1 

Dwight  M.  DeLong2 

ABSTRACT:  Three  species  of Loreta,  L.Jiskin.sp.  (Peru).  L.  A Ibopunctatan.sp.  (Bolivia), 
L.  vista  n.sp.  (Bolivia)  and  a  species  of  Icaia,  I.  montana  n.sp.  (Bolivia),  are  described. 


The  genus  Loreta  was  described  by  Linnavuori  (1959).  New  species 
were  described  by  Linnavuori  and  DeLong(1978,  1979).  The  genus  Icaia 
was  described  by  Linnavuori  (1973).  Linnavuori  and  DeLong  (1976) 
described  a  Peruvian  species.  Three  new  species  of  Loreta  and  a  new 
Bolivian  species  of  Icaia  are  described  in  this  paper.  All  types  are  in  the 
DeLong  collection,  Ohio  State  University. 

Loreta  fiski  n.sp. 

(Figs.  1-5) 

Length  of  male  3.8  mm.  Female  unknown.  Crown  produced,  angled,  3/4  as  long  at  middle 
as  wide  between  eyes  at  base.  Color:  crown  mostly  orange  except  a  v-shaped  white  spot  at 
apex,  a  slightly  larger  angled  white  spot  each  side  between  apex  and  eye,  and  a  white  elongate 
band  extending  along  eyes  and  across  base,  except  for  a  slight  interruption  at  middle;  all  white 
markings  margined  with  black.  Pronotum  mostly  grayish  brown,  a  median  narrow  white  band 
between  eyes  at  base  and  a  rather  large  roundish  grayish  spot  at  middle  of  pronotum  behind 
each  eye.  Scutellum  orange,  2  median  white  spots  at  base,  a  small  white  spot  in  each  basal 
angle  and  a  small  median  white  spot  each  side  and  at  apex.  Forewings  greyish  white 
subhyaline,  veins  dark  brown,  with  a  few  irregular  brownish  spots  on  clavus.  Claval  area  with 
numerous  cross  veins. 

Male  genital  plates  (fig.  2)  2  times  as  long  as  wide  at  middle,  apices  narrowed,  rounded. 
Style  (fig.  5)  with  apophysis  curved  laterally  and  pointed.  Aedeagus  with  2  blade-like 
structures  arising  at  base  and  extending  laterocaudally  (fig.  1 ).  Aedeagal  shaft  rather  small,  L- 
shaped  laterally  (fig.  3),  apex  bluntly  pointed.  Pygofer  narrowed,  rounded  apically  (fig.  4). 

Holotype  male:  Tingo  Maria,  Peru  1 9-VI- 1982  at  light.  Frank  Fisk  coll.  Paratypes:  2  cf 
Bolivia,  Santa  Cruz  21 -IX- 1980  Donald  Foster  coll. 

L.  fiski  differs  from  all  described  species  of  Loreta  by  having  2  blade- 
like  structures  arising  at  base  of  aedeagus  and  extending  beyond  the  narrow 
angled  aedeagal  shaft. 

I  take  pleasure  in  naming  this  leafhopper  for  the  collector,  Frank  Fisk. 


Deceived  September  24,  1982.  Accepted  March  25,  1983. 
^Department  of  Entomology,  Ohio  State  University. 

ENT.  NEWS  94(4):    127-130.  September  &  October,  1983 


128  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Loreta  albopunctata  n.sp. 

(Figs.  6-10) 

Length  of  male  3.5  mm,  female  4  mm.  Crown  bluntly  angled,  more  than  2/3  as  long  at 
middle  as  wide  between  eyes  at  base.  Color:  crown  whitish,  with  2  large  squarish  proximal 
brown  spots  between  eyes.  Pronotum  mostly  brownish  or  dark  gray  with  a  whitish  area  behind 
each  eye  and  along  apical  margin.  Scutellum  white  with  a  brown  spot  in  each  basal  angle. 
Forewings  brownish,  subhy aline  with  large  white  spots  at  apex  of  claval  veins  on  commissure 
and  on  middle  of  costa.  Brown  spots  on  costa  and  veins  margined  with  darker  brown. 

Female  7th  sternum  with  posterior  margin  broadly,  concavely  rounded. 

Male  genital  plates  2  times  as  long  as  wide  at  middle  (fig.  9),  apex  slightly  narrowed, 
rounded.  Style  elongate  (fig.  8)  apical  5th  narrowed,  rounded.  Aedeagus  with  apical  4th 
consisting  of  a  process  curved  dorsally  (fig.  7),  a  long  slender  process  arises  at  base  and 
extends  latero-dorsally.  Py gofer  rounded  apically  with  a  curved  hook  (fig.  10)  extending 
caudally  on  ventro-caudal  margin.  Pygofer  bearing  macrosetae  on  dorsocaudal  margin. 

Holotype  male:  Bolivia,  Santa  Cruz  1- VI- 1980,  Donald  Foster  coll.  Paratypes:  1  9 
same  data  except  21 -IX- 1980. 

L.  albopunctata  is  related  to  L.  obtecta  Linnavuori  ( 1 959,  p.  1 34)  and 
can  be  separated  from  it  by  the  more  narrowed,  curved  portion  of  the 
aedeagus,  in  lateral  view. 

Loreta  vista  n.sp. 

(Figs.  11-15) 

Length  of  male  3.5  mm.  Female  unknown.  Crown  bluntly  angled,  as  long  at  middle  as 
wide  between  eyes  at  base.  Color:  crown  white  with  broad,  transverse  orange  band  between 
anterior  portions  of  eyes.  A  slight  orange  ring  around  white  apex.  Pronotum  dark  brownish 
gray  with  paler  area  on  each  lateral  margin.  Scutellum  white,  tinted  with  orange,  with  black 
basal  angles.  Forewings  pale  grayish,  subhyaline,  with  a  few  darker  spots  on  clavus,  veins 
mostly  brown. 

Male  genital  plates  4  times  as  long  as  wide  at  middle  (fig.  14),  apices  rounded.  Style 
elongate  with  bluntly  rounded  apophysis  extending  caudally  (fig.  11).  Aedeagus  with  slender 
basal  portion,  broadened  at  middle  dorsoventrally  (fig.  12),  apical  portion  narrowed,  curved 
ventrally:  with  2  slender  processes,  3/4  length  of  shaft  (fig.  12),  arising  at  base  of  shaft  and 
extending  ventrally.  Pygofer  rounded  apically  (fig.  15). 

Holotype  male:   Bolivia,  Buena  Vista  21-V-1980,  Donald  Foster  coll. 
L.  vista  is  related  to  L.  ornaticeps  Linnavuori  (1959,  p.  155)  from 
which  it  can  be  separated  by  the  more  broadened  (dorsoventrally)  central 
portion  of  the  aedeagus  and  by  the  2  long  slender  processes  arising  from  its 
base. 

Icaia  montana  n.sp. 

(Figs.  16-21) 

Length  of  male  3.5  mm.  Female  unknown.  Crown  bluntly  angled,  a  little  wider  between 
eyes  at  base  than  long  at  middle,  margin  bluntly  angled  with  face.  Color:  crown  pale  yellowish 
with  a  small  black  spot  at  apex,  a  broad  transverse  black  band,  broadened  at  middle,  extending 
betweeen  eyes.  Pronotum  variable  in  color,  yellowish  with  disc  black  and  black  vermiculate 
spots  on  basal  half,  or  almost  entirely  black.  Scutellum  black.  Forewings  black,  heavily 
sclerotized,  rugose,  extending  to  8th  tergite. 


Vol.  94,  No.  4,  September  &  October,  1983 


129 


Figs.  1-5.  Loreta  fiskin.sp.  1.  aedeagus  ventrally,  2.  plate  ventrally.  3.  aedeagus  laterally, 
4.  pygofer  laterally,  5.  style  ventrally.  Figs.  6-10.  L.  albopunctata  n.sp.  6.  aedeagus 
ventrally,  7.  aedeagus  laterally,  8.  style  ventrally,  9.  plate  ventrally,  10.  pygofer  laterally. 
Figs.  11-15.  L.  vista  n.sp.  11.  style  ventrally,  12.  aedeagus  laterally,  13.  aedeagus 
ventrally,  14.  plate  ventrally.  15.  pygofer  laterally,  apical  portion.  Figs.  16-21.  Icaia 
montana  n.sp.  16.  aedeagus  ventrally.  17.  connective  ventrally.  18.  plate  ventrally.  19. 
style  ventrally,  20.  aedeagus  laterally.  21.  pygofer  laterally,  apical  portion. 


130  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Male  genital  plates  elongate,  4  times  as  long  as  wide  at  middle  (fig.  18).  Style  narrow, 
elongate  (fig.  1 9),  with  finger-like  apophysis  curving  laterally.  Aedeagus  large  at  base,  curving 
dorsally  (fig.  20)  and  tapered  to  a  slender  pointed  apex.  Connective  long  and  narrow  with  the 
basal  portion  divided  and  the  2  portions  contiguous  on  basal  fourth  (fig.  17)  Pyrofer  rounded 
apically  (fig.  21). 

Holotype  male:  Bolivia,  Cochabamba,  20- V- 1 980.  Paratypes  1  c?  same  data  as  holotype; 
1  c?  12-V-1981.  All  specimens  collected  by  Donald  L.  Foster. 

/.  montana  is  related  to  /.  appendiculata  Linnavuori  and  DeLong 
( 1 967.  p.  32)  and  can  be  separated  from  it  by  the  simple  curved  and  tapered 
aedeagus  without  apical  processes. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Linnavuori,  Rauno  1959.  Revision  of  the  Neotropical  Deltocephalinae  and  some  related 
subfamilies  (Homoptera).  Anns.  Zool.  Soc.  Vanamo  20(1):    1-370. 

.  1973.  Additional  Notes  on  the  Cicadellidae  fauna  of  Peru.  Revista  Peruana  De 

Entomol.  16:    14-16. 

and  D.M.  DeLong.  1976.  New  Neotropical  leafhoppers  from  Peru  and  Bolivia 


(Homoptera:  Cicadellidae).  Revista  Peruana  de  Entomologia  19(1):  29-38. 

1978.  Seventeen  new  species  and  three  new  genera  of  Central  and  South 


American  Deltocephalini  (Homoptera:  Cicadellidae).  Brenesia  14/15:    195-226. 

1979.  New  genera  and  species  of  the  tribe  Deltocephalini  from  South  America 


(Homoptera:  Cicadellidae,  Deltocephalinae).  Entomol.  Scand.  10:  44-53. 


BOOKS  RECEIVED  AND  BRIEFLY  NOTED  (Continued) 


RECENT  DEVELOPMENTS  IN  THE  GENETICS  OF  INSECT  DISEASE  VECTORS. 
W.  Steiner  et  al,  Eds.  1982.  Stipes  Publ.  665  pp.  $26.00. 

A  collection  of  30  papers  from  a  1981  symposium  aimed  at  methods  of  stopping  insects  that 
vector  parasites. 


NEUROHEMAL  ORGANS  OF  ARTHOPODS:  THEIR  DEVELOPMENT,  EVOLU- 
TION, STRUCTURES,  AND  FUNCTIONS.  A.  Gupta,  Ed.  1 983.  Chas.  C.  Thomas,  Pub. 
629  pp.  $74.50. 

Twenty  contributions,  including  13  on  Insecta,  updating  available  information  on  the 
development,  evolution,  structure  and  functions  of  the  neurohemal  organs  of  arthropods. 


ADVANCES  IN  GENETICS,  DEVELOPMENT,  AND  EVOLUTION  OF  DROSOPHILA. 
S.  Lakovaara,  Ed.  1982.  Plenum  Press.  470  pp.  $57.50. 

This  volume  offers  37  papers  on  current  research  on  Drosophila,  from  the  morphological  to 
the  molecular. 


Vol.  94,  No.  4,  September  &  October,  1983  131 

STYGNOCORIS  RUSTICUS:   NEW  RECORDS  IN 

EASTERN  NORTH  AMERICA,  WITH  A  REVIEW 

OF  ITS  DISTRIBUTION  (HEMIPTERA- 

HETEROPTERA:  LYGAEIDAE)1 

A.G.  Wheeler,  Jr.2 

ABSTRACT:  New  state  records  for  Stygnocoris  rusticus  ( Fallen ),  a  Palearctic  rhyparochromine 
lygaeid,  are  given  for  Michigan,  Vermont,  West  Virginia,  and  Wisconsin;  Prince  Edward 
Island  is  a  new  provincial  record  for  Canada.  Additional  records  are  provided  for  Connecticut. 
Maine,  New  York,  Pennsylvania  and  Ontario.  The  known  occurrence  in  the  eastern  United 
States  and  southern  Canada  is  noted  and  mapped.  S.  rusticus  may  have  been  introduced  with 
ballast  brought  ashore  from  ships,  but  it  is  more  likely  that  it  entered  much  later,  perhaps  with 
soil,  seeds,  or  other  such  material. 

Stygnocoris  rusticus  (Fallen),  a  common  Palearctic  rhyparochromine 
lygaeid,  was  first  reported  from  North  America  ("New  York")  by 
Heidemann  (1908).  In  eastern  North  America  the  known  distribution, 
primarily  northern,  includes  Nova  Scotia,  Quebec  (Montreal  area  north  to 
Quebec  and  Tadoussac),  Ontario  (Ottawa  and  Ventnor),  Maine  (eastern 
coast),  Connecticut  (Canaan,  Storrs),  New  York  (Adirondacks  region), 
and  Illinois  (Belvidere  in  extreme  north).  S.  rusticus  also  has  been  recorded 
from  British  Columbia  and  Washington  and  thus  is  one  of  several  Holarctic 
heteropterans  known  from  northeastern  North  America  and  the  Pacific 
Northwest.  The  lygaeid  catalogue  (Slater  1964)  should  be  consulted  for 
references  to  distribution  records  (except  Connecticut  —  see  Sweet  1 964). 
A  subsequent  record  likely  to  be  overlooked  is  North  East  (Erie  Co.), 
Pennsylvania,  where  S.  rusticus  was  listed  from  vineyards  as  an  "incidental 
species'"  without  collection  data  (Jubb  et  al.  1979);  a  series  of  specimens 
was  taken  in  pitfall  traps  from  28  July  to  early  Sept.  1972  (deposited  in  the 
Pennsylvania  Dept.  of  Agric.  collection). 

In  detailed  investigations  on  the  rhyparochromine  fauna  of  New 
England,  Sweet  (1964)  characterized  S.  rusticus  as  a  late-maturing, 
univoltine  species  that  overwinters  in  the  egg  stage.  He  suggested  that  the 
obligate  egg  diapause  may  have  favored  its  introduction  with  man's 
commerce,  probably  in  ballast  dumped  from  ships  sailing  from  Europe. 
Sweet  found  that  S.  rusticus  is  more  common  in  northern  areas  (northwestern 
Connecticut  and  northward),  preferring  mesic  open  fields  dominated  by  tall 
forbs.  It  is  one  of  the  few  rhyparochromines  that  ascends  plants;  in  early  fall 
it  leaves  the  ground  layer,  where  its  diet  consists  of  fallen  seeds,  to  feed  on  the 
ripening  seed  heads  of  composites  like  tansy,  Tanacetum  vulgare  L.,  and 


Deceived  March  26.  1983.  Accepted  April  16,  1983. 

^Bureau  of  Plant  Industry.  Pennsylvania  Department  of  Agriculture,  Harrisburg,  PA  171 10. 

ENT.  NEWS  94(4):    131-135.  September  &  October,  1983 


132 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


yarrow,  Achillea  rnillefolium  L.  (Sweet  1964,  Beique  and  Robert  1964). 
Sweet  also  noted  that  S.  rusticus  is  atypical  among  Rhyparochrominae  by 
exhibiting  frequent  brachyptery  in  temporary  habitats. 

Sweet  (1964)  suggested  that  the  range  of  S.  rusticus  in  eastern  North 
America  might  remain  nearly  boreal,  with  its  southward  spread  "...  limited 
by  the  capacity  of  this  insect  to  survive  such  a  long  summer  nonreproductive 
period  and  then  to  oviposit  vigorously  in  autumn."  Herein,  I  provide  an 
updated  distribution  in  the  eastern  U.S.  and  Canada  on  the  basis  of  personal 
collecting  and  records  from  museum  specimens.  S.  rusticus  is  recorded  for 
the  first  time  from  Michigan,  Vermont,  West  Virginia,  Wisconsin,  and 
Prince  Edward  Island;  additional  records  are  given  for  Connecticut,  Maine, 
New  York,  Pennsylvania,  and  Ontario.  All  new  and  previously  published 
records  are  mapped  for  the  U.S.  and  Ontario,  and  for  most  of  the  localities 
in  southern  Quebec  (Fig.  1). 


Fig.  1.  New  records  (solid  circles)  and  previously  published  records  (open  circles)  for 
Stygnocoris  rusticus  in  eastern  North  America;  records  for  northern  Quebec.  Nova  Scotia, 
and  Prince  Edward  Island  are  not  shown. 


The  following  data  extend  the  known  distribution  of  Stygnocoris 
rusticus  in  eastern  North  America.  Voucher  material  from  personal 
collecting  in  Pennsylvania  and  West  Virginia  (and  Genesee  Co.  and 


Vol.  94,  No.  4,  September  &  October,  1983  133 

Ludlowville,  NY)  is  deposited  in  the  collection  of  the  Pennsylvania 
Department  of  Agriculture  (PDA).  Records  from  Connecticut  were 
obtained  from  J.A.  Slater,  University  of  Connecticut,  Storrs  (UC); 
Wisconsin  records,  from  B.J.  Harrington,  University  of  Wisconsin- 
Madison  (UW-M).  All  Ontario  records  (except  for  Huron  Co.)  are  based 
on  material  in  the  Canadian  National  Collection,  Ottawa  (CNC).  Other 
data  were  obtained  from  the  following  collections:  American  Museum  of 
Natural  History,  New  York  (AMNH);  Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  NY 
(CU);  National  Museum  of  Natural  History,  Washington,  DC  (USNM); 
and  Royal  Ontario  Museum,  Toronto  (ROM). 

CANADA.  ONTARIO:  Dalston,  6  Sept.  1 96 1 ,  Kelton  &  Brumpton;  Eramosa,  5  Sept. 
1961,  Kelton  &  Brumpton;  Grand  Bend,  6  Sept.  1954,  C.D.F.  Miller;  Grimsby,  24  Aug. 
1 96 1 ,  Kelton  &  Brumpton:  Huron  Co.,  nr.  Silver  Cr.,  Seaforth  Hwy.  8, 28  July  1 976,  D.  &  W. 
Maddison  (ROM);  Kincardine,  7-8  Sept.  1961,  Kelton  &  Brumpton;  Oakland,  2  Aug.  1961, 
J.  Brumpton;  Orangeville,  24  July  1962.  Kelton  &  Thorpe;  Prince  Edward  Co.,  9  Aug.  1925, 
J.F.  Brimley;  Sioux  Narrows,  8  Aug.  1960,  Kelton  &  Whitney;  Smithville,  24  Aug.  1961, 
Kelton  &  Brumpton;  Thornhill,  1 5  Aug.  1 96 1 ,  L.A.  Kelton;  Violet  Hill,  5  Sept.  1 96 1 ,  Kelton 
&  Brumpton;  Woodford,  6  Sept.  1961,  L.A.  Kelton. 

PRINCE  EDWARD  ISLAND:  Cavendish,  14  Aug.  1959,  J.A.  Slater(UC),  and  13-19 
Aug.  1976,  L.A.  Kelton  (CNC). 

UNITED  STATES.  CONNECTICUT:  Fairfield  Co.,  Titicus  Hamlet,  Ridgefield,  2 
Sept.  1970,  P.P.  Maroney;  Windham  Co.,  Eastford,  7  July  1976,  J.A.  Slater  (UC). 

MAINE:  Penobscot  Co.,  Orono,  Aug.  1924,  I.H.  Blake  (USNM). 

MICHIGAN.  Mason  Co.,  1  Sept.  1947;  Mecosta  Co.,  Mecosta,  17  July  1955,  R. 
Dreisbach  (USNM). 

NEW  YORK:  Clinton  Co.,  Merrill,  24-26  Sept.  1914,  W.D.  Appel  (USNM);  Genesee 
Co.,  Bergen  Swamp  Wildlife  Sanctuary,  4  Sept.  1982,  AGW;  Tompkins  Co.,  Ithaca,  4  Sept. 
1968,  AGW  (CU),  and  nr.  Ludlowville,  4  Aug.  1979,  AGW;  Warren  Co.,  Warrensburg,  29 
Aug.  1959,  J.A.  Slater  (UC). 

PENNSYLVANIA.  Centre  Co.,  Scotia  Barrens,  18  Aug.  1977  and  30  Aug.  1982, 
AGW;  Clinton  Co.,  Tamarack,22  Aug.  1977,  AGW;Luzerne  Co.,  Dallas,  12  Aug.  1977, 
AGW:  MontourCo.,  Danville,  23  Aug.  1929  (USNM);  Tioga  Co.,  nr.  Liberty,  3  Sept.  1982, 
AGW;  Westmoreland  Co.,  nr.  Latrobe,  18  Aug.  1982,  AGW. 

VERMONT.  Orleans  Co.,  East  Charleston,  24  Aug.  1967  (AMNH). 

WEST  VIRGINIA.  Tucker  Co.,  nr.  Blackwater  Falls  State  Park,  15  Aug.  1982,  AGW, 
and  Dolly  Sods,  14  Aug.  1982,  AGW. 

WISCONSIN.  Price  Co.,  Intersection  its.  8  &  13,  21  Aug.  1982.  B.J.  Harrington; 
Sawyer  Co.,  Radisson,  23  Aug.  1982,  B.J.  Harrington,  and  4  mi.  E.  Stone  Lake,  Rt.  70,  23 
Aug.  1982,  B.J.  Harrington;  Taylor  Co.,  2  mi.  S.  Price  Co.  line,  co.  rd.  C,  21  Aug.  1982,  B.J. 
Harrington,  and  2  mi.  E.  rt.  1 3  on  co.  rd  M,  2 1  Aug.  1 982,  B.J.  Harrington;  Vilas  Co.,  Arbor 
Vitae,  21  Aug.  1982,  B.J.  Harrington;  Wood  Co.,  19  Aug.  1977,  K.  Thorpe. 

All  specimens  in  Pennsylvania  and  West  Virginia  were  collected  by 
sweeping  the  seed  heads  of  yarrow  or  by  tapping  the  heads  over  a  small  tray; 
the  collection  at  Bergen  Swamp  in  New  York  was  made  from  tansy.  Mating 
pairs  were  common  on  these  composites.  S.  rusticus  was  taken  mainly 
during  August  and  early  September,  and  most  of  the  museum  specimens 
examined  had  been  collected  from  late  July  to  September.  The  general 
collector  who  relies  upon  sweeping  is  not  apt  to  encounter  this  rhyparochromine 


134  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

except  in  late  summer  when  adults  leave  the  ground  layer  to  feed  on  ripening 

seeds. 

I  often  collected  S.  nisticus  on  yarrow  growing  along  roadsides.  In 
Connecticut,  Sweet  (1964)  reported  that  larger  populations  were  found  in 
mesic  open  fields  than  along  roadside  edges. 

S.  nisticus  also  was  abundant  in  several  areas  well  removed  from  its 
known  North  American  distribution.  The  "Barrens"  region  of  Centre  Co., 
Pennsylvania,  lying  100-200  ft.  (30-6 1  m)  above  the  rest  of  Nittany  Valley, 
is  characterized  by  sandy  soil  of  low  fertility.  The  iron  ore  industry  that 
flourished  in  the  19th  century  and  the  associated  production  of  charcoal 
with  its  frequent  fires  destroyed  the  original  vegetation;  thus,  the  flora 
differs  strikingly  from  that  of  the  surrounding  area.  Scrub  oak,  Quercus 
ilicifolia  Wang.,  dominates  the  Barrens.  Other  characteristic  species  are 
aspens,  Populus  spp.;  pitch  pine,  Pinus  rigida  Mill.;  and  blueberries, 
Vaccinium  spp.  (Westerfeld  1959).  S.  nisticus  also  was  taken  near  the 
tamarack  bogs  in  northern  Clinton  Co.,  Pennsylvania;  in  Bergen  Swamp  in 
Genesee  Co.,  New  York;  and  at  nearly  4,000  ft.  ( 1 ,2 1 9  m)  on  Dolly  Sods  in 
the  Monongahela  National  Forest,  Tucker  Co.,  West  Virginia.  Dolly  Sods 
is  a  wilderness  area  consisting  largely  of  unbroken  forest  on  the  steep  frontal 
knobs  of  the  Alleghenies. 

The  abundance  of  S.  nisticus  in  these  areas  probably  reflects  a 
continuing  southward  spread  of  populations  rather  than  a  natural  Holarctic 
distribution.  As  Sweet  (1964)  noted,  the  introduced  status  of  S.  nisticus  is 
supported  by  its  early  collection  on  and  near  the  Atlantic  Coast  and  the 
rather  "immature"  pattern  of  distribution  (see  Lindroth  1957).  S.  rusticus 
and  the  introduced  S.  sabulosus  (Schilling)  also  are  the  only  Western 
Hemisphere  representatives  of  the  otherwise  Old  World  tribe  Stygnocorini 
(Slater  1974;  see  also  Slater  et  al.  1977).  The  known  distribution  in 
western  North  America  does  not  point  to  a  trans-Beringian  origin;  it  is  not 
known  from  Alaska  or  across  northern  Canada.  S.  rusticus  should  be 
considered  an  immigrant  element  in  the  North  American  fauna,  probably 
the  result  of  separate  introductions  to  the  Atlantic  Coast  and  Pacific 
Northwest.  Although  a  ballast  origin  is  possible,  this  lygaeid  was  detected 
well  after  the  main  ballast  period,  suggesting  an  introduction  with  soil, 
seeds,  packing  material  around  nursery  stock,  or  other  products  of  man's 
commerce. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I  am  grateful  to  B.  J .  Harrington  ( U  W-M )  and  J.  A.  Slater  ( UC )  for  allowing  me  to  use  their 
unpublished  records  of  Stygnocoris  rusticus;  to  T.J.  Henry  (Systematic  Entomology 
Laboratory,  USDA,  c/o  U.S.  National  Museum,  Washington,  DC)  for  recording  label  data 
from  specimens  in  the  CNC  and  USNM  and  L.A.  Kelton  (Biosystematics  Research  Institute, 


Vol.  94,  No.  4.  September  &  October,  1983  135 


Agriculture  Canada,  Ottawa)  for  allowing  access  to  the  CNC:  to  R.T.  Schuh  ( AMNH)  for 
recording  data  from  specimens  under  his  care:  and  to  M.F.  O'Brien  ( University  of  Michigan. 
Ann  Arbor)  for  checking  the  Univ.  Mich,  collection  for  possible  specimens  of  5.  rusticus.  E.R. 
Hoebeke  (CU)  and  K.  Valley  (PDA)  kindly  reviewed  the  manuscript. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Beique,  R.  and  A.  Robert.  1964.  Les  Lygeides  de  la  Province  de  Quebec,  Heteropteres  (2  e 

partie).  Ann.  Soc.  Entomol.  Quebec  9:  72-101. 
Heidemann,  O.  l9Q8.'[Stygnocoris  rusticus  in  North  America;  specimens  exhibited].  Proc. 

Entomol.  Soc.  Wash.  10:    14. 
Jubb,  G.L.,  Jr.,  E.G.  Masteller,  and  A.G.  Wheeler,  Jr.  1979.  Survey  of  arthropods  in 

vineyards  of  Erie  County.  Pennsylvania:   Hemiptera-Heteroptera.  Environ.  Entomol. 

8:  982-986. 
Lindroth,  C.H.  1957.  The  faunal  connections  between  Europe  and  North  America.  John 

Wiley  &  Sons,  New  York.  344  pp. 
Slater,  J.A.  1 964.  A  catalogue  of  the  Lygaeidae  of  the  world.  Univ.  of  Connecticut.  Storrs.  2 

vols.  1668  pp. 
Slater,  J.A.  1974.  A  preliminary  analysis  of  the  derivation  of  the  Heteroptera  fauna  of  the 

northeastern  United  States  with  special  reference  to  the  fauna  of  Connecticut.  Mem. 

Conn.  Entomol.  Soc.  1974:    145-213. 
Slater,  J.A.  M.H.  Sweet,  and  R.M.  Baranowski.  1977.  The  systematics  and  biology  of  the 

genus  Bathvdema  Uhler  (Hemiptera:   Lygaeidae).  Ann.  Entomol.  Soc.  Am.  70:   343- 

358. 
Sweet,  M.H.  1964.  The  biology  and  ecology  of  the  Rhyparochrominae  of  New  England 

(Heteroptera:   Lygaeidae).  Part  I.  II.  Entomol.  Am.  43:    1-124:44:    1-201. 
Westerfeld,  W.F.  1959.  Flora  of  Centre  and  Huntingdon  counties  with  related  historical, 

geological,  and  physiographic  features.  Pa.  State  Univ.  Agric.  Exp.  Stn.  Bull.  647,  35  pp. 


BOOKS  RECEIVED  AND  BRIEFLY  NOTED  (Continued) 


INSECT  NEUROHORMONES.  M.  Raabe.  1982.  Plenum  Press.  352  pp.  $42.50. 

Neurohormones  and  their  source  sites,  release  modes,  and  physiological  roles  are  examined  in 
this  volume  on  insect  endocrinology. 


NEW  ZEALAND  BUTTERFLIES:  IDENTIFICATION  AND  NATURAL  HISTORY. 
G.  Gibbs,  1980.  W.  Collins  Pub.  207  pp.  $45.00.  Available  from  ISBS,  Box  1632, 
Beaverton,  OR  97075. 

A  conspectus  of  information  on  most  aspects  of  butterfly  life,  aranged  systematically,  and  an 
identification  guide  through  use  of  identification  keys,  illustrations,  and  maps.  Every  species 
known  to  breed  in  New  Zealand  is  described  and  illustrated  in  color. 


136  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


NEW  RECORDS  OF  NORTH  AMERICAN 

ODONATA1 

Sidney  W.  Dunkle2 

ABSTRACT:  New  records,  including  28  state  records,  1 1  range  extensions,  and  12  flight 
date  extensions  are  given  for  36  species  of  Nearctic  Odonata.  Aeshna  multicolor  Hagen  is 
deleted  from  the  Missouri  fauna.  Behavioral  and  habitat  notes  are  given  for  Arigomphus 
maxwelli  (Ferguson)  and  Aeshna  mutata  Hagen. 

This  paper  includes  geographical  and  temporal  information  on  Nearctic 
Odonata  accumulated  by  the  author  since  1975.  Data  obtained  prior  to  that 
year  are  given  in  Dunkle  ( 1 975 ).  The  Anisoptera  records  listed  below  are  in 
the  same  sequence  as  in  Needham  and  Westfall  (1955).  One  or  more 
substantiating  specimens  are  placed  in  the  Florida  State  Collection  of 
Arthropods  (FSCA)  at  Gainesville,  and  specimens  were  collected  by  the 
author  (SWD),  unless  otherwise  noted. 

Hagenius  brevistylus  Selys.  VERMONT,  Essex  Co.,  outlet  Dennis  Pond,  17  July  1982,  6 
cfcf.  New  VT  record.  Also  listed  for  VT  in  Carle  (1982). 

Octogomphus  specularis  Hagen.  CALIFORNIA,  Fresno  Co.,  Fancher  Creek,  8  April 
1977,  1  9  exuviae.  New  early  date. 

Arigomphus  maxwelli  (Ferguson).  MISSISSIPPI,  Sharkey  Co.,  Blue  Lake  and  Barge  Lake, 
20-2 1  May  1 98 1 ,  and  a  large  pond  on  MS  1 6,  1 5  km  SE  Rolling  Fork,  22  May  1981.  New 
MS  record.  Blue  Lake  and  Barge  Lake  are  inter-connected,  swampy,  muddy  sloughs.  Here, 
a  number  of  cfcf  and  2  teneral  99  were  collected.  The  mature  cfcf  perched  in  small  sunlit 
areas  in  the  swamp  on  the  mud  at  the  edge  of  the  water,  on  logs  near  shore,  or  occasionally 
on  leaves  low  over  the  water.  They  avoided  open  shoreline  and  logs  in  open  water,  and  I  did 
not  find  them  in  small  forest  sunspots.  They  were  present  at  the  water  beginning  about  1 000, 
and  definitely  dwindled  in  number  after  1330.  They  usually  perched  with  their  abdomens 
held  horizontally,  but  sometimes  raised  their  abdomens  45  degrees,  probably  to  decrease 
body  temperature.  Two  exuviae  were  found  2-10  cm  above  the  water  on  logs.  At  the  pond 
on  Route  1 6,  which  had  open  shores,  several  cfcf  were  present  about  1 000,  but  seemed  to  be 
driven  away  by  males  of  the  \argerArigomphus  submedianus  Williamson  which  arrived  in 
greater  numbers  later  in  the  morning.  A.  submedianus  was  not  present  at  Blue  Lake  or 
Barge  Lake.  One  A.  maxwelli  oviposited  while  hovering  10  cm  up,  by  tapping  the  tip  of  the 
abdomen  to  the  water  along  the  shoreline  while  facing  the  bank.  At  another  locality,  in 
Arkansas,  2  cfcf  perched  on  a  semi-shaded  duckweed  (Lemna  sp.)  mat  in  a  slow  small 
river. 

A.  villosipes  (Selys).  MISSOURI,  Shannon  Co.,  Lewis  Lake  3  km  N  of  Winona,  8  June 
1981,  1  cf.  New  for  MO  and  western  range  extension. 

Gomphus  consanguis  Selys.  GEORGIA,  Walker  Co.,  E  fork  of  East  Armuchee  Creek,  SE 
of  Villanow,  14  June  1979,  1  cf  1  9,  SWD  Collection.  New  for  GA  and  southern  range 
extension. 

G.  rogersi  Gloyd.  GEORGIA,  Lumpkin  Co.,  Hidden  Lake  15  km  NW  of  Dahlonega,  18 
June  1979,  1  cf  1  9,  SWD  Collection.  Gilmer  Co.,  Big  Turniptown  Creek  at  GA  5,  13 
April  1980,  3  larvae  (Louton,  1982).  New  GA  records  and  southern  range  extension. 

G.  graslinellus  Walsh.  TEXAS,  Real  Co.,  Nueces  River  at  Barksdale,  15  March  1 978,  1  cf 
1  9  reared,  SWD  Collection.  Southwestern  range  extension. 

1  Received  March  12,  1982.  Accepted  May  12,  1983. 

2Rureau  of  Entomology,  Division  of  Plant  Industry,  Box  1269,  Gainesville,  Florida  32602. 
ENT.  NEWS  94(4):    136-138.  September  &  October,  1983 


Vol.  94,  No.  4,  September  &  October,  1983  137 

G.  apomyius  Donnelly.  MISSISSIPPI,  Lauderdale  Co.,  Chickasawhay  River  at  U.S.  80, 

1.7  km  E  of  Chunky,  17  May  1981,  1  9,  SWD  Collection.  New  late  date. 
G.  parvidens  Currie.  GEORGIA,  Richmond  Co. ,  Sandy  Run  at  U.  S.  1 ,  1 6  May  1 982, 2  cf cf 
19.  New  GA  record. 

Stylogomphus  albistylus  (Hagen).  ALABAMA,  Tuscaloosa  Co.,  Cooley  Creek,  14  May 
1 93 9,  collector  unknown,  1  9.  VERMONT,  Essex  Co.,  outlet  McConnell  Pond  at  VT  105. 
14-15  July  1982,  5  cfcf  2  99.  New  early  date  and  VT  record. 

Stylurus  amnicola  (Walsh).  GEORGIA,  Houston  Co.,  Ocmulgee  River  at  GA  96,  21  June 
1982,  5  cfcf  1  9.  New  GA  record  and  southeastern  range  extension. 

Boyeria  gruftana  Williamson.  GEORGIA,  Lumpkin  Co.,  Dick's  Creek  5.7  km  N  of  U.S. 
19,31  Augl975,  1  cf.WhiteCo.,HiwasseeRiveratGA75,2Aug.  1981, 4  cfcf,  collected 
by  J.  Daigle  and  in  his  collection.  VERMONT,  Essex  Co.,  outlet  Wheeler  Pond  at  VT  102, 
16  July  1982,  2  cfcf.  New  VT  and  GA  records,  the  latter  a  southern  range  extension.  Also 
listed  for  VT  in  Carle  (1982). 

Anax  longipes  Hagen.  MISSOURI,  Oregon  Co.,  pond  0.3  km  W  of  MO  1 9  on  Mark  Twain 
National  Forest  Road  3 1 74,  7  June  1981,  1  cf  exuviae.  One  mature  cf  also  seen.  New  MO 
record. 

Aeshna  mutata  Hagen.  MISSOURI,  same  data  as  Anax  longipes,  1  cf  cf.  New  MO  record  and 
western  range  extension.  According  to  Needham  and  Westfall  (1955),  the  very  similar 
species  A.  multicolor  Hagen  ranges  E  to  Nebraska,  Kansas,  and  Texas,  but  their  record  for 
MO  was  apparently  based  on  the  "Upper  Missouri"  in  Hagen  ( 1 86 1 ).  Thus  A.  multicolor 
should  be  deleted  from  the  MO  fauna. 

The  MO  habitat  for  Anax  longipes  and  Aeshna  mutata  as  well  as  Lestes  eurinus  Say  was 
a  small  man-made  pond,  about  20  X  70  m.  The  abundance  of  these  uncommon  odonates  at 
this  pond  was  no  doubt  due  to  its  lack  offish,  although  larval  newts  were  common.  Up  to  3 
cf  cf  A.  mutata  at  a  time  patrolled  the  pond,  especially  in  the  shade,  until  20 1 6  at  a  height  of 
1 5-25  cm.  They  rested  in  the  trees  after  patrolling  for  periods  of  about  1 5  min.  The  patrol 
flights  were  leisurely,  erratic,  and  mostly  well  out  from  shore,  with  the  abdomen  slightly 
raised  and  the  wings  beating  only  a  little  below  the  horizontal  plane.  From  1937-2030, 
females  were  ovipositing  in  the  underwater  parts  of  the  flower  stems  of  water-shield 
(Brasenia  sp.),  almost  entirely  in  the  middle  of  the  pond. 

A.  persephone  Donnelly.  ARIZONA,  Cochise  Co.,  Cave  Creek  at  John  Hand  Dam  W  of 
Portal,  23  Oct  1976,  4  cfcf  1  9,  SWD  Collection.  New  late  date.  These  specimens  were 
taken  in  cool  weather  as  they  flew  closely  along  the  shoreline  at  times  when  the  sun  had  been 
shining  for  periods  of  at  least  5  min. 

A.  umbrosa  umbrosa  Walker.  GEORGIA,  Fannin  Co.,  Edmunson  Fish  Rearing  Pond  N  of 
Hawk  Mountain,  27  Oct.  1951,  2  cfcf,  collected  by  W.H.  Cross.  Hall  Co.,  Owens  Farm 
near  Gainesville,  2  April  1979,  15  larvae,  collected  by  M.J.  Westfall.  Towns  Co.,  Bald 
Mountain  Park,  1  Sept.  1975,  1  cf.  These  new  GA  records  are  at  the  southern  edge  of  the 
species  range. 

A.  walkeri  Kennedy.  CALIFORNIA,  Madera  Co.,  small  tributary  to  Kerckhoff  Reservoir, 
13  June  1977,  2  exuviae,  SWD  Collection.  Fresno  Co.,  Sycamore  Creek  at  Pine  Flat 
Reservoir,  9  Nov.  1976,  5  cfcf,  SWD  Collection.  New  range  of  dates. 

Macromia  margarita  Westfall.  NORTH  CAROLINA,  Macon  Co.,  Cullasaja  River  6.7  km 
W  of  Highlands  on  U.S.  64,  5  Aug.  1981,  1  cf  19,  SWD  Collection,  J.  Daigle  Collection. 
New  late  date. 

Neurocordulia  virginiensis  Davis.  ARKANSAS,  Montgomery  Co.,  Ouachita  River  at  U.S. 
270,  28  May  1 98 1 ,  1  9.  New  for  AR. 

N.  yamaskanensis  (Provancher).  NORTH  CAROLINA,  Macon  Co.,  Little  Tennessee 
River  at  lotla,  24  June  1982,  1  cf.  New  NC  record. 

Epitheca  costalis  (Selys).  ILLINOIS,  Gallatin  Co.,  Pounds  Hollow  Lake,  1 1  June  1981 .  2 
cfcf,  1  ovipositing  9,  SWD  Collection.  MISSOURI.  Wayne  Co.,  Markham 
Springs,  June  1981,  5  cfcf.  New  IL  and  MO  records,  the  former  a  northern  range 
extension.  These  specimens  were  tentatively  determined  as  E.  costalis  by  K.J.  Tennessen 
and  the  author.  However,  E.  costalis  is  nearly  identical  morphologically  with  E.  spinigera 
(Selys)  of  IL  and  northward,  and  E.  petechialis  (Muttkowski)  of  Kansas  and  westward. 
These  3  species  and  the  enigmatic  E.  williamsoni  (Muttkowski)  urgently  need  critical 
study.  At  the  IL  locality,  E.  cynosura  (Say)  was  flying  mixed  in  with  E.  costalis  on  sex 
patrols. 


138  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

E.  petechialis  (Muttkowski).  TEXAS,  Val  Verde  Co.,  Sycamore  Creek  at  U.S.  90,  14 

March  1978,  1  teneral  9.  New  early  date. 
Somatochlora  elongata  (Scudder)  GEORGIA,  White  Co.,   Chattahoochee  River  at 

Robertstown,  25  May  1979,  1  reared  9,  SWD  Collection.  VERMONT,  Essex  Co.,  outlet 

McConnell  Pond  at  VT  105,  1 5  July  1 982,  3  cf  cf .  Also  listed  for  VT  in  Carle  (1982).  New 

VT  and  GA  records,  the  latter  a  slight  southern  range  extension. 
S.  georgiana  Walker.  MISSISSIPPI,  Jackson  Co.,  Big  Cedar  Creek  at  S-63, 29  June  1 968, 1 

9,  collected  by  W.F.  Mauffray  and  W.  Walters.  Wayne  Co.,  stream  5  km  E  of  Buccatunna, 

11  Aug.  1977,  1  cf,  SWD  Collection.  New  MS  records. 

S.  minor  Calvert.  VERMONT,  same  data  as  S.  elongata,  1  cf .  New  VT  record. 
S.  walshii  (Scudder).  VERMONT,  same  data  as  S.  elongata,  1  cf  19.  Also  listed  for  VT  in 

Carle  (1982).  New  VT  records. 
5.  williamsoni  Walker.  VERMONT,  Essex  Co..  outlet  Spectacle  Pond,  1 4  July  1 982, 3  cf  cf. 

Also  listed  for  VT  in  Carle  (1982).  New  VT  records. 
Ladona  deplanata  Rambur.  MISSOURI,  Oregon  Co.,  McCormack  Lake,  7  June  1981,  1  cf 

1  9,  SWD  Collection.  Wayne  Co.,  Upalika  Pond  1 1 .7  km  E  of  Ellsinore,  9  June  1981,1  cf . 

New  MO  records. 
Libellula  forensis  Hagen.  CALIFORNIA,  Fresno  Co.,  Lost  Lake,  25  April  1977,  1  cf, 

SWD  Collection.  New  early  date. 
Sympetrum  rubicundulum  (Say).  GEORGIA,  Rabun  Co.,  pond  W  of  Moccasin  Creek 

State  Park,  29  Aug.  1978,  15  cfcf.  White  Co.,  Dukes  Creek  at  GA  75,  18  June  1979,  1  cf. 
New  GA  records  and  southern  range  extension. 
Erythemis  collocata  (Hagen).  CALIFORNIA,  Fresno  Co.,  Lost  Lake,  25  April  1977,  1 

mature  cf .  New  early  date. 
Archilestes  californica  MacLachlan.  CALIFORNIA,  Fresno  Co.,  Sycamore  Creek  at  Pine 

Flat  Reservoir,  9  Nov.  1976,  7  cfcf  1  9.  New  late  date. 
Lestes  eurinus  Say.  VIRGINIA,  Highland  Co.,  Locust  Spring  beaver  pond,  4  July  1981,  1 

cf,  SWD  Collection.  Giles  Co.,  Mt.  Lake  Biological  Station,  17-22  July  1978, 14  cfcf  5  99, 

collected  by  F.C.  Johnson.  New  VA  records. 

L.  rectangularis  Say.  GEORGIA,  White  Co.,  Helen,  26  March  1 979, 4  cfcf.  New  early  date. 
Enallagma  hageni(  Walsh).  VIRGINIA,  Highland  Co.,  Locust  Spring  Beaver  Ponds,  4  July 

1 98 1 , 9  cfcf  3  99.  Giles  Co.,  Mt.  Lake  Biological  Station,  1 7-22  July  1 978,  2  cfcf,  collected 

by  F.C.  Johnson.  New  VA  records. 
Nehalennia  gracilis  Morse.  GEORGIA,  White  Co.,  spring  ponds  at  Dukes  Creek  and  GA 

75,  25  May  1979,  1  cf.  New  GA  record. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I  thank  Minter  Westfall  and  Jerrell  Daigle  for  permission  to  include  some  of  their  records, 
and  Minter  Westfall,  George  Bick,  Juanda  Bick,  and  Leonora  Gloyd  for  reading  the 
manuscript. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Carle,  F.L.  1982.  A  contribution  to  the  knowledge  of  the  Odonata.  PhD  Dissertation. 

Virginia  Polytechnic  Institute  and  State  Univ.,  Blacksburg.  1095  p. 
Dunkle,  S.W.   1975.  New  records  of  North  American  anisopterous  dragonflies.  Fla. 

Entomol.  58:   117-119. 
Hagen,  H.  1861.  Synopsis  of  the  Neuroptera  of  North  America.  Smithsonian  Misc. 

Collections,  Washington  D.C.  347  p. 
Louton,  J.A.  1982.  Lotic  dragonfly  (Anisoptera:  Odonata)  nymphs  of  the  southeastern 

United  States:  Identification,  distribution,  and  historical  biogeography.  PhD  Dissertation. 

Univ.  Tennessee,  Knoxville.  357  p. 
Needham,  J.G.,  and  M.J.  Westfall,  Jr.,  1 955.  A  manual  of  the  dragonflies  of  North  America 

(Anisoptera).  Univ.  California  Press,  Berkeley.  615  p. 


Vol.  94,  No.  4.  September  &  October.  1983  139 

NEW  RECORD  FOR  IXODES  TEXANUS 

fACARINA:  IXODIDAE)  BANKS  IN  MISSISSIPPI, 

WITH  A  NEW  HOST  RECORD1 2 

Jerome  Goddard^,  B.R.  Norment^ 

ABSTRACT:  Nymphs  of  Ixodes  texanus  were  collected  in  Marshall  County.  Mississippi 
from  raccoon,  rabbit  and  mice.  This  collection  represents  a  new  state  record  and  the  white- 
footed  mouse  is  a  new  host  record  for  the  nymph. 

Ixodes  texanus  Banks,  the  raccoon  tick,  is  an  important  parasite  of 
raccoons  in  the  eastern  United  States  and  is  known  from  at  least  30  states 
(Clifford  et  al.  1960;  Darsie  and  Anastos,  1957;  Keirans  and  Clifford, 
1978).  Hosts  include  raccoon,  ground  squirrel,  gray  squirrel,  pine  squirrel, 
weasel,  marten,  chipmunk,  mink,  opossum,  rabbit,  gray  fox,  woodchuck, 
and  domestic  dog  (Clifford  et  al,  1960;  Cooley  and  Kohls.  1945;  Cooney 
and  Hays,  1972;  Cooney  and  Burgdorfer.  1974). 

In  a  study  of  tick  and  rickettsial  infections  of  mammals  in  northern 
Mississippi.  21  nymphs  of  /.  texanus  were  collected:  14  from  two 
raccoons,  Procyon  lotor;  4  from  two  cottontail  rabbits,  Silvilagusfloridanus; 
and  3  from  a  white-footed  mouse,  Peromyscus  leucopus  (Stricklin,  1975). 

The  presence  of  this  tick  in  Mississippi  has  never  been  reported  but  was 
predicted  in  light  of  the  results  of  surveys  conducted  in  other  Southern  states 
(Cooney  and  Hays,  1972;  Lancaster,  1973). 

Raccoon  and  rabbits  have  been  previously  reported  as  hosts  for  /. 
texanus,  but  the  white-footed  mouse  represents  a  new  host  record  for  the 
nymph  of  this  species.  With  the  exception  of  2  specimens  which  are  in  the 
MSU  collection,  all  specimens  are  deposited  in  the  Rocky  Mountain 
Laboratories  Collection. 

New  Records 

Marshall  Co.,  Wall  Doxey  State  Park.  7-III-1975.  L.S.  Stricklin.  raccoon.  1  1  nymphs. 
23-III-1 975,  L.S.  Stricklin.  raccoon.  3  nymphs:  20-V- 1 975.  L.S.  Stricklin.  cottontail  rabbit.  2 
nymphs:  13-VIII-1975.  L.S.  Stricklin.  cottontail  rabbit.  2  nymphs:  12-IV-1975.  L.S. 
Stricklin.  white-footed  mouse.  3  nymphs. 


'Received  February  5,  1983.  Accepted  March  19.  1983. 

-Publication  No.  5405  of  the  Mississippi  Agricultural  and  Forestry  Experiment  Station. 

-'Present  address:   Entomology  Department.  Drawer  EM.  Mississippi  State.  MS  39762. 

ENT.  NEWS  94(4):    139-140.  September  &  October.  1983 


140  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We  thank  Dr.  C.M.  Clifford  (Rocky  Mountain  Laboratories)  for  confirming  the 
identification  of  these  specimens  and  Dr.  P.K.  Lago  (University  of  Mississippi)  for  helpful 
comments  in  the  preparation  of  this  manuscript.  We  also  would  like  to  acknowledge  the 
collecting  efforts  of  L.S.  Stricklin. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Clifford,  C.M.,  G.  Anastos  and  A.  Elbl.  1960.  The  larval  ixodid  ticks  of  the  eastern  United 

States.  Misc.  Publ.  Entomol.  Soc.  Amer.  2:  215-237. 
Cooney,J.C.and  K.L.  Hays.  1972.  The  ticks  of  Alabama.  Auburn  Univ.  Agr.  Exp.  Sta.  Bull. 

426.  40  pp. 
Cooney,  J.C  and  W.  Burgdorfer.  1974.  Zoonotic  potential  (Rocky  Mountain  Spotted  Fever 

and  Tularemia)  in  the  Tennessee  Valley  Region   I.  Ecologic  studies  of  ticks  infesting 

mammals  in  the  Land  Between  the  Lakes.  Amer.  J.  Trop.  Med.  Hyg.  23(1):  99-108. 
Cooley,  R.A.  and  G.M.  Kohls.  1 945.  The  genus  Ixodes  in  North  America.  Nat.  Inst.  Health 

Bull.  184.  246  pp. 
Darsie,  R.F.  and  G.  Anatos.  1957.  Geographical  distribution  and  hosts  of  Ixodes  texanus 

Banks.  Ann.  Entomol.  Soc.  Amer.  50:   295-301. 
Keirans,  J.E.  and  C.M.  Clifford.  1 978.  The  genus  Ixodes  in  the  United  States:   a  scanning 

electron  microscope  study  and  key  to  the  adults.  J.  Med.  Entomol.  Suppl.  2:  "1-149. 
Lancaster,  J.L.,  Jr.  1973.  A  guide  to  the  ticks  of  Arkansas.  Univ.  of  Arkansas  Agr.  Exp.  Sta. 

Bull.  779.  39  pp. 
Stricklin,   L.S.    1975.  Tick  and  rickettsial  infections  of  mammals  in  Marshall  County. 

Mississippi.  Master's  Thesis,  Mississippi  State  University.  31  pp. 


BOOKS  RECEIVED  AND  BRIEFLY  NOTED  (Continued) 


THE  ULTRASTRUCTURE  AND  FUNCTIONING  OF  INSECT  CELLS.  H.  Akai.  R. 
King,  &  S.  Morohoski,  Eds.  1982.  The  Society  for  Insect  Cells  Japan.  195  pp.  $28.00. 
Available  from  ISBS,  Box  1632,  Beaverton,  OR  97075. 

This  book  records  the  proceedings  of  the  International  Conference  on  Insect  Cells,  Sapporo, 
Japan,  August.  1982.  Subject  matter  is  same  as  in  INSECT  ULTRASTRUCTURE. 


INSECT  ULTRASTRUCTURE,  Vol.  1.  R.C.  King&  H.  Akai,  Eds.  1982.  Plenum  Press. 
485  pp.  $55.00. 

Up  to  date  reviews  on  selected  aspects  of  the  ultrastructure  of  gametes,  of  developing  cells,  and 
of  the  development,  differentiation,  and  functioning  of  specialized  tissues  and  organs.  From 
the  proceedings.  International  Conference  on  Insect  Cells. 


Vol.  94,  No.  4,  September  &  October,  1983  141 

NEW  RECORD  OF  MAYFLY  BAETISCA 

RUBESCENS  (PROVANCHER)  FOR  WEST 

VIRGINIA  (EPHEMEROPTERA:  BAETISCIDAE)1 

Donald  C.  Tarter,  Daniel  K.  Peltry2 

ABSTRACT:  A  new  distribution  record  for  Baetisca  rubescens  ( Provancher)  is  reported  for 
West  Virginia.  Seven  mature  nymphs  were  collected  from  Red  Creek,  Tucker  County,  West 
Virginia.  Prior  to  this  collection,  B.  rubescens  has  been  reported  only  in  the  northeastern 
region  of  North  America  from  New  Hampshire  to  Quebec. 

Baetisca  rubescens  (Provancher)  is  reported  for  the  first  time  in  West 
Virginia.  Seven  mature  nymphs  were  collected  on  1  October  1976  from 
Red  Creek,  Tucker  County,  West  Virginia.  Pescador  and  Berner  (1981) 
provided  excellent  characters  to  separate  the  nymphs  from  the  closely 
related  B.  berneri  Tarter  and  Kirchner  and  B.  Carolina  Traver. 

Prior  to  this  state  record,  four  species  of  Baetisca  have  been  reported 
from  West  Virginia:  ( 1 )  B.  Carolina  (Monongalia  County)  (Needham  et 
ul.,  1935):  (2)  B.  callosa  Traver  (Greenbrier.  Mineral  and  Preston  counties) 
(Needham  etal.,  1935;  Faulkner  and  Tarter,  1977):  (3)  B.  bajkoviNeave 
(='-  B.  lacustn's  McDunnough)  (Lewis,  Lincoln,  Pleasants  and  Wayne 
counties)  (Faulkner  and  Tarter,  1977);  and  (4)  B.  berneri (Mingo  County) 
Tarter  and  Kirchner.  1978).  However,  Pescador  and  Berner  ( 1981 ).  after 
making  a  careful  study  of  paratypes  of  B.  callosa  from  West  Virginia, 
concluded  that  the  species  is  not  recognizable.  Their  examination  of  young 
nymphs  of  several  species  has  shown  that  specimens  which  could  be 
identified  as  B.  callosa  were  collected  along  with  more  mature,  easily 
recognizable  older  nymphs.  Efforts  are  being  made  to  collect  and  rear 
specimens  from  the  type  locality  to  help  solve  the  taxonomic  problem. 

The  closely  related  B.  berneri,  B.  Carolina,  and  B.  rubescens  occur  in 
the  cool  mountain  streams  of  the  Appalachians.  Baetisca  Carolina  is  found 
in  Georgia,  North  and  South  Carolina,  Tennessee,  Virginia,  and  West 
Virginia,  while  B.  berneri  is  known  from  Pennsylvania,  Tennessee,  Virginia 
and  West  Virginia  (Needham  et  al.,  1935;  Pescador  and  Berner.  1981). 
Baetisca  rubescens  has  been  collected  only  in  the  northeastern  region  of 
North  America  from  New  Hampshire  to  Quebec.  Pescador  and  Berner 
(1981)  suggested  these  species  represent  a  group  that  was  either  pushed  or 
trapped  in  the  streams  of  the  Appalachians  during  Pleistocene  glaciation. 
The  collection  of  nymphs  from  Red  Creek,  a  cool  mountain  stream  in  West 


Deceived  March  22,  1983.  Accepted  April  26.  1983. 

2  Department  of  Biological  Sciences,  Marshall  University.  Huntington.  West  Virginia  2570 1 . 

ENT.  NEWS  94(4):    141-142.  September  &  October.  1983 


142  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

Virginia,  helps  to  bridge  the  gap  from  the  disjunctive  species  B.  rubescensto 
the  sister  species  B.  berneri  and  B.  Carolina. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The  authors  are  grateful  to  Dr.  Lewis  Berner,  Department  of  Zoology,  University  of 
Florida,  Gainesville,  Florida,  for  helping  with  the  identification  of  the  mayfly.  Also,  we  thank 
Ms.  Vickie  Crager  for  typing  the  manuscript. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Faulkner,  C.M.,and  D.C.  Tarter.  1977.  Mayflies,  or  Ephemeroptera,  of  West  Virginia  with 

emphasis  on  the  nymphal  stage.  Ent.  News  88:  202-206. 
Needham,  J.B.,  J.R.  Traver  and  Y.  Hsu.  1935.  The  Biology  of  Mayflies.  Comstock 

Publishing  Company,  Inc.  Ithaca,  New  York.  759.  p. 
Pescador,  M.L.  and  L.  Berner.  1 981.  The  mayfly  family  Baetiscidae(Ephermeroptera).  Part 

II.  Biosystemaitcs  of  the  genus  Baetisca.  Trans.  Amer.  Ent.  Soc.  107:    163-228. 
Tarter,  D.C.,  and  F.R.  Kirchner.  1978.  A  new  species  of  Baetisca  from  West  Virginia 

(Ephemeroptera:  Baetiscidae).  Ent.  News  89:  209-213. 


BOOKS  RECEIVED  AND  BRIEFLY  NOTED  (Continued) 


INSECTS  ON  GRAIN  LEGUMES  IN  NORTHERN  AUSTRALIA.  M.  Shepard  et  al. 
1983.  Univ.  Queensland  Press.  89  pp.  $8.50  pbk. 

Over  260  arthropod  species  were  recorded  in  a  survey  of  potential  pests  and  their  enemies.  1 1 5 
fine  color  photographs  provide  a  ready  field  guide  to  identification. 


VARIABLE  PLANTS  AND  HERBIVORES  IN  NATURAL  AND  MANAGED  SYSTEMS. 

R.  Denno  &  M.  McClure,  Eds.  1983.  Academic  Press,  717  pp. 

Understanding  the  dynamics  of  plant-herbivore  relationships  and  applying  this  knowledge  in 
agriculture  and  silviculture  are  the  themes  of  this  volume. 


WINDBORNE  PESTS  AND  DISEASES:  METEROLOGY  OF  AIRBORNE  ORGAN- 
ISMS. D.E.  Pedgley.  1982.  Halsted  Press:  John  Wiley  &  Sons.  250  pp.  $59.95 

This  book  describes  and  explains  the  influence  of  the  atmosphere  on  the  wind-borne 
movement  of  small  organisms,  and  how  they  get  into  and  out  of  the  atmosphere.  It  is  a  book  for 
biologists,  entomologists  and  ecologists,  by  a  meteorologist. 


Vol.  94,  No.  4,  September  &  October,  1983  143 

A  MUTILLID  MIMIC  OF  AN  ANT 

(HYMENOPTERA:  MUTILLIDAE  AND 

FORMICIDAE)1 

George  C.  Wheeler2 

ABSTRACT:  The  female  of  the  Central  American  mutillid  Pappognatha  myrmiciformis 
mimics  the  major  worker  of  the  common  Neotropical  ant  Carnponotus  sericeiventris.  It  is 
hypothesized  that  the  mimicry  is  aggressive  and  may  enable  the  mimic  to  oviposit  on  the  brood 
of  the  model. 

"Camponotus  (Myrmepomis)  sericeiventris,  owing  to  its  size,  wide 
distribution  and  dense  covering  of  silver  or  golden  pubescence,  is  one  of  the 
handsomest  and  most  conspicuous  ants  of  the  American  tropics"  (W.M 
Wheeler  1931:  86),  and  one  might  add,  considering  the  defensive 
capabilities  of  a  populous  colony  of  large  Camponotus  species,  a  likely 
model  for  mimics.  Dr.  Wheeler  continued  (p.  87):  "Some  years  ago  Dr.  J. 
Bequaert  gave  me  several  peculiar  Cerambycid  beetles  which  he  had  taken 
June  4,  1 924,  on  tree  trunks  at  Prieta,  Honduras,  in  company  with  workers 
of  C.  sericeiventris  rex  var.  semirex.  The  beetles  so  closely  resemble  the 
ants  that  they  may  be  regarded  as  highly  mimetic." 

In  1897  Cameron  described  (p.  378)  a  new  species  of  mutillid 
Sphaerophthalma  myrmiciformis  from  a  female  collected  at  Bugaba, 
Panama,  and  commented  that  "this  species  bears  a  great  resemblance  to  the 
not  uncommon  Central- American  ant  Camponotus  sericeiventris,  amongst 
specimens  of  which  it  was  placed  in  the  box  when  received  by  me;  but  I 
know  not  if  they  are  found  together  in  nature." 

In  1939  Mickel  transferred  the  mutillid  species  (p.  336)  to  his  new 
genus  (p.  330)  Pappognatha  and  adds  the  following  records  (all  females) 
from  Costa  Rica:  Zent;  "Las  Mercedes,  bei  San  Jose.  .  .  on  blossoms  of 
Tuga;"  Irazu. 

Dr.  Karl  V.  Krombein  has  kindly  supplied  me  with  copies  of  all 
significant  literature  of  P.  myrmiciformis,  i.e.,  the  two  papers  mentioned 
above.  In  his  covering  letter  (19  January  1983)  he  stated:  "Pappognatha 
has  a  long,  and  presumably  potent,  sting  so  probably  the  mimicry  should  not 
be  ascribed  to  a  requirement  for  protection  by  the  wasp.  We  have  in  the 
USNM  a  specimen  of  P.  speciosa  Mickel  reared  from  the  euglossine  bee, 
Euglossa  brullei  Lepeletier,  and  that  is  the  only  host  record  known  to  me." 

While  collecting  a  sample  of  Camponotus  sericeiventris  (Gue'rin)  on 
Barro  Colorado  Island  in  Panama,  I  noticed  a  specimen  running  with  a 


1  Received  April  6,  1983.  Accepted  May  12.  1983. 

^Adjunct  Research  Associate,  Desert  Research  Institute,  Reno,  Nevada.  Present  address: 
326  Laurel  Ridge  Road,  San  Antonio,  Texas  78253. 

ENT.  NEWS  94(4):    143-144  September  &  October,  1983 


144  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

peculiar  gait.  Fortunately  I  realized  just  in  time  that  it  was  a  mutillid.  Had  it 
been  motionless  I  might  have  been  severely  stung  as  a  result  of  its  close 
resemblance  in  life  to  major  workers  of  the  ant.  This  close  resemblance  is 
somewhat  less  evident  in  Fig.  1 ,  because  the  color  of  the  golden  pubescence 
of  both  species  does  not  show  in  a  black-and-white  photograph,  while  the 
spots  on  the  gaster  of  the  mutillid  do  show.  Mickel  stated  that  P. 
myrmiciformis  "differs  from  other  species  in  the  genus  in  being  |  almost] 
entirely  pale  golden  tomentose.  .  .  The  yellow,  integumental  spots  on  the 
[gaster]  are. . .  almost  obscured  by  the  pale,  golden,  tomentose  pubescence." 

Mimicry  is  obvious  but  what  purpose  does  it  serve?  Certainly  not 
defense,  for  mutillid  females  are  armed  with  long  powerful  stings.  But  the  ant 
is  not  defenseless:  the  major  worker  of  large  species  of  Camponotus  can 
easily  cut  the  tough  skin  of  human  fingertips.  Mutillids  are  known  to  be 
external  parasitoids  on  the  larvae  and  pupae  of  bees  and  wasps.  Why  not 
ants?  Certainly  the  mature  larvae  and  pupae  of  the  females  of  this  ant  are 
larger  than  P.  myrmiciformis. 

I  would  therefore  hypothesize  that  this  is  an  example  of  aggressive 
mimicry;  the  close  resemblance  may  enable  the  female  of  Pappognatha 
myrmiciformis  to  enter  the  nest  of  Camponotus  sericeiventris  and  deposit 
her  eggs  on  the  brood  of  the  latter;  if  detected  she  is  quite  capable  of 
defending  herself. 


\ 


Fig.  1.  Photograph  by  Jeanette  Wheeler  comparing  the  dried  specimens  of  the  mutillid  (left) 
Pappognatha  myrmiciformis  (Barro  Colorado  Is.,  Panama;  coll.  G.C.  Wheeler;  22-VII- 
1924;  det.  C.E.  Mickel)  and  a  major  worker  of  the  ant  (right)  Camponotus  sericeiventris 
(Changuinola  District,  Bocas  del  Toro,  Panama;  coll.  G.C.  Wheeler:  2-VIII-1924). 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Cameron,  P.  1897.  New  species  of  Hymenoptera  from  Central  America.  Ann.  Mag.  Natur. 

Hist.  (6)  19:   376-379. 
Mickel,  C.E.  1939.  Monograph  of  a  new  Neotropical  mutillid  genus,  Pappognatha.  Ann. 

Entomol.  Soc.  Amer.  32:   329-343. 
Wheeler,  W.M.  1931.  The  ant  Camponotus  (Mvrmepomis)  sericeiventris  Gue'rin  and  its 

mimic.  Psyche  38:   86-98. 


Vol.  94,  No.  4,  September  &  October,  1983  145 

AN  AGGREGATION  OF  CHALYBION 

CALIFORNICUM  (HYMENOPTERA: 

SPHECIDAE)  IN  A  BELL1 

Kenneth  Schoenly^,  Diane  M.  Calabrese^ 

ABSTRACT:  Wasps  of  the  species  Chalybion  californicum  aggregated  in  a  bell.  Initial 
contact  with  the  bell  was  probably  fortuitous,  but  later  contact  may  have  been  mediated  by  a 
pheromone. 


During  the  summers  of  1980  and  1981  (from  about  June  through 
August)  a  population  of  Chalybion  californicum  (Sphecidae)  aggregated  in 
a  bell  ( 1 5  cm.  diameter,  25  cm.  high)  on  the  porch  of  a  house  in  the  upper 
Rio  Grande  valley  in  El  Paso,  Texas  The  bell  hung  on  the  west-facing 
exposure  of  the  building  6  feet  off  the  ground.  Aggregations  of  50-100 
individuals  were  noted.  We  also  observed  the  wasps  aggregating  in  knot 
holes  in  the  rafters  and  support  posts  under  the  porch. 

Aggregations  of  C.  californicum  are  common  (Bohart  and  Menke 
1963).  Large  groups  have  been  found  on  the  undersurface  of  overhanging 
rocks  (Rau  1928)  and  on  rafters  (Rau  1938).  This  is  the  first  report  of  an 
aggregation  on  a  metal  structure. 

The  gregarious  behavior  of  the  wasps  within  and  around  the  bell  closely 
approximates  that  described  by  Ward  ( 1 972)  for  the  species  in  Indiana.  C. 
californicum  she  studied  roosted  among  shingles,  under  an  overhanging  rock 
and  on  rafters.  She  found  that  most  of  the  wasps  roosted  before  sunset  - 
beginning  about  2  hours  before  sunset.  After  dark  the  wasps  were  not 
disturbed  if  a  light  was  focused  on  them.  Similarly,  the  wasps  we  observed 
roosted  before  dusk  and  were  undisturbed  by  beams  of  light.  Ward  (1972) 
proposed  that  the  initial  choice  of  a  roost  by  C.  californicum  may  be  "based 
on  temperature"  (higher  temperatures  selected),  and  that  return  to  the  roost 
on  successive  nights  may  be  mediated  by  a  pheromone. 

The  presence  of  wasps  in  the  rafters  and  support  posts  of  the  porch  from 
which  the  bell  hung,  as  well  as  in  the  bell,  indicates  that  initial  contact  with 
the  bell  may  have  been  fortuitious.  However,  once  the  bell  was  located, 
perhaps  its  warmer  temperature  (or  a  pheromore)  caused  the  wasps  to 
return  on  successive  nights. 


1  Received  February  6,  1983.  Accepted  April  1 1,  1983. 

^Department  of  Biology,  Angelo  State  University,  San  Angelo,  TX 

•'Department  of  Biology  and  The  Wildlife  Sanctuary,  Dickinson  College,  Carlisle,  PA  1 70 1 3 

ENT.  NEWS  94(4):    145-146.  September  &  October,  1983 


146 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Figure  1.  An  aggregation  of  Chalybion  californicum  in  a  bell. 


ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

We  are  grateful  to  A.S.  Menke,  of  the  Systematic  Entomology  Laboratory,  USDA,  who 
identified  the  wasp  specimens  for  us. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Bohart,  R.M.  and  A.S.  Menke.  1963.  A  Reclassification  of  the  Sphecinae.  With  a  Revision 

of  the  Nearctic  Species  of  the  Tribes  Sceliphronini  and  Sphecini  (Hymenoptera,  Sphecidae). 

Univ.  Calif.  Publ.  Ent.  30:  91-182. 
Rau,  P.  1 938.  Additional  observations  on  the  sleep  of  insects.  Ann.  Ent.  Soc.  Amer.  3 1 :  540- 

556. 
1928.  The  nesting  habits  of  the  wasp,  Chalvbion  caeruleum.  Ann.  Ent.  Soc. 

Amer.  21:  25-35. 
Ward,  G.L.  1972.  Aggregations  of  Chalybion  californicum  (Saussure)  (Hymenoptera: 

Sphecidae)  near  Centerville,  Wayne  County,  Indiana.  Ind.  J.  Sci.,  Proc.  81:    177-181. 


Vol.  94,  No.  4,  September  &  October,  1983  147 

INSECTS  VISITING  FLOWERS  OF  WILD  RED 

RASPBERRY  IN  SPRUCE-FIR  FORESTED 

AREAS  OF  EASTERN  MAINE1 

Richard  W.  Hansen,  Eben  A.  Osgood^ 

ABSTRACT:  Flower-visiting  insects  were  collected  from  wild  red  raspberry  ( Rubus  idaeus 
L. )  flowers  in  spruce-fir  forested  areas  of  eastern  Maine  in  1981.  Collections  included  5  insect 
orders  and  49  families.  At  least  38  species  of  Syrphidae,  including  2  new  species,  and  47 
species  of  Apoidea  were  represented.  The  most  commonly  collected  visitors  were  Dialictus 
spp.  bees  and  Syrphidae.  Native  Apoidea  are  probably  the  primary  pollinators  of  R.  idaeus  in 
Maine,  though  some  of  the  more  pubescent  Coleoptera  and  Diptera,  particularly  the  syrphids 
probably  have  a  pollinating  function. 

Red  raspberry,  Rubus  idaeus  L.3,  is  a  common  shrub  in  Maine, 
growing  in  a  variety  of  well-exposed  situations.  It  is  especially  common  in 
cuttings  or  natural  openings  in  forested  areas.  It  produces  biennial  canes 
that  reach  2  m  in  height,  from  a  perennial  rootstock  (Fernald  1950);  only 
the  second  year  canes  produce  flowers.  Raspberry  flowers  are  borne  singly 
or  in  small  clusters  on  the  terminal  portions  of  the  floricane.  The  flowers 
are  about  1  cm  in  diameter,  with  numerous  stamens  and  pistils,  creamy- 
white  petals,  and  conspicuous  bristly  sepals.  The  fleshy  fruit  is  typically  red 
in  color. 

Although  the  reproductive  methods  of  the  genus  Rubus  are  not  fully 
understood,  it  appears  that  raspberry  flowers  are  largely  self-sterile,  and 
insect  pollination  is  necessary  for  normal  fruit  development  (Jensen  and 
Hall  1979,  McGregor  1976).  Honeybees  are  the  dominant  pollinators  of 
raspberries  in  agricultural  situations  (McGregor  1976)  and  because  of  the 
copious  production  of  nectar  and  pollen,  raspberry  bloom  is  considered  to 
be  prime  bee  forage  (Howes  1946).  Besides  the  economic  value  of 
commercial  raspberries  in  fruit  and  honey  production,  wild  raspberries, 
such  as  R.  idaeus,  provide  important  wildlife  food  (Gill  and  Healy  1974). 

Honeybees,  Apis  mellifera  L.,  are  rare  or  absent  throughout  Maine's 
spruce-fir  forest,  so  other  insects  are  necessary  for  pollination  and  fruit  set 
of  wild  raspberry.  Raspberry  flowers  are  accessible  to  many  types  of  insect 
visitors  (Faegri  and  van  der  Fiji  1971),  and  this  factor,  coupled  with  the  high 
level  of  nectar  and  pollen  production  and  wide  distribution  of  R.  idaeus, 
should  ensure  that  a  varied  insect  fauna  visits  the  bloom. 


1  Received  March  17,  1983.  Accepted  May  20,  1983. 

^Research  Associate  and  Professor,  Department  of  Entomology,  University  of  Maine, 
Orono,  ME  04469 

^Several  varieties  of  R.  idaeus  L.  can  be  found  in  Miane;  var.  strigosus  (Michx.)  Maxim,  is 
probably  the  variety  encountered  in  this  study  (Fay  Hyland,  pers.  comm.,  Femald  1950). 

ENT.  NEWS  94(4):'  147-151.  September  &  October.  1983 


148  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

This  work  is  part  of  a  larger  study  to  determine  the  effects  of  spraying 
with  Sevin-4-oil®  on  insect  pollinators  and  fruit  set  in  a  spruce-fir  forest 
(Hansen  et  al.  1982).  The  objectives  of  this  portion  of  the  study  were  to 
document  the  insect  fauna  that  visits  wild  red  raspberry  flowers  and  to 
identify  the  most  important  species  of  pollinators.  The  species  of  important 
pollinators  could  then  be  compared  with  those  collected  in  sprayed  and 
unsprayed  areas,  by  use  of  Malaise  traps  or  by  some  other  method,  prior  to 
and  following  spraying.  Assuming  that  the  effect  of  the  spray  on  insect 
pollinators  was  sufficiently  great,  this  type  of  information  may  provide 
evidence  that  would  directly  associate  lower  fruit  set  with  mortality  of 
specific  insect  pollinator  species  or  groups.  Information  on  other  insect 
visitors  would  also  suggest  additional  insect  species  or  groups  that  could  be 
studied  in  future  work  on  the  relationship  between  insecticide  use  and  fruit 
set  of  R.  idaeus. 

MATERIALS  AND  METHODS 

Large  stands  of  flowering  Rubus  idaeus  were  selected  for  study 
throughout  Township  36  M.D.,  Washington  Co.,  Maine.  Insects  observed 
visiting  flowers  were  collected  with  a  sweep  net  or  aspirator.  Small  insects 
were  collected  by  placing  flowers  in  a  killing  jar.  Collections  were  made  on 
sunny  days  from  June  4  to  June  26,  the  peak  1981  bloom  period.  Insects 
were  collected  for  1  to  2  hours  in  the  morning  and  again  in  the  afternoon. 

R.  idaeus  stands  were  situated  along  roadsides  and  in  forest  openings. 
The  forest  overstory  was  predominantly  red  spruce,  Picea  rubens  Sarg.  and 
balsam  fir,  Abies  balsamea  (L.)  Mill.;  other  softwood  and  various 
hardwood  species  occurred  infrequently.  Understory  vegetation  was  sparse 
under  the  dense  coniferous  overstory  and  consisted  primarily  of  blueberry, 
Vaccinium  spp.,  bunchberry,  Cornus  canadensis  L.,  wild  lily-of-the- 
valley,  Maianthemum  canadense  Desf.,  and  several  ferns  and  mosses. 

Collected  insects,  except  the  Macrolepidoptera,  were  pinned  for 
identification.  Some  specimens  of  Syrphiae  are  at  the  U.S.  National 
Museum.  All  other  specimens  have  been  deposited  in  the  collection  of  the 
Department  of  Entomology,  University  of  Maine  at  Orono. 

RESULTS  AND  DISCUSSION 

Five  orders  and  49  families  were  represented  in  the  collections.  At  least 
38  species  of  Syrphidae,  including  two  new  species,  and  47  species  of 
Apoidea  were  collected. 

Though  the  study  was  not  designed  to  give  quantitative  results,  the  most 
numerous  R.  idaeus  flower  visitors  were  Dialictus  spp.  (Halictidae)  and  the 
various  species  of  Syrphidae.  Other  common  groups  were  the  Cerambycidae, 


Vol.  94,  No.  4,  September  &  October,  1983 


149 


INSECTS  COLLECTED  ON  FLOWERS  OF  RUEUS 1DAEUS  L. 
IN  A  SPRUCE-FIR  FOREST,  WASHINGTON  CO.,  MAINE 


Hemiptera  (nymphs) 

Miridae 
Pentatomidae 
Coleoptera 

Scarabaeidae 

Trichiotinus  a/finis  (Gory 

and  Percheron) 
Byrrhidae 
Ptilodactylidae 
Elateridae 
Lampyridae 

Photuris  pennsylvanica  (De  Geer) 
Cantharidae 
Anobiidae 
Byturidae 

Byturus  rubi  Barber 
Lagriidae 
Mordellidae 
Cerambycidae 

Anastranglia  sanguinea 
(Le  Conte) 

Clytus  ruricola  (Olivier) 

Cosmosalia  chrysocoma  (Kirby) 

Evodinus  monticola  monticola 
(Randall) 

Jitdolia  montivagans  montivagans 
(Couper) 

Neoalosterna  capitata  (Newman) 

Pidonia  ruficollis  (Say) 

Strangalepta  abbreviata  (Swederus) 
Curculionidae 
Lepidoptera 

Microlepidoptera 
Macrolepidoptera 
Lycaenidae 
Papilionidae 

Papilio  glaucus  L. 
Nymphalidae 

Nyphalis  antiopa  (L.) 

Vanessa  atalanta  (L.) 
Diptera 

Tipulidae 

Chironomidae 

Simuliidae 

Asilidae 

Bombyliidae 

Hemipenthes  sp. 

Lepidophora  sp. 


Empididae 

Dolichopodidae 

Syrphidae 

Blera  confusa  Johnson 
Carposcalis  obscurum  (Say) 
Cartosyrphus  pallipes  Leow 
Cartosyrphus  n.  sp. 
Chalcosyrphus  libo  (Walker) 
Chrysotoxum  Jasciolatum 

(De  Geer) 

Eristalis  obscurns  Leow 
Epistrophe  emarginata  (Say) 
E.  xanthostoma  (Williston) 
Heringia  (Neocnemdon)  coxalis 

(Curran) 
Heringia  sp. 
Leucozna  lucorum  (L.) 
Ma/lota  posticata  (Fabricius) 
Melangyna  lasiophthalma 

(Zetterstedt) 

Metasyrphus  perplexus  Osborn 
Microdon  tristis  (Leow) 
Orthonevra  pulchella 

(Williston) 
Parasyrphus  genualis 

(Williston) 

P.  semiinterruptus  (Fluke) 
Parasyrphus  n.sp. 
Sericomyia  chrysotoxoides 

Macquart 

S.  lata  fCoquillett) 
S.  militaris  (Walker) 
Sphaerophoria  contingua  ( Macquart) 
5.  longipilosa  Knutson 
S.  novaengliae  Johnson 
Sphegina  rufiventris  Leow 
Syritta  pipiens  (L.) 
Syrphus  rectus  Osten  Sacken 
S.  ribesii  (L.) 
S.  ton-iis  Osten  Sacken 
Temnostoma  alternans  Leow 
T.  barberi  Curran 
T.  vespiforme  ( L. ) 
Taxomerus  geminatus  (Say) 
T.  marginatus  (Say) 
Volucella  hombylans  (L.) 
Xylota  annulifera  Bigot 
X.  quadrimaculata  Leow 


150 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Conopidae 
Lauxaniidae 
Anthomyiidae 
Muscidae 
Calliphoridae 
Sarcophagidae 
Tachinidae 
Hymenoptera 
Tenthredinidae 
Braconidae 
Ichneumonidae 
Pteromalidae 
Chalcididae 
Gasteruptiidae 

Gasteruption  kirbii  kirbii 

(Westbrook) 
Chrysididae 
Formicidae  (workers) 
Vespidae 

Dolichovespula  arenaria 

(Fabricius) 
Eumenidae 

Ancistrocerus  sp. 

Eumenes  crucifer  Provancher 

Euodynerus  sp. 

Stenodynerus  sp. 

Symmorphus  sp. 
Pompilidae 
Sphecidae 

Ammophila  azteca  Cameron 

A.  evansi  Menke 

A.  mediata  Cresson 

Crossocerus  sp. 

Ectemnius  arcuatus  (Say) 

Ectemnius  atriceps  (Cresson) 

E.  borealis  (Zetterstedt) 

E.  continuus  (Fabricius) 

E.  dives  (Lepeletier  &  Brulle) 

E.  lapidarius  (Panzer) 

E.  ruficornis  (Zetterstedt) 

E.  stirpicola  (Packard) 

Lestica  sp. 
Apoidea 
Colletidae 

Hylaeus  basa/is  (Smith) 

H.  ellipticus  (Kirby) 

H.  modestus  modestus  Say 

H.  vertical/is  (Cresson) 
Halictidae 

Augochlora  pura  pura  (Say) 

Augochlorella  striata  (Provancher) 

Dialictus  cressonii  (Robertson) 


D.  disabanci  Knerer  &  Atwood 
D.  laevissimus  (Smith) 
D.  versans  (Lovell) 

D.  viridatus  (Lovell) 
Dialictus  spp. 

Evylaeus  divergens  (Lovell) 

E.  foxii  (Robertson) 

E.  quebecensis  (Crawford) 
E.  rufitarsis  (Zetterstedt) 
Halictus  confusus  confusus  Smith 
Lasioglossum  athabascense 

(Sandhouse) 
L.  coriaceum  (Smith) 
L.  forbesii  (Robertson) 
Andrenidae 

Andrena  cressonii  Robertson 
A.  dunningi  Cockerell 
A.  lata  Viereck 
A.  miranda  Smith 
A.  nasonii  Robertson 
A.  nigrihirta  (Ashmead) 
A.  regular  is  Mai  loch 
A.  thaspii  Graenicher 
A.  vicina  Smith 

A.  wheeleri  Graenicher 
Megachilidae 

Hoplitis  albifrons  (Kirby) 

H.  cylindrica  (Cresson) 

H.  product  a  producta  (Cresson) 

Megachie  frigida  frigida  Smith 

M.  melanophoea  melanophoea  Smith 

M.  mendica  mendica  Cresson 

M.  mucida  Cresson 

M.  relativa  Cresson 

Osmia  albiventris  Cresson 

Osmia  atriventris  Cresson 

O.  bucephala  bucephala  Cresson 

O.  proximo  Cresson 

O.  tersula  Cockerell 
Anthophoridae 

Ceratina  calcarata  Robertson 

Ceratina  spp. 

Nomada  cressonii  cressonii 
Robertson 

N.  depressa  Cresson 

;V.  pygmaea  Cresson 

N.  sayi  Robertson 
Apidae 

Apis  mellifera  L. 

Bombus  ternarius  Say 

B.  terricola  terricola  Kirby 
B.  vagans  vagans  Smith 


Vol.  94,  No.  4,  September  &  October,  1983  151 

Scarabaeidae,  represented  by  one  species,  Trichiotinus  affinis  (Gory  and 
Percheron),  Empididae,  Sphecidae,  Colletidae,  and  Andrenidae.  The 
frequently  collected  adults  of  Byturus  nibi  Barber  (Byturidae)  fed  on  R. 
idaeus  flowers  and  flower  buds;  these  insects  can  cause  enough  floral 
damage  to  affect  raspberry  yield  (Slate  et  al.  1947). 

Many  insect  groups  collected  on  R.  idaeus  flowers  are  potential 
pollinators.  The  various  species  of  native  Apoidea  are  probably  responsible 
for  much  of  the  R.  idaeus  pollination  in  Maine  because  of  their  behavioral 
and  morphological  adaptations  for  pollen  transport.  The  stigmas  and 
anthers  of  a  raspberry  flower  mature  over  several  days,  and  repeated 
pollinator  visits  are  required  for  maximum  fruit  set  (McGregor  1 976).  The 
foraging  behavior  of  bees  is,  therefore,  important  to  ensure  pollination. 

The  floral  morphology  of  R.  idaeus  ensures  that  insect  visitors  with 
pubescent  ventral  surfaces  can  also  bring  about  significant  pollen  transfer 
(Faegri  and  van  der  Fiji  1971 ).  Thus,  other  common  floral  visitors  such  as 
T.  affinis,  several  cerambycids,  and  number  of  syrphid  species  may  also  be 
responsible  for  R.  idaeus  pollination. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We  would  like  to  thank  the  following  for  identification  or  verification  of  several 
groups:  Dr.  J.  Huether,  Geneva,  NY  (Cerambycidae);  Dr.  F.C.  Thompson.  USDA 
Systematic  Entomology  Laboratory  (Syrphidae);  Dr.  A.J.  Menke,  USDA  Systematic 
Entomology  Laboratory  (Vespidae,  Eumenidae,  and  Sphecidae);  Dr.  G.C.  Eickwort.  Cornell 
University  (Dialictus  spp.,  Evylaeus  spp.);  and  Dr.  R.J.  McGinley,  Harvard  University 
(Lasioglossum  spp.).  We  also  wish  to  thank  Dr.  H.Y.  Forsythe,  Dr.  H.M.  Kulman,  and  Mr. 
T.M.  Mingo  for  reviewing  an  earlier  draft  of  the  manuscript  and  Kathryn  May  for  providing 
valuable  assistance  in  the  field.  Funds  for  this  study  were  provided  by  the  Maine  Forest 
Service.  Department  of  Conservation  and  the  Mclntire-Stennis  Act. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Faegiri,  K.  and  L.  van  der  Fiji.  1971.  The  principles  of  pollination  ecology.  Pergamon  Press. 

Oxford.  291  pp. 
Fernald,  M.L.  1950.  Gray's  manual  of  botany,  8th  ed.  American  Book  Co..  New  York.  1632 

PP- 
Gill,  J.D.  and  W.M.  Healy.  1974.  Shrubs  and  vines  for  northeastern  wildlife.  USDA  For. 

Serv.  Gen.  Tech.  Rep.  NE-9.  180  pp. 
Hansen,  R.W.,  E.A.  Osgood  and  M.L.  Hunter,  Jr.  1982.  Effects  of  spraying  with  Sevin-4- 

Oir  on  the  fruit  set  and  it  potential  consequences  for  wildlife  in  a  spruce-fir  forest.  In 

Environmental  Monitoring  Reports,  Maine  Forest  Service,  p.  91-122. 
Howes,  F.N.  1946.  Plants  and  beekeeping.  Faber  and  Faber  Ltd.,  London.  224  pp. 
Jensen,  K.I. N.  and  I.V.  Hall.  1979.  The  biology  of  Canadian  weeds.  36.  Rubus  hispidusL. 

Can.  J.  Plant  Sci.  59:  769-776. 
McGregor,  S.E.  1976.  Insect  pollination  of  cultivated  plants.  USDA  Agric.  Hndbk.  496. 

411  pp. 
Slate,  G.L.,  A.J.  Braun  and  F.G.  Mundinger.  1947.  Raspberry  growing:   culture,  diseases, 

and  insects.  Cornell  Univ.  Ext.  Bull.  719.  67  pp. 


152  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

THE  BIOLOGY  OF  TRICHADENOTECNUM 

ALEXANDERAE  SOMMERMAN  (PSOCOPTERA: 

PSOCIDAE):  I.  HABITAT,  LIFE  STAGES 

AND  EVENTS1 

B.W.  Betz2 

ABSTRACT:  Populations  of  Trichadenotecnum  alexanderae  Sommerman  are  localized 
within  apparently  suitable  habitat.  Only  1  egg  is  laid  during  an  ovipositional  event.  Eggs  are 
encrusted  with  the  contents  of  the  gut  mixed  with  debris  collected  by  tapping  the  terminalia  on 
the  substrate.  This  mixture  camouflages  an  egg  once  it  is  laid.  Only  a  few  silk  strands  are 
deposited  on  each  egg.  Eclosion  and  ecdysis  are  similar  to  other  psocomorph  Psocoptera. 
There  are  6  nymphal  stages. 

Sommerman  (1948)  described  both  sexes  of  Trichadenotecnum 
alexanderae  from  North  Plainfield,  New  Jersey,  where  302  males  and  425 
females  were  collected  on  27  and  29  July,  1  August,  and  28  September 
1 947.  Of  all  the  collections  she  examined  from  other  localities  (Connecticut, 
District  of  Columbia,  Illinois,  Maine,  Maryland,  Massachusetts,  New 
Jersey,  New  York,  North  Carolina,  and  Pennsylvania),  only  one  from 
Union,  New  Jersey,  collected  on  4  June  1937,  contained  males,  and  in  fact 
consisted  of  males  only. 

Field  and  laboratory  investigations  over  a  3  year  period  convinced  me 
that  a  complex  of  4  sibling  species  is  involved:  T.  alexanderae  which  is 
biparental  (=euphrasic),  but  in  the  laboratory  was  found  to  be  capable  of 
facultative  parthenogensis  (thelytoky)  for  only  1  generation,  and  3 
obligatorily  parthenogenetic  species,  T.  castum,  T.  merum,  and  T, 
innuptum,  which  I  have  described  (Betz  1983a).  These  species  occur 
sympatrically. 

The  habitat  of  T.  alexanderae  and  also  aspects  of  its  life  history 
observed  in  laboratory  cultures  are  discussed  in  this  paper,  which  is  part  of  a 
series  (cf.  Betz  1983b,  c,  d)  reporting  these  investigations. 

PROCEDURE 

Field  and  laboratory  observations  (and  cultures)  were  made  in  1977-9 
from  Illinois  populations  located  at  Moraine  View  State  Park,  McLean 
County  (hereafter  called  Lake  Dawson);  along  the  Sangamon  River  at  Lake 
of  the  Woods,  Champaign  County;  and  along  the  Salt  Fork  River  at 
Champaign  County  Forest  Preserve  District  —  Homer  Lake  (hereafter 


Deceived  December  28.  1982.  Accepted  May  8.  1983. 
2 1000  North  Lake  Shore  Drive,  Chicago,  Illinois  6061 1 

ENT.  NEWS  94(4):    152-158.  September  &  October.  1983 


Vol.  94.  No.  4,  September  &  October,  1983 

153 


called  Salt  Fork). 

Several  breeding  pairs  were  used  to  start  each  culture  and  their  identity 
was  verified  morphologically.  The  parent  females  were  mated  in  the 
laboratory  to  assure  the  identity  of  the  offspring.  The  bark  used  in  the 
cultures  came  from  the  vicinity  of  the  parent  population  and  the  bark  was 
examined  for  eggs  prior  to  use. 

The  cultures  were  kept  in  cotton-stoppered  test  tubes,  supplied  ad 
libitum  with  food  (pleurococcine  algae  on  bark),  and  were  kept  over  a 
saturated  potassium  chloride  (KC 1 )  solution  in  closed,  glass  desiccator  jars 
to  maintain  a  relative  humidity  of  80  ±  5%.  The  temperature  regimen  for 
rearing  was  23.3C:18.0C  light:  dark,  the  photoperiod  was  15h:  9h 
light:  dark,  and  illumination  was  4300  Iumens/m2. 


RESULTS  AND  DISCUSSIONS 

Habitat.  Most  populations  are  found  in  rather  open  forest  where  the 
relative  humidity  is  high  and  pleuorococcine  algae  occur  on  the  substrate 
(usually  tree  trunks).  But  for  some  unknown  reason  the  populations  at  the 
study  areas,  and  at  the  other  1 1  localities  where  I  have  collected  this  species 
(Illinois,  Indiana,  Kentucky,  Maryland,  Michigan,  New  Hampshire,  New 
Jersey,  Ohio,  and  West  Virginia),  occur  in  limited  patches  in  larger  areas  of 
what  appears  to  be  equally  suitable  substrate.  This  may  be  related  to 
differences  in  food  distribution  (Broadhead  and  Wapshere  1966,  New 
1970),  in  microhabitat,  or  the  comparative  stability  of  bark  over  a  foliage 
habitat,  making  dispersal  relatively  unimportant  (New  1969).  Because 
pleurococcine  algae  are  plants  and  are  consumed  by  this  species,  it  is 
probably  safe  to  say  that  there  is  a  host  plant  association  involved. 
Statements  to  the  contrary  made  about  other  bark-dwelling  species  (New 
1970)  were  at  least  partly  in  reference  to  "macro"  substrate,  i.e.,  conifers, 
broadleaved  trees,  etc. 

Migration  to  nearby  tree  trunks  offering  favorable  habitat  apparently 
occurs  infrequently,  even  though  this  is  a  macropterous  species.  Similar 
behavior  has  been  reported  in  Cuneopalpus  cyanops  (Rostock)  by  New 
( 1 968).  Most  species  of  bark-dwelling  psocids  do  not  fly  readily  (New  1 969, 
1971,  personal  observation)  and  generally  are  lacking  in  collections  of 
airborne  Psocoptera  (Thornton  1964,  Thornton  and  Harrell  1965,  New 
1 969,  1 975).  Individuals  of  T.  alexanderae  in  cultures  becoming  overcrowded 
or  depleted  of  their  food  supply  show  neither  a  noticable  increase  in  activity 
nor  a  greater  tendency  toward  flight,  quite  unlike  some  species  in  other 
families  (cf.  Sommerman  1943b,  Mockford  1962,  Turner  1974).  Even 
movement  on  a  tree  trunk  may  be  limited.  On  two  occasions  (at  Lake 
Dawson  and  Salt  Fork  on  18  June  and  27  July  1978,  respectively)  when  I 
collected  about  15  adults,  their  proximity  in  the  aspirator  led  to  a  mating. 


154  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

Hence,  the  patchy  population  distribution  pattern  probably  is  not  due  to  an 
aggregating  response  by  the  individuals  (cf.  Mockford  1957,  Heilbronn 
1975). 

Oviposition.  Oviposition  by  7  females  from  the  study  areas  (6  mated, 
1  not)  was  observed  to  be  about  the  same.  About  30-45  minutes  before  an 
egg  was  deposited,  a  female  repeatedly  pressed  the  tip  of  her  abdomen  to  the 
substrate  or  probed  at  random  for  about  30  seconds,  with  an  interval  of  a 
few  seconds  to  5  minutes  between  probes.  One  female  dragged  the  tip  of  her 
abdomen  along  the  substrate  about  3  mm  several  times.  While  probing, 
algae  and  debris  adhered  to  the  ventral  surfaces  of  a  female's  terminalia. 
When  probing  ceased,  her  abdomen  returned  to  the  normal  resting  position. 
An  egg  usually  would  be  laid  where  her  terminalia  had  last  touched  the 
substrate. 

A  female  normally  remained  motionless  about  2-3  minutes  before 
oviposition,  except  for  pulsing  and  spasmodic  abdominal  contractions  of  a 
few  seconds  duration,  at  about  half-minute  intervals.  One  female  rubbed 
her  hind  femora  along  the  sides  of  her  abdomen  after  an  abdomen  spasm, 
possibly  moving  an  egg  into  position  for  extrusion. 

Next,  an  opaque,  dark  fluid  was  discharged  on  her  terminalia  and  was 
manipulated  rapidly  between  the  epiproct,  paraprocts,  and  valvulae  for 
about  3-5  seconds.  Then  with  one  spasm,  about  one-third  of  an  egg 
appeared,  coated  by  dark  fluid.  About  5  seconds  later  another  spasm 
exposed  another  third  of  the  egg.  Both  egg  and  dark  fluid  were  supported  by 
the  dorsal  surface  of  the  egg  guide  of  her  subgenital  plate,  an  immobile, 
bracket-like  structure. 

Once  an  egg  was  about  two-thirds  exposed,  it  also  was  manipulated 
rapidly  for  about  3-5  seconds.  Then  she  quickly  pressed  the  tip  of  her 
abdomen  down  on  the  substrate,  thereby  elevating  the  anterior  part  of  her 
body  and  causing  here  forewings  to  part  slightly.  A  female  paused  for  less 
than  1  second  in  this  position,  then  vibrated  her  body  from  side  to  side. 
Before  a  female  withdrew  her  abdomen,  she  slightly  flexed  her  terminalia 
and  dragged  the  tip  of  her  abdomen  about  1  mm,  thus  not  disturbing 
the  placement  of  an  egg  on  the  substrate.  Depositing  an  egg  on  the  substrate 
required  about  3-5  seconds.  Absorption  of  the  dark  fluid  by  the  bark 
appeared  to  solidify  an  encrustation.  This  ovipositional  behavior  resembles 
\hatofPeripsocusquadrifasciatus  (Harris)  (cf.  Eertmoed  1966)  because 
an  egg  emerges  before  a  female's  abdomen  is  applied  to  the  substrate,  rather 
than  vice  versa  as  with  Caecilius  manteri  (cf.  Sommerman  1943a). 

The  dark  fluid  of  an  encrustation  originates  in  the  gut,  as  proposed  by 
Pearman  (1928a).  The  composition  of  fluid  and  feces  are  similar  in  71 
alexanderae,  both  containing  algae  and  debris,  and  thus  appear  to  differ 
only  in  their  degree  of  hydration.  Females  of  T.  alexanderae  in  the  stage  of 


Vol.  94,  No.  4,  September  &  October,  1983  155 


oviposition  produce  fewer  feces  than  males  of  the  same  age  ,  so  their  use  in 
encrustations  may  explain  this. 

After  a  female  withdrew  her  abdomen,  she  fastened  several  strands  of 
silk  from  her  labium  to  the  egg  and  the  surrounding  substrate.  She  normally 
circumscribed  the  egg  with  silk  in  a  roughly  stellate  pattern  and  then  walked 
partially  around  it.  Depositing  silk  took  about  5-10  seconds.  Each  egg  had 
about  the  same  amount  of  silk  whether  or  not  eggs  were  present  nearby. 
Once  silk  was  laid  down,  oviposition  was  complete  and  a  female  walked 
about  5-10  mm  and  usually  began  feeding.  Silk  strands  can  keep  an  egg  on 
the  bark  should  its  encrustation  become  dislodged. 

Silk  strands  are  produced  by  females  that  have  just  oviposited,  by  those 
which  have  yet  to  oviposit,  and  by  nymphs  (presumably  female).  Adult 
males  do  not  produce  silk.  Females  in  the  stage  of  oviposition,  but  not 
actually  ovipositing,  were  not  seen  to  produce  silk. 

Only  one  egg  is  laid  during  an  ovipositional  event.  For  another  to  be 
laid,  the  entire  procedure  must  be  repeated.  Eggs  are  sometimes  laid  next  to 
others  previously  laid,  and  cultures  with  a  great  number  of  eggs  sometimes 
have  clusters  of  two  or  three  eggs  produced  in  this  way,  giving  the  false 
impression  that  the  eggs  were  deposited  in  succession. 

Appearance  of  Eggs.  Eggs  of  T.  alexanderae  are  ovoid  in  shape  and 
are  laid  with  their  longitudinal  axes  parallel  to  the  substrate.  For  the 
first  few  days  after  oviposition,  the  chorion  is  iridescent  with  a  grayish- 
white  background,  but  later  the  eggs  become  a  lusterless  yellow. 

Most  eggs  are  covered  completely  by  a  hardened  secretion,  encrusted 
with  algae  and  debris,  which  camouflages  them  on  the  bark.  The  encrustation 
is  shaped  during  oviposition  by  the  ventral  surface  of  the  epiproct  and  the 
medial  surfaces  of  the  paraprocts.  Figure  1  depicts  the  appearance  and  size 
of  a  normally-shaped  egg  encrustation.  If  less  dark  fluid  is  produced  during 
an  oviposition,  the  egg  is  encrusted  but  the  encrustation  is  not  shaped.  Some 
eggs  are  naked  because  they  are  laid  without  any  fluid.  The  amount  of 
encrusted  material  around  an  egg  does  not  seem  to  affect  the  amount  of  silk 
subsequently  attached  to  it. 

In  two  separate  ovipositions,  the  female  probed  with  her  abdomen  in  an 
area  on  the  bark,  then  moved  or  was  chased  away  to  a  differently-colored 
substrate  on  which  an  egg  was  laid.  The  color  of  these  encrustations  did  not 
match  their  substrates.  The  bark  debris  that  had  been  collected  on  the 
terminalia  at  the  intended  ovipositional  site  must  have  become  mixed  with 
the  encrusting  fluid  when  this  was  discharged,  thereby  causing  a  mismatch 
between  the  encrustation  and  the  substrate  of  the  actual  site. 

The  site  for  oviposition  apparently  is  selected  before  a  female  stops 
moving,  probably  because  any  further  movement  may  cause  a  mismatch 
between  the  debris  on  her  terminalia  and  the  substrate,  minimizing  the 


156 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


0.5  mm 


Figure  1.  Encrusted  eggs  of  Trichadenotecnum  alexanderae  with  silk  strands  (Salt  Fork 
culture). 


effectiveness  of  the  camouflaging  encrustation.  Also,  further  movement 
may  result  in  the  selection  of  a  site  ill-suited  in  some  other  way  for 
ovipcsition. 

Eclosion.  Eclosion  is  similar  to  that  of  other  species  of  psoco- 
morph  Psocoptera  (cf.  Pearman  1928b,  Sommerman  1943a,  b,  c,  1944, 
Mockford  1957,  Eertomoed  1966,  Dunham  1972,  Garcis  Aldrete  1973). 
The  hatching  described  is  that  of  an  egg  from  Lake  of  the  Woods 

culture. 

Hatching  began  as  the  top  of  the  egg  opened  flapwise  at  its  anterior  end 
and  was  forced  up  by  the  head  of  the  upright  pronymph.  The  head  emerged 
first,  and  while  the  pronymph  had  its  ventral  surface  facing  the  substrate  it 
underwent  ecdysis.  As  molting  proceeded,  the  nymph  remained  almost 
perpendicular  to  the  substrate,  its  legs  being  freed  before  its  antennae.  The 
nymph  then  arched  posteriorly,  slowly  freeing  its  antennae.  The  legs  moved 
slightly  when  freed,  but  more  actively  once  the  antennae  were  freed.  The 
nymph  then  fell  forward,  and  when  its  legs  contacted  the  egg  it  slowly 
crawled  ahead.  Emergence  was  completed  in  about  20  minutes.  The  nymph 
was  cream-colored  with  dark  purple  ommatidia. 

All  pronymphal  exuviae  are  grayish-white  and  are  left  about  halfway 
out  of  an  egg.  Hatched  but  undisturbed  eggs  (N  =  136)  retain  the  hatching 
flap  and  pronymphal  exuviae. 

Nymphal  stages.  Exuviae  from  10  isolated  individuals  from  Lake  of 


Vol.  94,  No.  4,  September  &  October,  1983  157 

the  Woods  culture  indicated  there  are  6  nymphal  stages,  and  all  except  the 
first  resemble  adults  in  overall  coloration.  Fecal  material  and  debris 
passively  accumulate  on  nymphs  of  all  ages,  presumably  because  of  a 
secretion  by  glandular  hairs,  causing  most  older  nymphs  to  become 
camouflaged  on  the  bark. 

Ecdysis.  Ecdysis  is  the  same  as  that  described  for  other  species  of 
psocomorphPsocoptera(Pearman  1928b,  Sommerman  1943a,  b,  c,  1944, 
Eertmoed  1966,  Dunham  1972).  The  following  is  a  description  of  a  molt 
from  last  stage  nymph  to  adult  female  from  Salt  Fork  culture. 

The  first  sign  that  the  nymph  was  about  to  molt  was  its  walking  with  stiff 
appendages.  It  then  stopped  moving,  about  1  minute  later  its  antennae 
began  to  pulse  at  about  2  beats  per  second.  About  20  seconds  after  its 
antennae  began  to  beat,  a  pulse  began  in  synchrony,  extending  from  the  top 
of  the  frons  to  the  bottom  of  the  clypeus.  Then  the  posterior  portion  of  its 
abdomen  began  to  pulse  about  once  every  5  seconds  and  the  size  of  the 
nymph  increased. 

The  dorsum  of  the  nymph's  thorax  gradually  split  open  medially  and  the 
adult  emerged  through  this  lengthening  split.  Excluding  appendages,  the 
thorax,  head,  and  then  abdomen  emerged.  The  anterior  end  of  the  adult's 
abdomen  began  to  withdraw  from  the  nymphal  cuticle  once  its  head  began 
to  emerge. 

Once  the  thorax  of  the  adult  emerged  from  the  old  cuticle,  the 
appendages  were  freed  in  the  following  order:  mouthparts,  wings,  forelegs, 
midlegs,  hindlegs,  antennae.  A  foreleg  pulled  an  antenna  out  of  the  old 
cuticle.  When  an  appendage  was  freed  it  quivered  for  about  15  seconds. 

Once  the  appendages  were  out  the  adult  was  held  to  the  old  cuticle  only 
at  the  posterior  end  of  its  abdomen,  and  was  almost  perpendicular  to  the 
substrate.  The  abdomen  was  freed  when  the  adult  dropped  forward  and 
crawled  ahead.  Once  emerged,  the  epiproct  was  flexed  ventrally  and  the 
paraprocts  and  valvulae  were  flexed  medially  in  spasms  for  about  15 
seconds. 

The  molt  was  completed  in  about  7.5  minutes,  from  the  moment  the 
nymph  stopped  moving  to  the  time  the  abdomen  of  the  adult  became 
detached  from  the  nymphal  exuviae. 

Directly  after  molting  the  adult  was  unable  to  stand,  but  could  move  on 
its  coxae.  The  wings  were  curled  away  from  the  body  and  the  fore  wings 
were  pale  yellow,  and  it  took  about  1 2  hours  for  the  shape  and  color  pattern 
to  mature. 

Neither  nymphs  nor  adults  of  T.  alexanderae  eat  their  exuviae,  as 
some  psocid  species  do  that  are  mycophagous  or  lichenophagous  (cf. 
Sommerman  1943b,  c,  1944,  Mockford  1957). 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

E.L.  Mockford  was  helpful  in  his  discussions  about  Psocoptera.  The  manuscript 
was  reviewed  by  E.L.  Mockford,  P.R.  Vilaro,  D.M.  Sullivan,  G.E.  Eertmoed,  and  an 
anonymous  reviewer.  The  author  thanks  I.N.  Holod  for  production  assistance. 


158  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


LITERATURE  CITED 

Betz,  B.W.  1983a.  Systematics  of  the  Trichadenotecnum  alexanderae  species  complex 

(Psocoptera:  Psocidae)    based    on    an    investigation    of    reproductive    modes    and 

morphology.  Can.  Entomol.  (in  press). 
.    1983b.    The    biology    of    Trichadenotecnum    alexanderae    Sommerman 

(Psocoptera:  Psociade).  II.  Duration  of  biparental  and  thelytokous  reproductive  abilities. 

J.  Kansas  Entomol.  Soc.  (in  press). 
.    1983c.    The    biology    of    Trichadenotecnum    alexanderae    Sommerman 


(Psocoptera:  Psocidae).  III.  Analysis  of  mating  behavior.  Psyche  (in  press). 

1983d.    The    biology    of    Trichadenotecnum    alexanderae    Sommerman 


(Psocoptera:   Psocidae).   IV.   Mechanism  of  genitalic  coupling.  J.   Kansas   Entomol. 

Soc.  (in  press). 

Broadhead,  E.,  and  A.J.  Wapshere.  1966.  Mesopsocus  populations  on  larch  in  England 
the    distribution    and    dynamics    of    two    closely-related    co-existing    species    of 

Psocoptera  sharing  the  same  food  resource.  Ecol.  Monogr.  36:   327-388. 
Dunham,   R.S.    1972.  A  life  history  of  Caecilius  aiirantiacus  (Hagen)  (Psocoptera: 

Caeciliidae).  Great  Lakes  Entomol.  5:    17-27. 
Eertmoed,  G.E.    1966.   The   life   history  of  Peripsocus  qiiadrifasciatus    (Psocoptera: 

Peripsocidae).  J.  Kansas  Entomol.  Soc.  39:  54-65. 
Garcia  Aldrete,  A.N.  1973.  The  life  history  and  developmental  rates  of  Lachesilla  pacifica 

Chapman  (parthenogenetic  form)  at  four  levels  of  temperature  (Psocopt.,  Lachesillidae). 

Ciencia.  Mex.  28:  73-77. 
Heilbronn,  T.D.  1975.  Some  aspects  of  the  biology  of  the  bark  louse  Graphopsocus 

cruciatus  (L.)  (Psocoptera:   Stenopsocidae).  Entomol.  Record  87:    132-136. 
Mockford,  E.L.  1957.  Life  history  studies  on  some  Florida  insects  of  the  genus  Archipsocus 

(Psocoptera).  Bull.  Fla.  State  Mus..  Biol.  Sci.  1:   253-274. 
1962.    Notes   on  the   distribution   and   life   history  of  Archipsocus  frater 

Mockford  (Psocoptera:  Archipsocidae).  Florida  Entomol.  45:    149-151. 
New,   T.R.    1968.    The    life    history   of   Cuneopalpus   cvanops   (Rost. ),   (Psocoptera). 

Entomologist's  Gaz.  19:    189-197. 
1969.  Aerial  dispersal  of  some  British  Psocoptera,  as  indicated  by  suction 

trap  catches.  Proc.  R.  Ent.  Soc.  Lond.  44:  49-61. 

_.  1970.  The  relative  abundance  of  some  British  Psocoptera  on  different  species 


of  trees.  J.  Anim.  Ecol.  39:  521-540. 

..  1971.  An  introduction  to  the  natural  history  of  the  British  Psocoptera.  The 


Entomologist.  1971:  59-97. 

..  1975.  Aerial  dispersal  of  some  Victorian  Psocoptera  as  indicated  by  suction 


trap  catches.  J.  Aust.  Ent.  Soc.  14:    179-184. 
Pearman,  J.V.  1 928 a.  Biological  observations  on  British  Psocoptera.  I.  Eggs  and  oviposition. 

Ent.  Mon.  Mag.  64:  209-218. 
1928b.  Biological  observations  on  British  Psocoptera.  II.  Hatching  and  ecdysis. 

Ent.  Mon.  Mag.  64:   239-243. 
Sommerman,    K.M.    1943a.    Description    and   bionomics   of  Caecilius   manteri  n.sp. 

(Corrodentia).  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  Wash.  45:  29-39. 
1943b.  Bionomics  of  Ectopsocus  pumilis    (Banks)  (Corrodentia,  Caeciliidae). 

Psyche  50:  53-64. 
1943c.  Bionomics  of  Lachesilla  nubilis  (Aaron)  (Corrodentia,  Caeciliidae). 


Can.  Entomol.  75:  99-105. 

_.  1944.  Bionomics  of  Amapsocus  amabilis  (Walsh)  (Corrodentia,  Psocidae). 


Ann.  Ent.  Soc.  Amer.  37:   359-364. 

_.   1948.  Two  new  Nearctic  psocids  of  the  genus  Trichadenotecnum  with  a 


nomenclatural  note  on  a  third  species.  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  Wash.  50:    165-173. 
Thornton,  I.W.B.  1964.  Air-borne  Psocoptera  trapped  on  ships  and  aircraft.  Pacific  Insects 

6:  285-291. 
,  and  J.C.  Harrell.  1965.  Air-borne  Psocoptera  trapped  on  ships  and  aircraft, 

2-Pacific  ship  trappings,  1963-64.  Pacific  Insects  7:   700-702. 
Turner,  B.D.  1974.  The  population  dynamics  of  tropical  arboreal  Psocoptera  (Insecta)  on 

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Vol.  94,  No.  4,  September  &  October,  1983  159 


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other  pertinent  subjects. 

This  is  a  very  direct  and  concise  presentation  of  all  the  essential  factors  in  the  subject  field. 
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BARK  BEETLES  IN  NORTH  AMERICAN  CONIFERS.  J.  Mitton  &  K.  Sturgeon.  Eds. 
1982.  Univ.  Texas  Press.  527  pp.  $30.00,  $17.50  pbk. 

Ten  papers  on  bark  beetle  communities:  on  evolution,  systematics,  life  cycles,  pheromones, 
symbionts,  host  resistance  and  forest  management. 

TRJCHOPTERA  OF  THE  AREA  PLATENSE  (Argentina)  O.  Flint.  1982.  In  Biologia 
Acuatica  No.  2.  Institute  de  Limnologia,  La  Plata,  Argentina.  70  pp.  S8.00. 

Descriptions  and  keys  for  identification  of  3 1  species  in  1 1  genera  and  6  families.  Larvae  and 
pupae  are  included  in  supra-generical  identification  keys. 


160  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


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FLIES  OF  THE  NEARCTIC  REGION.  Vol.  V,  Pt.  1 3,  No.  3.  J.  Hall  &  N.  Evenhuis.  1 982. 
$36.96;  Vol.  VIII,  Pt.  2,  No.  1 .  G.  Griffiths.  1 982  $56.32.  Schweizerbart'sche  Verlagsbuch- 
handlung  (Nagele  u.  Obermiller).  Available  in  USA  from  Lubrecht  &  Cramer,  RDF  1,  Box 
227,  Monticello,  NY  12791. 

Two  more  numbers  in  this  continuing  series.  V:  13:3  is  on  Bombyliidae.  VIII:  2:  1  is  on 
Anthomyiidae. 


THE  DOLICHOPODIDAE  OF  NEBRASKA.  F.  Harmston  &  W.  Rapp.   1983.  In 
Novitates  Arthropodae  1  (4).  J-B  Pub.  75  pp. 

Annotated  listing  of  species  and  localities,  with  maps,  of  members  of  this  Diptera  family 
collected  during  mosquito  surveys  in  Nebraska. 


THE  MARSH  FLIES  OF  CALIFORNIA  (Diptera:   Sciomyzidae).  T.  Fisher  &  R.  Orth. 
1983.  Univ.  Calif.  Press.  1 17  pp.  $20.00  pbk. 

Taxonomy,  biology  and  distribution  of  49  species  in  13  genera  known  in  California,  plus  8 
species  from  neighboring  states,  and  4  forms  of  Dictya  montana. 


BUMBLE  BEES  AND  CUCKOO  BUMBLE  BEES  OF  CALIFORNIA  (Hymenoptera: 
Apidae).  D.  &  L.  Dunning.  1983.  Univ.  Calif.  Press.  79  pp.  $19.00  pbk. 

24  species  of  Bombus  and  ofPsithyrus  are  treated,  including  keys  to  and  diagnosis  of  genera 
and  species. 


COMMON  INSECT  AND  MITE  GALLS  OF  THE  PACIFIC  NORTHWEST.   H. 
Larew  and  J.  Capizzi.  1983.  Oregon  State  Univ.  Press.  80  pp.  $4.95  pbk. 

A  small,  popular  guide  to  provide  brief  answers  to  some  common  questions  people  ask  about 
galls  and  to  describe  some  found  in  the  Pacific  northwest. 


A  CATALOG  OF  THE  DIPTERA  OF  AMERICA  NORTH  OF  MEXICO.  A.  Stone  et 
al.  1983  reprint  of  1965  publication.  ARS,  USDA.  Smithsonian.  $29.95. 

Catalog  of  over  16,000  species,  plus  index,  bibliography,  and  section  of  periodicals. 


CATALOGUE  OF  THE  ORTHOPTERA  OF  SPAIN.  L.  Herrera.  1 982.  Dr.  W.  Junk  BV 
Pub.  162  pp.  $37.00. 

As  title  indicates,  a  catalog  of  the  Orthoptera  of  Spain. 


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Vol.  94 


NOVEMBER  &  DECEMBER  1983 


No.  5 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


tnmature  stages  &  biology  of  Tetraglossa  palpalis 
(Coleoptera:  Ptilodactylidae)  PaulJ.  Spongier  161 

Second  record  of  So.  American  burrowing  bug,  Scaptocoris 
castaneus  Petty  (Hemiptera:  Cydnidae)  in  the  U.S. 

R.  C.  Froeschner,  W.E.  Steiner,  Jr.  176 

Notes  on  Brachydeutera  from  No.  America  (Diptera: 

Ephydridae)  Wayne  N.  Mathis  111 

New  Hydroptilidae  from  Alabama  &  So.  Carolina 

(Trichoptera)  R.  W.  Kelley,  S.C.  Harris  181 

A  new  species  of  Unerus  from  Honduras  (Homoptera: 

Cicadellidae)  Paul  H.  Freytag  187 

Ticks  of  So.  Dakota:  an  annotated  checklist  (Acari: 

Ixodoidea)  Emmett  R.  Easton  1 9 1 

Horse  flies  &  deer  flies  of  So.  Dakota:  new  state  records 
&  an  annotated  checklist  (Diptera:  Tabanidae) 

Emmett  R.  Easton  1 96 

Prey-stalking  behavior  of  a  thomasid  spider,  Xysticus 
californicus  (Araneae:  Thomisidae)  Roy  R.  Snelling  201 

Perissophlebiodes,  a  replacement  name  for  Perissophlebia 

(Ephemeroptera:  Leptophlebiidae)  Harry  M.  Savage  204 

Mounting  &  preserving  Neuroptera  for  scientific  study 

Charles  W.  Agnew  205 

Paraphrosylus  praedator  &  P.  nigripennis,  new  to 
Washington,  with  notes  on  the  genus  (Diptera: 
Dolichopodidae)  Larry  D.  Corpus  2 1 3 


ANNOUNCEMENTS 
SOCIETY  MEETING  OF  OCTOBER  1983 
MAILING  DATES  &  PUBLISHER'S  STATEMENT 
INDEX:  VOL.  94 


203 
190 
216 
217 


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Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983  161 

IMMATURE  STAGES  AND  BIOLOGY  OF 
TETRAGLOSSA  PALPALIS  CHAMPION 
(COLEOPTERA:  PTILODACTYLIDAE)1 

Paul  J.  Spangler^ 

ABSTRACT:  The  adult  of  the  monotypic  ptilodactylid  Tetraglossa  palpalis  Champion,  its 
distinctive  labial  palpus,  and  the  male  genitalia  are  illustrated.  The  larva,  pupa,  and  habitat 
niches  are  described  and  illustrated;  surface  sculpture  of  the  larva  is  illustrated  by  scanning 
electron  micrographs.  Notes  on  larval  food  and  pupation  are  included. 

Many  inhabitants  of  lotic  habitats  do  not  fly  often,  if  at  all,  and  are 
restricted  to  their  respective  habitat  niches;  also,  those  that  do  fly  (with 
some  exceptions)  seem  not  to  be  commonly  attracted  to  blacklights. 
Although  the  number  of  specimens  collected  in  lotic  habitats  is  lower  than 
the  number  of  specimens  obtained  from  lentic  habitats  in  the  equivalent 
expended  time,  the  extra  effort  to  obtain  material  from  lotic  habitats  usually 
is  well  worth  the  effort.  During  the  month  of  May  1981  I  conducted 
fieldwork  in  the  states  of  Chiapas,  Mexico,  Oaxaca,  and  Veracruz  in 
Mexico.  Because  my  companions,  Dr.  Joaquin  Bueno  and  Dr.  Oliver  S. 
Flint,  Jr.,  were  trichoperists,  most  of  my  collecting  efforts  were  directed 
toward  obtaining  dryopoid  and  other  stream  inhabiting  Coleoptera.  My 
collecting  efforts  in  the  lotic  habitats  were  divided  among  examining  "leaf 
packs";  water-logged  and  rotting  twigs,  limbs,  and  logs;  rocks  in  riffles;  and 
examination  of  roots  and  other  vegetation  caught  under  overhanging  banks 
of  streams.  My  efforts  to  collect  Coleoptera  occurring  in  streams  resulted  in 
the  collection  of  adults  and  immature  stages  of  some  interesting  taxa. 

Among  the  interesting  insects  found  was  a  common  ptilodactylid  larva 
which  resembles  larvae  of  members  of  the  genera  Anchytarsus  and 
Anchycteis.  However,  by  rearing  a  last-instar  larva  through  to  the  adult 
stage  I  was  able  to  establish  that  the  larva  was  an  immature  stage  of 
Tetraglossa  palpalis  Champion  ( 1 897)  which  occurs  widely  through  much 
of  Mexico  and  Central  America  and  represents  the  monotypic  genus 
Tetraglossa.  A  review  of  the  literature  revealed  that  Bertrand  (1972) 
included  a  dorsal  view  of  the  ninth  abdominal  segment  of  a  larva  of  T. 
palpalis  and  included  the  genus  in  a  key  to  larvae  of  the  genera  of 
Ptilodactylidae.  Because  the  immature  stages  of  T.  palpalis  have  not  been 
fully  described  previously  and  the  pupa  was  unknown,  descriptions  of  the 
larva  and  pupa  follow. 


Deceived  March  24,  1983.  Accepted  May  27,  1983. 

^Department  of  Entomology,  National  Museum  of  Natural  History,  Smithsonian  Institution. 
Washington,  D.C.  20560 

ENT.  NEWS,  94(5)  161-175  November  & /ecember  1983 

JAN  '. 


162 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Tetraglossa  palpalis 

The  adult  of  this  species  was  adequately  described  by  Champion 
(1897);  illustrations  of  the  adult,  labium,  labial  palpus,  maxilla,  and 
maxillary  palpus  were  included  in  that  publication.  Because  Champion's 
illustrations  are  very  small  and  somewhat  schematic,  illustrations  in  greater 
detail  of  the  adult  male,  including  habitus  (Fig.  1),  labial  palpus  (Fig.  2), 
and  genitalia  (Figs.  3  &  4),  are  included  in  this  paper. 


:>!;': 


1 


2.0mm 


Figs.  1-2.  Tetraglossa  palpalis  Champion,  male  adult:   1,  Habitus;  2,  Labial  palpus. 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983 


163 


Figs.  3-4.  Tetraglossa  palpalis  Champion,  male  genitalia:  3,  Dorsal  view;  4,  Lateral  view. 


164  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Larva 

Figures  5-15 

Description:  Length  17.8  mm;  width  of  prothorax  2.1  mm.  Body  (Figs.  5,  6,  7) 
semicylindrical,  moderately  flattened  ventrally.  Color  testaceous  to  castaneous  dorsally; 
lighter  testaceous  ventrally  except  legs  creamy  yellow. 

Head:  Slightly  wider  than  long  (1.4: 1.6mm)  (Fig.  8).  Ecdysial  cleavage  line  forked  near 
base;  frontal  arms  diverge  and  extend  in  sinuous  lines  to  bases  of  antennae.  Frons  sagittate. 
Cuticle  appearing  smooth  except  for  numerous,  moderately  coarse  punctures  and  1  long  seta 
behind  each  frontal  arm  at  about  basal  third;  6  long  setae  adjacent  to  stemmata;  3  long  setae  on 
each  anterolateral  angle  of  clypeus  near  bases  of  antennae.  Labrum  with  6  long  setae  across 
anterior  surface  and  small  tufts  of  setae  on  anterolateral  angles.  Stemmata  single;  large, 
strongly  convex;  on  each  side  of  head  directly  behind  bases  of  antennae;  with  distinct  black 
pigment  beneath  lens.  Antenna  long,  cylindrical;  of  3  antennal  segments;  first  segment  longest; 
second  segment  about  four-fifths  as  long  as  first;  third  segment  minute.  Clypeus  broad,  feebly 
arcuate.  Labrum  narrower  than  clypeus;  finely,  densely  punctate;  and  feebly  emarginate 
anteriorly.  Mandible  tridentate  apically;  mesal  surface  sulcate;  anterior  and  posterior  margins 
each  with  a  tuft  of  long  golden  setae  at  about  midlength.  Maxilla  and  labium  as  illustrated  (Fig. 
9).  Submentum  divided  longitudinally  into  3  sclerites. 

Thorax:  Prothorax  almost  twice  as  long  as  mesothorax;  bearing  3  long  setae  in  a 
longitudinal  row  between  midline  and  lateral  margins  and  several  more  long  setae  along  lateral 
margins.  Mesothorax  with  1  large  spiracle  anterolaterally;  with  2  long  setae  in  a  longitudinal 
row  between  midline  and  lateral  margins  plus  several  more  (6  or  7)  on  each  lateral  margin  and 
a  second  longitudinal  row  of  3  long  setae  laterally  in  line  with  spiracle;  2  setae  on  mesal  side  of 
spiracle  and  1  seta  at  about  posterior  third;  cuticular  punctures  coarser  and  denser  across 
apical  margin.  Metathorax  similar  to  mesothorax  but  without  spiracles.  Hind  margins  of 
thoracic  and  abdominal  segments  strigate.  Legs  four-segmented,  short  and  stout;  second  and 
third  segments  ventrally  with  row  of  dense,  robust,  spines  along  anterior  and  posterior  (inner 
and  outer)  margins  (Fig.  10).  Last  segment  (tibiotarsus)  terminates  in  a  single  robust  claw. 

Abdomen:  Of  9  segments;  segments  1-8  similar  to  metathorax  in  punctation  but  long 
setae  are  in  2  rows  between  biforous  spiracle  (Fig.  1 1 )  and  midline;  2  long  setae  posterior  to 
spiracle  and  2  long  setae  arising  together  from  posterolateral  angle  of  each  segment.  Tergum  of 
last  abdominal  segment  compressed  dorsoventrally  (Fig.  6);  discal  area  moderately  convex; 
lateral  margins  strongly  keeled;  side  beneath  keel  on  each  side  with  longitudinal  rows  of  long 
hairlike  setae;  posterolateral  angles  obtuse,  subspinose;  apex  broadly  and  moderately  deeply 
emarginate.  Ventral  surface  of  last  abdominal  segment  bearing  a  pair  of  large,  robust, 
prehensile  appendages  each  of  which  bears  a  pair  of  large,  stout,  curved,  lateral  hooks  and  8- 
22  similar  hooks  on  posteroventral  surface  (Fig.  7).  Gills,  6;  1  large  conical  dorsal  gill  above 
and  between  appendages;  a  single  small  lateroventral  gill  below  lateral  pair  of  hooks;  and  a  pair 
of  moderately  large  ventral  gills  between  appendages.  Two  pairs  of  long  setae  between  and 
slightly  posterior  to  ventral  gills  and  a  single  long  seta  posterior  to  lateroventral  _gill. 

Surface  sculpture  of  larva:  Examination  of  the  larval  head  capsule  (Fig.  12)  with  the 
SEM  revealed  that  most  of,  if  not  all,  the  punctures  bear  a  cluster  of  minute  slender  setae 
arising  from  a  common  base  (Figs.  13,  14).  It  is  unknown  whether  those  setae  perform  a 
sensory  function;  however,  the  apex  of  the  last  antennal  segment  is  surrounded  by  sensilla 
(Fig.  15). 

Variations:  The  number  of  curved  hooks  on  the  prehensile  appendages  on  the  last 
abdominal  segment  vary  considerably.  The  hooks  on  the  smaller,  earlier  instars  varied  from  8 
to  1 3  hooks  on  each  appendage;  the  hooks  on  the  large,  last-instar  larvae  varied  from  1 5  to  22 
on  each  appendage. 

Food:  Examination  of  the  gut  contents  showed  that  the  larvae  were  feeding  on  the  plant 
material  on  which  they  were  found. 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983 


165 


: 


1  Omm 


Figs.  5-7.  Tetraglossapalpalis  Champion,  larva:   5,  Habitus,  lateral  view;  6,  Last  abdominal 
segment,  dorsal  view;  7,  Last  abdominal  segment,  lateral  view. 


166 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Figs.  8-9.  Tetraglossa palpalis  Champion,  larva:  8,  Head,  ventral  view,  125X;  9,  Labium 
and  maxillae,  170X. 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983 


167 


Figs.  10-11.  Tetraglossa  palpalis  Champion,  larva:    10,  Front  leg,  225X;  11,  Spiracle, 
2650X. 


168 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Figs.  12-13.  Tetraglossa  palpalis  Champion,  larva:    12,  Head,  dorsal  view,  125X;  13, 
Sculpture  on  head,  360X. 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983 


169 


Figs.  14-15.  Tetraglossa palpalis  Champion,  larva:    14,  Setae  in  punctures  on  head,  1000X; 
15,  Sensilla  on  antennal  apex,  3000X. 


170  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Pupa 

Figures  16-19 

Description:  Length  (including  cerci)  1 2 .0  mm.  Color  white  with  pronotal  styli,  cuticular 
setae,  spiracles,  gin-traps,  sclerite  on  first  abdominal  tergum,  and  cerci  testaceous.  Short 
cuticular  setae  on  areas  as  described. 

Head:  With  moderately  dense  cuticular  setae  on  dorsum,  denser  at  inner  apical  corner  of 
each  eye.  Antennae  directed  posteriorly,  lying  along  side  of  pronotum  (Fig.  16).  Maxillary  and 
labial  palpi  extended  posteroventrally.  Ultimate  labial  palpal  segment  trifurcate  in  male, 
unbranched  in  female. 

Thorax:  Pronotum  with  moderately  dense  cuticular  setae  and  4  robust  styli;  1  strongly 
angular  stylus  on  each  anterolateral  angle  and  1  arcuate  stylus  on  each  posterolateral  angle. 
Mesonotum  and  metanotum  and  their  respective  wing  pids  with  sparse  cuticular  setae  only. 
Front,  middle,  and  hind  femora  extend  outward  at  right  angles  from  body-axis  and  lie  beneath 
elytral  wing  pads.  All  legs  with  tibiae  folded  against  femora;  all  tarsi  turned  backward  parallel 
with  body  axis. 

Abdomen:  Tergum  of  abdominal  segment  1  with  small  subrectangular  sclerite  at 
apicomedial  margin;  terga  of  remaining  abdominal  segments  with  sparse  cuticular  setae.  First 
through  seventh  abdominal  segments  each  with  a  pair  of  spiracles;  1  spiracle  on  each 
anterolateral  corner  of  each  segment;  those  spiracles  on  segment  1  small,  poorly  developed. 
Gin-traps,  4;  present  between  first  through  fifth  abdominal  segments  (Figs.  17,  18).  Cerci 
elongate,  blunt  apically  (Fig.  19). 

Pupation:  On  May  15,  1981,  while  collecting  about  25  km  northeast 
of  Catemaco,  Veracruz,  Mexico,  I  found  a  sapling  which  had  fallen  into  the 
Rio  Palma;  many  leaves  and  twigs  had  drifted  against  the  sapling  and 
formed  a  dense  leaf  pack.  The  leaf  pack  was  about  one-third  of  a  meter 
thick,  two  meters  long  and  one-half  meter  wide  (Fig.  20).  By  carefully 
pulling  this  leaf  pack  apart  I  uncovered  60  larvae,  1  pupa,  and  3  adults  of  T. 
palpalis.  Numerous  large,  apparently  last-instar  larvae  were  found  in 
poorly  defined  pupal  cells.  The  pupal  cells  were  simply  oval  depressions 
about  25  X  18  mm,  were  usually  in  moist  leaves  3  to  4  cm  above  the 
waterline,  and  appeared  to  have  been  formed  by  the  respective  larvae 
chewing  the  leaves  and  compacting  them  by  wriggling  movements.  Some 
earlier  instar  larvae  were  found  randomly  throughout  the  leaf  pack;  several 
larvae  in  cavities  under  loose  bark  of  rotting  branches  in  the  leaf  pack,  and 
numerous  larvae  inside  hollow  twigs  in  the  leaf  pack.  One  pupa  eclosed  a 
half  hour  after  it  was  collected.  Three  last-instar  larvae  found  in  pupal  cells 
were  kept  alive  for  rearing  to  obtain  pupae  for  preservation  and  illustration, 
to  establish  the  length  of  the  pupal  stage,  and  to  verify  the  presumed 
identity.  The  three  larvae  pupated  and  one  of  the  pupae  eclosed  4  days  after 
pupation;  that  adult  and  the  two  remaining  pupae  were  then  preserved. 

Habitat  Larvae,  pupae,  and  freshly  eclosed  adults  were  present  in 
almost  all  lotic  habitats  examined — large  rivers,  small  streams,  small 
cascades,  and  seeps.  In  all  of  the  habitats  where  specimens  of  Tetraglossa 
palpalis  were  found,  two  factors  were  always  present — clean  running  water 
and  accumulations  of  vegetation  in  various  stages  of  decomposition. 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983 


171 


Fig.  16  Tetraglossa  palpalis  Champion,  pupa,  ventral  view. 


172 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Figs.    17-19.    Tetraglossa  palpalis  Champion,   pupa:    17,   Dorsal  view;    18,   Gin-traps, 
enlarged;  19,  Cerci. 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983 


173 


Figs.  20-21.  Tetraglossa  palpalis  Champion,  habitats:   20,  Leaf  pack,  Rio  Palma;  21,  Leaf 
pack,  Rio  Tulija. 


174 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Figs.  22-23.  Tetraglossa  palpalis  Champion,  habitats:  22,  Mat  of  roots  from  seep;  23, 
Picking  specimens  from  roots. 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983  175 


Specimens  were  especially  abundant  in  leaf  packs  (Figs.  20, 2 1 )  and  among 
rootlets.  On  seeps,  specimens  were  found  by  pulling  the  mats  of  roots  loose 
from  the  substrate,  placing  the  roots  on  a  cloth  and  then  carefully  sorting 
through  the  plant  material  (Figs.  22,  23). 

In  leaf  packs  lodged  against  the  partly  submerged  tree  in  the  Rio  Tulija, 
taxa  associated  with  specimens  of  T.  palpalis  were:  Limnichidae 
(Eulimnichus  sp.),Lutrochidae  (Lutrochus  sp.),  and  Elmidae  (Austrolimnius 
sp.,  Heterelmis  sp.,  Microcylloepus  sp.,  and  Phanocerus  sp.).  Other 
beetles  associated  with  T.  palpalis  in  the  matted  roots  (Figs.  22,  23)  on  the 
seeps  were:  Dryopidae  (Elmoparnus  sp.),  Elmidae  (Elsianus  sp.  and 
Heterelmis  sp.),  Hydraenidae  (Spanglerina  sp.),  and  Hydrophilidae 
(Oocyclus  sp.). 

Specimens  examined  (all  in  National  Museum  of  Natural  History,  Smithsonian 
Institution).  —  BELIZE:  TOLEDO  DISTRICT:  Blue  Creek  Village,  30  June  1981,  W. 
Steiner,  25  larvae;  San  Antonio  (5  km  N),  Columbia  Forest,  26  June  1981,  W.  Steiner,  1 
larva.  GUATEMALA:  ALTA  VERAPAZ:  Trece  Aguas,  April  1906,  1  larva;  Trece 
Aguas,  25,  27,  30  Mar.,  Schwarz&  Barber,  6  adults;  Trece  Aguas,  7,  16, 22  Apr.,  Schwarz& 
Barber,  5  adults.  —  MEXICO:  CHIAPAS:  Ocosingo  (22  km  N),  Rio  Lacanja,  19  May 
1981,  P.J.  Spangler,  1  larva;  Ocosingo,  Rio  Contento,  20  May  1981,  P.J.  Spangler,  1  larva; 
Pacific  Coast  Cordilleras,  L.  Hotzon,  800- 1000m,  1  adult.  O  AX  AC  A:  Valle  Nacional  (8 
km  S),  25  May  1981,  P.J.  Spangler,  14  larvae;  Valle  Nacional  (8  km  S),  25  May  1981,  C.M. 
and  O.S.  Flint,  Jr.,  1  larva.  SAN  LUIS  POTOSI:  2  km  W.  Tlamaya,  8  km  N.  Xilitla,  Sotano 
de  Huitzmolotitla,  29  Jan.  1 964,  T.  Raines  and  T.  Phillips,  1  adult.  VERACRUZ:  La  Palma 
(above  town),  Los  Tuxtlas  area,  Rio  Palma.  7  May  1981,  P.J.  Spangler  and  S.  Santiago,  1 
larva;  La  Palma  (above  town),  15  May  1981,  P.J.  Spangler,  1  adult,  60  larvae,  1  pupa;  Los 
Tuxtlas  area,  Rio  Maquinas,  13  May  1981,  P.J.  Spangler,  4  larvae;  Palenque  (48  km  S),  Rio 
Tulija,  17  May  1981,  P.J.  Spangler,  1  larva;  Palenque  Ruinas,  10  July  1981,  W.  Steiner,  1 
larva.  —  PANAMA:  CHIRIQUI:  Rio  Chrirqui  Viejo  (Volcan),  Foster,  1  larva.  PANAMA: 
La  Chorrera,  10  May  1912,  Aug.  Busck,  1  adult. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I  thank  the  following  friends  who  contributed  to  this  article:  Joaquin  Bueno-Soria  who 
made  all  the  financial  and  logistical  arrangements  for  the  fieldwork  during  which  time  most  of 
the  biological  data  reported  here  were  obtained;  Silvia  and  Joaquin  Bueno,  Carol  and  Oliver 
Flint,  Hector  Velasco,  and  Roberto  Arce  for  help  in  collecting  the  Mexican  specimens;  and 
Warren  Steiner  for  collecting  specimens  from  Belize  during  the  Eaithwatch  Expedition  led  by 
D.H.  Messersmith;  Robin  Faitoute  for  preparation  of  larvae  for  SEM  photography;  Susann 
Braden  for  the  SEM  micrographs;  Young  Sohn  for  the  art  work;  and  Noreen  Connell  for  typing 
the  manuscript. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Bertrand,  H.P.I.  1972.  Larves  et  Nymphes  des  Coleopteres  Aquatiques  du  Globe.  804  pp., 

561  figs.  F.  Paillart.  Abbeville. 
Blackwelder,  R.H.  1944.  Checklist  of  the  Coleopterous  Insects  of  Mexico,  Central  America, 

the  West  Indies,  and  South  America.  U.S.N.M.  Bulletin  5(2):    189-341. 
Champion,  G.C.  1897.  Biologia  Centrali-Americana.  Insecta,  Coleoptera  ( Rhiphidoceridae 

Dascillidae  and  supplement),  3(1):   585-662. 


176  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

SECOND  RECORD  OF  SOUTH  AMERICAN 

BURROWING  BUG,  SCAPTOCORIS  CASTANEUS 

PERTY  (HEMIPTERA:  CYDNIDAE)  IN  THE 

UNITED  STATES1 

Richard  C.  Froeschner,  Warren  E.  Steiner,  Jr.  2 

ABSTRACT:  A  second  North  American  population  of  the  neotropial  Scaptocoris  castaneus 
Perty  was  found  among  beach  plants  on  a  sand  dune  in  Georgia  about  200  miles  south  of  the 
initial  find  in  South  Carolina. 

While  collecting  on  Little  Cumberland  Island,  Camden  County, 
Georgia,  in  September  1 982,  Steiner  discovered  five  adult  specimens  of  the 
South  American  burrowing  bug,  Scaptocoris  castaneus  Perty;  this  locality 
is  approximately  200  miles  south  of  Charleston,  South  Carolina,  whence 
the  species  was  originally  reported  in  North  America  by  Froeschner  and 
Chapman  (1963).  That  paper  included  a  dorsal  habitus  drawing.  Whether 
this  represents  a  separate  introduction  into  the  United  States  due  to 
dumping  of  ballast  by  early  sailing  ships  (see  paper  cited)  or  a  part  of  the 
same  introduction  reported  for  Charleston,  South  Carolina,  is  not  now 
evident.  Further  collecting  along  the  coasts  of  South  Carolina  and  Georgia 
is  needed  to  determine  if  the  two  populations  are  continuous. 

Three  of  the  Georgia  specimens  of  S.  castaneus  (28  September  1982) 
were  found  among  the  roots  of  European  beachgrass  (Ammophila  arenaria 
(L.)  Link)  and  sea-oats  (Uniola paniculata  L.)  on  a  primary  ocean  beach 
dune;  bugs  were  exposed  by  digging  into  the  top  of  the  slip-face  of  the  dune 
and  were  found  at  depths  of  8-15  cm  in  slightly  moist  sand.  At  the  same 
locality  on  30  September  1982,  two  more  specimens  were  taken  during  the 
late  afternoon  on  the  sand  surface  of  a  trail  through  the  dunes.  These 
cydnids  bear  a  remarkabe  similarity  to  some  scarabaeid  and  tenebrionid 
beetles  which  also  inhabit  dune  sand;  the  globular,  rugose  body,  bladelike 
front  tibiae  and  stout  hind  legs  with  reduced  tarsi,  and  long  setae  on  legs  and 
venter  are  seen  in  many  unrelated  taxa  which  have  evolved  a  psammophilous 
way  of  life. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Thanks  are  due  the  Little  Cumberland  Island  Association  for  granting  permission  to 
collect  insects  on  the  island,  and  to  Rebecca  Bell  and  William  A.  Dix  for  valuable  field 
assistance. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Froeschner,  R.C.  and  Q.L.  Chapman.  1963.  A  South  American  cydnid,  Scaptocoris 
castaneus  Perty,  established  in  the  United  States  (Hemiptera:  Cydnidae).  Ent.  News. 
74:  95-98. 


1  Received  April  27,  1983.  Accepted  June  4,  1983. 

^Department  of  Entomology,  Smithsonian  Institution,  Washington,  D.C.  20560 
ENT.  NF.WS   Q4rs\  n*  M^,O^K».  *-  r» u-_  .no-. 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983  177 

NOTES  ON  BRACHYDEUTERA  LOEW  (DIPTERA: 
EPHYDRIDAE)  FROM  NORTH  AMERICA1 

Wayne  N.  Mathis^ 

ABSTRACT:  The  type  series  of  Brachydeutera  argentata  (Walker)  and  its  junior  synonym, 
B.  dimidiata  Loew,  are  reviewed,  to  include  lectotype  designations  for  both.  B.  argentata  is 
now  known  to  occur  only  in  eastern  North  America,  and  in  southeastern  United  States  its' 
distribution  overlaps  that  of  B.  neotropica.  A  few  paratypes  of  B.  neotropica  were  discovered 
to  be  misidentified,  thus  altering  slightly  the  distribution  of  that  species.  A  revised  key  and 
illustrations  of  North  American  species  of  Brachydeutera  are  presented. 

As  part  of  a  research  project  on  the  genus  Brachydeutera  Loew  from 
the  Oriental,  Australian,  and  Oceanian  regions  (Mathis  and  Ghorpade,  in 
preparation),  we  needed  to  know  the  identity  of  B.  argentata,  which  had 
been  reported  from  these  regions  in  addition  to  North  America  (eastern 
United  States)  and  the  Palearctic  Region  (Canary  Islands,  eastward 
through  the  Mediterranean  and  Middle  Eastern  countries  to  Japan)  ( Wirth, 
1964).  Clarification  of  the  status  of  B.  argentata  has  resulted  in  this 
publication,  which  also  includes  illustrations  of  the  male  terminalia  and  a 
key  to  the  three  species  known  from  the  Western  Hemisphere. 

Walker  (1853)  described  argentata,  but  in  the  genus  Notiphila.  Less 
than  a  decade  later,  Loew  (1862)  erected  the  genus  Brachydeutera  for  B. 
dimidiata,  a  species  that  he  newly  described  in  the  same  paper.  The 
specimens  Walker  and  Loew  studied  are  from  North  America,  "United 
States"  and  "Wasington  [D.C.]"  respectively.  Becker  (1896)  recognized 
that  Walker  and  Loew  were  dealing  with  the  same  species  and  cited  B. 
argentata  as  the  widespread,  holarctic  species,  with  B.  dimidiata  as  the 
junior  synonym.  Not  until  Wirth's  revision  (1964)  of  Brachydeutera  was 
the  status  of  B.  argentata  changed.  Wirth's  studies,  particularly  of  the 
male  terminalia,  indicated  that  several  species  were  included  under  B. 
argentata  of  authors.  For  the  most  part  Wirth  (1964)  described  these 
species,  although  he  still  followed  his  predecessors  in  recognizing  B. 
argentata  as  a  widespread,  holarctic  species.  My  studies  have  revealed  that 
specimens  of  "B.  argentata"  from  the  Old  World  represent  another 
species,  for  which  B.  ibari  Ninomiya  (1929)  appears  to  be  an  available 
name.  Details  concerning  the  latter  species  will  be  presented  elsewhere 
(Mathis  and  Ghorpade,  in  preparation). 

In  quoting  information  on  labels,  I  have  cited  data  as  they  appear,  with 
clarifying  or  interpretive  remarks  in  brackets.  A  double  set  of  quotation 


Deceived  June  16,  1982.  Accepted  July  23,  1983. 

^Department  of  Entomology,  Smithsonian  Institution,  Washington,  D.C.  20560. 

ENT.  NEWS,  94(5)  177-180  November  &  December  1983 


178  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


marks  is  used  to  distinguish  data  occurring  on  one  label  from  those  on 
another. 


Key  to  North  American  species  of  Brachydeutera  Loew 

Facial  carina  low,  bluntly  rounded,  especially  ventrally;  male  terminalia  as  in  Figs.  3,  6 

(Texas  to  California,  south  into  Mexico) B.  sturtevanti  Wirth 

Facial  carina  high,  sharply  defined,  especially  ventrally 2 

Merger  of  fused  surstyli  with  epandrium,  in  lateral  view,  indicated  by  an  angulate 
emargination  (Fig.  5);  gonite  spatulate  apically  (Fig.  5)  (Florida  to  Texas,  southward 

throughout  most  of  the  Neotropics) B.  neotropica  Wirth 

Merger  of  fused  surstyli  with  epandrium,  in  lateral  view,  broadly  rounded  (Fig.  4);  gonite 
digitiform  apically,  narrowly  rounded  (Fig.  4)  (eastern  North  America;  Michigan  to 
Maine,  south  to  Texas  and  Florida B.  argentata  (Walker) 


Brachydeutera  argentata  (Walker) 
(Figs.  1,4) 

Notiphila  argentata  Walker,  1853:  407. 

Brachydeutera  dimidiata  Loew,  1862:    163  [synonymy  according  to  Becker,  1896:  201]. 
Brachydeutera  argentata:  Becker,  1896:  201;  Wirth,  1964:  5  [revision]. 
Brachydeutera  neotropica  Wirth,  1964:  8  [paratype  series  partially  misidentifed,  see  remarks 
section  below). 

Primary  Type  Material.  —  Lectotype  specimen  of  Notiphila  argentata 
(herein  designated),  in  the  British  Museum  (Natural  History),  is  labeled 
"Notiphila  type  argentata  Walk,  [name  handwritten  on  a  disk  with  a  green 
sub-border]"  "  N.  America.  Ex  coll.  Saunders.  68.4  [handwritten]"  "  VB 
[?,  handwritten  on  underside  of  label]"  "  argentata  [folded,  handwritten]" 
68.4."  "  LECTOTYPE  Notiphila  dimidiata  Walker  By  W.N.  Mathis 
[name  and  designator  handwritten;  black  sub-border]."  The  Lectotype  is 
double  mounted  (pin  in  paper  rectangle)  and  is  in  poor  condition  (wings, 
abdomen,  and  two  legs  missing).  It  is  not  clearly  evident  whether  Walker 
described  this  species  from  a  single  specimen  or  a  series,  hence  the 
lectotype  designation. 

Lectotype  female  of  B.  dimidiata  (herein  designated),  in  the  Museum 
of  Comparative  Zoology,  is  labeled  "D.C.  [Washington,  D.C.]"  "  Osten 
Sacken  Coll."  "  LECTOTYPE  9  Brachydeutera  dimidiata  Loew  by  W.N. 
Mathis  [sex,  name,  and  designator  handwritten;  black  sub-border]."  The 
lectotype  is  double  mounted  (minuten  nadel  in  polyporus  rectangular 
block),  is  in  fair  condition  (the  abdomen  is  twisted,  some  setae  broken  or 
misoriented).  Loew,  in  the  original  description,  gave  only  the  female  sex 
symbol,  but  mentioned  "specimens"  in  the  description  and  gave  measure- 
ments as  a  range.  Evidently  he  had  before  him  a  syntypic  series.  As  no 
specimen  was  designated  specifically  as  the  holotype,  I  am  designating 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983 


179 


1 


2 


3 


Figs.  1-3.  Male  terminalia,  posterior  view.  Fig.  1.  Brachydeutera  argentata.  Fig.  2.  B. 
neotropica.  Fig.  3.  B.  sturtevanti. 


Figs.  4-6.   Male  terminalia.   lateral  view.   Fig.  4.   Brachydeutera  argentata.   Fig.  5,  B. 
neotropica.  Fig.  6.  B.  sturtevanti. 


180  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

the  lectotype  here.  The  series, all  from  Osten  Sacken's  collection,  is  at  the 
MCZ  and  includes  two  males  and  three  females.  Only  one  male  and  one 
female  specimen  bear  a  "D.C."  label.  As  only  the  latter  female  agrees  with 
the  sex  Loew  indicated  and  the  type  locality  of  "Washington,"  it  was 
selected  as  the  lectotype. 

Remarks.  —  The  three  species  of  Brachydeutera  occurring  in  North 
America  are  closely  related  and  belong  to  the  same  species  group,  the 
argentata  group.  The  close  relationship  among  them  is  particularly  evident 
in  their  very  similar  appearance.  Externally,  for  example,  I  can  accurately 
distinguish  only  B.  sturtevanti,  and  must  rely  on  characters  of  the  male 
terminalia  for  separation  of  the  other  species.  Fortunately  these  characters 
are  marked  and  clear  (see  figures  and  key).  Accurate  identification  are 
presently  available  only  for  males. 

After  making  dissections  and  studying  characters  of  the  male  terminalia 
of  the  type  series  of  B.  neotropica,  it  became  evident  that  the  paratypes  of 
that  species  from  North  Carolina  and  some  of  them  from  Florida  were 
misidentified.  They  are  representatives  of  B.  argentata.  This  discovery 
alters  the  cited  distribution  of  B.  neotropica  (Wirth,  1964),  which  is 
corrected  as  follows:  Southeastern  United  States  (Florida  to  Texas, 
southward  through  Mexico  and  Central  America  to  most  of  South  America. 
In  southeastern  United  States,  the  distributions  of  B.  argentata  and  B. 
neotropica  overlap,  especially  in  Florida,  and  characters  of  the  male 
terminalia  must  be  used  in  making  species  indentifications. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I  thank  Brian  H.  Cogan,  British  Museum  (Natural  History)  and  Norman  E.  Woodley, 
Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology,  Harvard  University,  for  the  loan  of  syntypic  material.  I 
also  am  grateful  to  Curtis  W.  Sabrosky  and  Charlotte  Burnett  for  reviewing  the  manuscript. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Becker,  T.  1896.  Dipterologische  Studien  IV:  Ephydridae.  Berl.  Entomol.  Zeit.  41(2):  91- 

276. 
Loew,  H.  1862.  Monographs  of  the  Diptera  of  North  America,  Part  I.  Smithson.  Misc.  Coll. 

6:    1-221,  15  figures,  2  plates. 
Ninomiya,  E.  1929.  On  a  new  species  Brachvdeutera  ibari (Ephydridae).  Oyo  Dobutsugaku 

Zat.  1:   190-193  (in  Japanese). 
Walker,  F.  1853.  Diptera.  Vol.  I  (pt.  IV):  253-414.  In  Saunders,  W.W.,  ed.  Insecta 

Saundersiana:  or  characters  of  undescribed  insects  in  the  collection  of  William  Wilson 

Saunders,  Esq.,  F.R.S.,  F.L.S.,  &  c.  London. 
Wirth,  W.W.   1964.  A  revision  of  the  shore  flies  of  the  genus  Brachydeutera  Loew 

(Diptera:   Ephydridae).  Ann.  Entomol.  Amer.  Soc.  57(1):  3-12. 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983  181 


NEW  HYDROPTILIDAE  (TRICHOPTERA)  FROM 
ALABAMA  AND  SOUTH  CAROLINA1 

Robert  W.  Kelley3,  Steven  C.  Harris4 

ABSTRACT:  Four  new  species  of  micro-caddisflies  are  described  from  blackwater  streams 
of  Alabama  and  South  Carolina.  Two  species  are  assigned  to  the  genus  Oxyethira  and  one 
each  to  the  genera  Neotrichia  and  Hydroptila.  Each  is  illustrated  and  compared  to  similar 
species  within  their  respective  genera. 

In  recent  years,  it  has  become  increasingly  clear  that  the  southeastern 
United  States  supports  a  great  diversity  of  micro-caddisflies.  This  diversity 
is  a  result  of  a  southerly  range  extension  of  largely  boreal  species  and  a 
northerly  range  extension  of  Central  American  species,  as  well  as  the 
occurrence  of  many  endemic  species.  Most  of  the  species  of  Hydroptilidae 
endemic  to  the  Southeast  are  associated  with  blackwater,  sandy-bottom 
streams  of  the  Coastal  Plain.  Included  are  such  species  as  Orthotrichia 
curta  and  O.  dentata  from  Florida  (Kingsolver  and  Ross,  1961 ),  Ochrotrichia 
provosti  from  Florida  (Blickle,  1961),  Hydroptila  wakulla  from  Florida 
(Denning,  1947),  H.  lloganae  and  H.  molsonae  from  Florida  (Blickle, 
1 96 1 ),  Oxyethira  glasa  from  Louisiana  to  South  Carolina  (Ross,  1 94 1 ),  O. 
lumosa  from  Florida  to  South  Carolina  (Ross,  1948),  O.  novasota  from 
Texas  to  South  Carolina  (Ross,  1944),  O.  maya  and  O.  setosa  from 
Georgia  to  Florida  (Denning,  1947),  O.  dunbartonensis  from  South 
Carolina  (Kelley,  1981),  and  O.  elerobi  and  O.  sininsignefrom  Louisiana 
to  South  Carolina  (Kelley,  1981 ).  To  these  we  add  four  new  species  from 
the  same  type  of  habitat.  They  belong  to  the  genera  Neotrichia,  Hydroptila, 
and  Oxyethira.  All  four  species  appear  to  be  locally  abundant  and  may  be 
expected  to  be  found  elsewhere  in  the  southeast. 

Type  specimens  are  deposited  in  the  United  States  Museum  of  Natural 
History  (USNM)  at  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  Washington,  DC,  the 
Illinois  Natural  History  Survey  (INHS),  and  the  author's  personal 
collections  (RWK;SCH). 


Deceived  June  10,  1983.  Accepted  July  23,  1983. 

^Technical  contribution  number  2172  of  the  South  Carolina  Agricultural  Experiment  Station, 
Clemson  University. 

^Current  address:  Box  522,  Clemson,  South  Carolina  29633 

^Current  address:   Environmental  Division,  Geological  Survey  of  Alabama,  P.O.  Drawer  0, 
University,  Aalbama  35486 

ENT.  NEWS,  94(5)  181-186  November  &  December  1983 


182  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Neotrichia  alabamensis  n.  sp. 

(Fig.  1) 

In  most  respects,  this  species  resembles  riegeliRoss.  It  differs  primarily 
in  the  inferior  appendages,  which  are  more  elongate  as  infalca  Ross,  the 
three  pair  of  processes  enclosing  the  aedeagus,  and  the  conformation  of  the 
spines  of  the  aedeagus. 

Male:  Antennae  1 8-segmented.  Length  1 .8  mm.  Venter  VII  lacking  apicomesal  process. 
Segment  VIII  not  modified.  Segment  IX  with  elongate  antero-lateral  apodemes  and  blunt, 
rounded  posterolateral  processes.  Inferior  appendages  proximally  separated  and  diverging, 
each  bearing  a  basal  seta;  bracteoles  lightly  sclerotized,  with  sinuous  ventral  margin.  Tergum 
X  membranous  dorsally,  produced  ventrally  into  three  pairs  of  acute  processes  which  enclose 
aedeagus;  bilobed  processes  subtending  tergum.  Aedeagus  with  two  subdistal  spines,  one  of 
which  is  strongly  curved;  titillator  present. 

Female:  Unknown. 

Etymology:  Latin:  "of  Alabama." 

Holotype,  male:  ALABAMA,  Mobile  County,  Indian  Grave  Creek  near  junction  with 
Cedar  Creek,  4  miles  east  of  Citronelle,  29  Sept.  1981,  Harris,  O'Neil,  and  McCullough 
(USNM). 

Paratypes:  ALABAMA,  Mobile  County,  Puppy  Creek  at  Co.  Rd.  217,  7  miles 
southwest  of  Citronelle,  25  June  1981,  1  cf.  Harris,  O'Neil,  and  McCullough  (SCH);  Puppy 
Creek  as  above,  but  5  Aug.  1982,  1  cf,  Harris  and  O'Neil  (SCH);  Puppy  Creek  as  above,  but 
20  Sept.  1982,  1  cf,  Harris  and  O'Neil  (SCH);  Big  Creek  at  Hwy.  63,  25  June  1982,  1  cf, 
Harris  and  O'Neil  (SCH);  Cedar  Creek,  6  miles  east  of  Citronelle,  4  Aug.  1982,  1  cf,  Harris 
(SCH);  Cedar  Creek  as  above,  20  Sept.  1982,  2  cf,  Harris  and  O'Neil  (SCH);  Escatawpa 
River,  7  miles  west  of  Citronelle,  5  Aug.  1982, 2  cf,  Harris  and  O'Neil  (SCH);  Bennett  Creek, 
6  miles  west  of  Citronelle,  5  Aug.  1982,  3  cf,  Harris  and  O'Neil  (SCH);  Chickasaw  Creek,  2 
miles  north  of  Oak  Grove,  24  June  1982,  1  cf,  Harris  and  O'Neil  (SCH);  Baldwin  County, 
Little  Rvier  at  Hwy.  59,  1 1  May  1982,  1  cf,  Harris  (SCH);  Pine  Log  Creek  at  Hwy.  59,  1 1 
May  1982,  3  cf,  Harris  (USNM);  Washington  County,  Pond  Creek  at  Co.  Rd.  9,  13  May 
1982,  1  cf,  Harris  (USNM);  Okwakee  Creek  at  Co.  Rd.  9,  13  May  1982,  1  cf,  Harris 
(USNM);  Monroe  County,  Little  River  at  Little  River  State  Park,  1 1  May  1982,  1  cf,  Harris 
(USNM);  Choctaw  County,  Middle  Tallawampa  Creek  at  Co.  Rd.  23,  16  May  1982,  4  cf, 
Harris  (RWK);  Tallawampa  Creek  at  Co.  Rd.  23,  16  May  1982,  1  cf,  Harris  (INHS);  Butler 
County,  Pigeon  Creek  at  Hwy.  110,  4  Sept.  1982,  1  cf,  Harris  (INHS);  Perry  County, 
Oakmulgee  Creek  at  Co.  Rd.  30,  15  June  1981,  1  cf,  Harris  (INHS);  Oakmulgee  Creek  at 
Hwy.  2 1 9, 20  Sept.  1 98 1 , 1  cf ,  Harris  and  O'Neil  (INHS);  Tuscaloosa  County,  Tyro  Creek,  4 
miles  southeast  of  Berry,  15  June  1982,  1  cf,  Harris  and  O'Neil  (INHS);  Escambia  County, 
Little  Escambia  Creek  at  Hwy.  31,  6  Aug.  1982,  1  cf,  Harris  and  O'Neil  (INHS). 

Hydroptila  parastrepha  n.  sp. 

(Fig.  2) 

This  species  can  be  placed  in  the  consimilis  group  and  is  closely 
related  to  strepha  Ross.  It  can  be  distinguished  from  the  latter  on  the  basis  of 
the  inferior  appendages  which  are  distally  broad,  each  bearing  a  darkly 
pigmented  spot  on  the  apex.  The  sclerotized  plate  supporting  the  aedeagus 
is  distinctly  pointed  distally,  unlike  the  rounded  conformation  in  strepha. 

Male:  Antennae  29-segmented.  Length  3.5  mm.  Apicomesal  process  of  Venter  VII 
short.  Dorsum  IX  with  mid-dorsal  projection;  blunt  posterolateral  processes;  venter  deeply 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983 


183 


ymt    j 


Figs.  1-2.  Male  genitalia- Segments  VII-X  and  aedeagus.  1,  Neotrichiaalabamensisn.sp.  2, 
Hydroptila  parastrepha  n.  sp. 


184  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


excised  anteriorly  with  a  pair  of  posteriorly  directed  apodemes  articulating  with  inferior 
appendages.  Inferior  appendages  lacking  mesal  connection;  with  narrow  anterior  projections; 
broadening  distally  with  black  spot  at  apex.  Tergum  X  largely  membranous  with  lightly 
sclerotized  lateral  bands;  sclerotized  lateral  rods  enclose  aedeagus  and  fuse  ventrad  of  that 
structure.  Aedeagus  with  broadened  distal  portion  from  which  ejaculatory  duct  protrudes  at 
tip;  titillator  short. 

Female:  Unknown. 

Holotype,  male:  ALABAMA,  Mobile  County,  Puppy  Creek  at  Co.  Rd.  217,  7  miles 
southwest  of  Citronelle,  9  Nov.  1981,  Harris  (USNM). 

Paratypes:  Same,  but  12  May  1982,  1  cf  (SCH);  Mobile  County,  Cedar  Creek,  12  May 
1982,  1  cf,  Harris  (RWK). 

Oxyethira  lumipollex  n.  sp. 

(Fig.  3) 

It  appears  that  this  species  is  part  of  the  forcipata  group,  being  most 
closely  related  to  setosa  Denning.  There  are  many  characters  which  render 
it  distinct,  including  the  shape  of  segment  VIII  with  its  two  lateral  spines  and 
the  tapering  distal  process  of  the  aedeagus. 

Male:  Antennae  3 1 -segmented.  Length  2.9  mm.  Venter  VII  with  apicomesal  process. 
Segment  VIII  short;  dorsum  roundly  excised;  pleuron  excised  dorsolaterally  and  bearing  two 
spines,  one  at  innermost  point  of  excision  and  another  at  tip  of  lateral  finger-like  process. 
Venter  IX  reaching  to  posterior  end  of  segment  VII;  dorsum  IX  reduced  to  thin  strip.  Inferior 
appendages  apparently  lacking.  Subgenital  processes  convergent,  with  blackened  tips. 
Aedeagus  wtih  ventral  sclerotized  process  tapering  to  a  point;  titillator  encircling  aedeagus  one 
time. 

Female:  Unknown. 

Entymology:  Latin:  "thorn-thumb." 

Holotype,  male:  ALABAMA,  Mobile  County,  Bennett  Creek,  6  miles  west  of  Citronelle,  30 
Sept.  1981,  Harris,  O'Neill,  and  McCullough  (USNM). 

Paratypes:  Same  as  above,  1  cf ;  same  as  above,  but  5  Aug.  1 982, 1  cf ,  Harris  and  O'Neil 
(USNM);  Escatawpa  River,  7  miles  west  of  Citronelle,  31  March  1982,  2  cf,  Mettee  and 
O'Neil  (RWK);  Escatawpa  River  same  as  above,  but  20  Sept.  1982,  1  cf,  Harris  and  O'Neil 
(INKS);  Beaver  Pond  Branch,  1.5  miles  west  of  Citronelle,  5  Aug.  1982,  1  cf,  Harris  and 
O'Neil  (INHS);  Washington  County,  Bates  Creek  at  Hwy.  43,  Aug.  1982,  1  cf,  Harris  and 
O'Neil  (INHS);  Choctaw  County,  Tallawampa  Creek  at  Co.  Rd.  23,  16  May  1982,  1  cf, 
Harris  (SCH);  Bogueloosa  Creek  at  Co.  Hwy.  9  near  Toxey,  16  May  1982,  10  cf,  Harris 
(SCH);  Perry  County,  Oakmulgee  Creek  at  Hwy.  219,  4  Apr.  1982,  1  cf,  Harris  and  O'Neil 
(SCH). 

Oxyethira  savanniensis  n.  sp. 

(Fig.  4) 

This  species  belongs  to  the  grisea  group.  It  is  similar  to  novasota  Ross, 
grisea  Betten,  and  rivicola  Blickle  and  Morse  in  the  heavily  sclerotized,  M- 
shaped  inferior  appendages.  However,  the  broad  dorsum  IX  and  complete, 
non-excised,  posterior  margin  of  segment  VIII  are  reminiscent  of  lumosa. 
The  combination  of  characters  mentioned  above  along  with  the  elongate 
process  of  the  aedeagus  render  it  distinct. 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983 


185 


lateral 


Figs.  3-4.  Male  genitalia  -  Segments  VII-X  and  aedeagus.  3,  Oxyethira  lumipollex  n.  sp.  4, 
Oxyethira  savanniensis  n.  sp. 


186  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Male:  Antennae  29-segmented.  Length  24  mm.  Venter  VII  with  apicomesal  process. 
Segment  VIII  cylindrical  with  posterior  margin  complete,  not  excised.  Inferior  appendages 
heavily  sclerotized  and  M-shape.  Subgential  processes  pointed  and  convergent.  Aedeagus 
with  long  distal  process  beginning  at  midlength  and  widening  distally;  titillator  encircling 
aedeagus  twice. 

Female:  Unknown. 

Etymology:  Referring  to  the  type  locality  inthe  Savannah  River  Basin. 

Holotype,  male:  SOUTH  CAROLINA,  Aiken  County,  Savannah  River  Plant,  Upper 
Three  Runs  Creek  at  SRP  8-1,  29  March  1976,  Herlong  and  Prichard  (USNM). 

Paratypes:  ALABAMA,  Mobile  County,  Puppy  Creek  at  Co.  Rd.  217, 25  June  1982, 1 
cf,  Harris  and  O'Neil  (USNM);  Puppy  Creek  same  as  above,  but  12  May  1982, 4  cf  (RWK); 
Puppy  Creek  same  as  above,  but  20  Sept.  1982,  3  cf,  Harris  (RWK);  Escatawpa  River,  7 
miles  west  of  Citronelle,  5  Aug.  1982.  2  cf,  Harris  and  O'Neil  (USNM);  Nobodies  Creek  near 
junction  with  Escatawpa  River,  8.5  miles  southwest  of  Citronelle,  13  May  1982, 4  cf,  Harris 
(USNM);  Bennett  Creek,  6  miles  west  of  Citronelle,  20  Sept.  1982,  1  cf,  Harris  (USNM); 
Chickasaw  Creek,  2  miles  north  of  Oak  Grove,  24  June  1 982, 1  cf ,  Harris  and  O'Neil  (INHS); 
Beaver  Pond  Branch,  1.5  miles  west  of  Citronelle,  5  Aug.  1982,  1  cf,  Harris  and  O'Neil 
(INHS);  Cedar  Creek,  6  miles  east  of  Citronelle,  4  Aug.  1982,  2  cf,  Harris  and  O'Neil 
(INHS);  Indian  Grave  Creek  near  junction  Cedar  Creek,  4  Aug.  1 982, 1  cf ,  Harris  and  O'Neil 
(INHS);  Baldwin  County,  Turkey  Creek  at  Hwy.  59,  11  May  1982,  2  cf,  Harris  (INHS); 
Farris  Creek  at  Hwy.  59, 1 1  May  1982, 25  cf ,  Harris  (INHS);  Hall  Creek  at  Hwy.  59, 1 1  May 
1 982, 5  cf ,  Harris  ( SCH);  Washington  County,  Okwakee  Creek  at  Co.  Rd.  9, 1 3  May  1982,3 
cf,  Harris  (SCH);  Bates  Creek  at  Hwy.  43,  4  Aug.  1982,  2  cf,  Harris  and  O'Neil  (SCH); 
Escambia  County,  Blackwater  Creek  at  Co.  Rd.  4,  12  June  1982,  1  cf,  Harris  (SCH). 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The  authors  wish  to  thank  Patrick  O'Neil  of  the  Geological  Survey  of  Alabama  for  his 
assistance  in  field  collections.  We  also  thank  Jolanta  Wilman  for  assistance  in  processing  of 
collections  and  Sabra  Rager  for  typing  the  manuscript.  Much  of  the  study  was  supported  by  a 
grant  (#82-9002)  from  the  State  Oil  and  Gas  Board  of  Alabama  and  by  the  U.S.  Department 
of  Energy's  Savannah  River  National  Environmental  Research  Park,  Aiken,  South  Carolina. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Blickle,  R.L.  1961.  New  species  of  Hydroptilidae  (Trichoptera).  Bull.  Brooklyn  Entomol. 

Soc.  56(5):    131-134. 
Denning,  D.G.  1947.  Hydroptilidae  (Trichoptera)  from  southern  Unietd  States.  Can. 

Entomol.  79:   12-20. 
Kelley,  R.W.  1981.  New  species  of  Oxyethira  (Trichoptera:  Hydroptilidae)  from  the 

southeastern  United  States.  J.  Georgia  Entomol.  Soc.  16(3):  368-375. 
Kingsolver,  J.M.  and  H.H.  Ross.  1 96 1 .  New  species  of  Nearctic  Orthotrichia  (Hydroptilidae, 

Trichoptera).  Trans.  Illinois  State  Acad.  Sci.  54(1,2):  28-33. 
Ross,  H.H.  1941.  Descriptions  and  records  of  North  American  Trichoptera.  Trans.  Amer. 

Entomol.  Soc.  67:  35-126. 

1948.  Notes  and  descriptions  of  Nearactic  Hydroptilidae  (Trichoptera).  Jour. 

Washington  Acad.  Sci.  38(6):  201-206. 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983  187 

A  NEW  SPECIES  OF  UNERUS  FROM  HONDURAS 
(HOMOPTERA:  CICADELLIDAE)1 2 

Paul  H.  Freytag^ 

ABSTRACT:   A  deltocephaline  leafhopper  Unerusgilvus  n.  sp.  is  described  from  Honduras, 
and  compared  with  U.  colonus  (Uhler)  and  U.  fessulus  (Van  Duzee). 

Linnavouri  (1959)  revised  the  deltocephaline  leafhoppers  of  the  genus 

Unerus  DeLong  and  included  two  subgenera,  Unerus  with  three  species 

and  Mattogrossus  with  one  species.  Linnavouri  and  DeLong  (1978)  added 

fessulus  (Van  Duzee)  to  the  subgenus  Unerus.  I  add  one  additional  species 

from  Honduras  to  this  same  subgenus. 

Unerus  gilvus  n.  sp. 

(Figures  3,  4,  and  10-14) 

Length  of  male  3.9-4.0  mm.,  female  4.1  mm. 

Rcsemb\ing  fessulus  (Van  Duzee)  (redescription  in  Linnavouri  and  DeLong  1978:  228) 
but  with  apical  spots  on  crown. 

Generally  pale  ochraceous,  with  faintly  indicated  pattern  on  frontoclypeus,  crown  with 
two  pairs  of  spots,  larger  pair  behind  ocelli  and  a  smaller  apical  pair  between  ocelli.  Face  with 
pair  of  dark  spots  between  the  ends  of  frontoclypeal  sutures  and  eyes. 

Male  genitalia:  Pygofer  similar  to  colonus  (Uhler)  but  posterior  process  (Fig.  14)  not 
greatly  expanded  at  base  and  more  sharply  pointed  at  apex.  Genital  plates  (Fig.  13)  triangular 
with  lateral  margin  short  with  a  few  macrosetae  (usually  four).  Style  (Fig.  1 2)  with  apex  small, 
claw-like,  base  robust.  Aedeagus  (Figs.  10  &  1 1 )  long,  slender,  evenly  curved  dorsad,  gonapore 
subapical,  apex  bifed,  sharply  pointed,  and  a  pair  of  extremely  short,  lateral  processes  halt 
distance  to  base. 

Female  seventh  sternum  similar  to  colonus,  except  median  projection  shorter  and  wider. 

Holotype  male,  Honduras,  El  Zamorano,  Nov. -Dec.,  1970,  George  F.  Freytag, 
blacklight  trap:  allotype  female,  same  data  except  July  22  and  29,  1 970,  both  deposited  in  the 
collection  of  the  California  Academy  of  Science.  Paratypes:  one  male,  same  data  as 
holotype,  deposited  in  the  Ohio  State  University  Collection;  and  one  male,  same  data,  except 
Oct.-Nov.,  in  the  University  of  Kentucky  Collection. 

Notes:  The  male  of  fessulus  is  unknown  but  the  color  markings  of  the 
head  are  similar  to  this  new  species,  except  for  the  lack  of  the  apical  spots  on 
the  crown.  I  believe  fessulus  is  a  distinct  species,  not  as  Linnavuori  and 
DeLong  speculated  that  it  would  be  a  synonym  of  colonus. 

The  head  and  male  genitalia  of  colonus  (Figs.  1,  2  and  5-9)  are 
illustrated  for  comparison  with  gilvus.  The  major  difference  between  this 


Deceived  May  9,  1983.  Accepted  July  23,  1983. 


investigation  reported  in  this  paper  (83-7-70)  is  in  connection  with  a  project  of  the 
Kentucky  Agricultural  Experiment  Station  and  is  published  with  approval  of  the  Director. 

3  Department  of  Entomology,  University  of  Kentucky,  Lexington,  KY  40546-0091 
ENT.  NEWS,  94(5)  187-190  November  &  December  1983 


188 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


COLONUS 


I  mm 


GILVUS 


Figs.  1-2.  Male  U.  colonus  (Uhler).  1,  head,  pronotum  and  scutellum  (dorsal  aspect).  2,  head 
(anterior  aspect).  Figs.  3-4.  Male  U.  gilvus  n.  sp.  3,  head,  pronotum  and  scutellum  (dorsal 
aspect).  4,  head  (anterior  aspect).  All  drawn  to  the  same  scale. 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983 


189 


COLONUS 


14 


GILVUS 


Figs.  5-9.  Male  genitalia  of  U.  colonus(UMer).  5,  aedeagus  and  connective  (lateral  aspect).  6, 
apex  of  aedeagus  (ventral  aspect).  7,  style  (dorsal  aspect).  8,  genital  plate  (dorsal  aspect).  9, 
posterior  margin  of  pyrofer(  lateral  aspect).  Figs.  10-14.  Male  genitalia  of  U.  gilvusn.  sp.  10, 
aedeagus  and  connective  (lateral  aspect).  11,  apex  of  aedeagus  (ventral  aspect).  12,  style 
(dorsal  aspect).  13,  genital  plate  (dorsal  aspect).  14,  posterior  margin  of  pyrofer  (lateral 
aspect).  All  drawn  to  the  same  scale. 


190  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

new  species  and  colonus  is  the  lack  of  a  distinct  dark  pattern  on  the 
frontoclypeus,  as  in  colonus,  and  the  male  aedeagus  with  very  small  medial 
processes,  not  the  wing-like  subapical  processes  as  in  colonus. 

The  known  distributions  are:  colonus  from  the  United  States,  West 
Indies,  Panama,  and  most  of  South  America,  fessulus  only  from  Jamaica, 
and  gilvus  only  from  Honduras.  The  other  two  species  in  this  subgenus  are 
both  known  only  from  Argentina. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Linnavuori,  R.E.  1959.  Revision  of  the  Neotropical  Deltocephalinae  and  some  related 

subfamilies  (Homoptera).  Ann.  Zool.  Soc.  Vanamo  20:   1-370. 
Linnavuori,  R.E.  and  D.M.  DeLong.  1978.  Some  New  or  Little  Known  Neotropical 

Deltocelphalinae  (Homoptera:  Cicadellidae).  Brenesia  14-15:  227-247. 


SOCIETY  MEETING  OF  OCTOBER  19,  1983 

Professor  Dewey  Caron,  Chairman  of  the  Department  of  Entomology  and  Applied 
Ecology  at  the  University  of  Delaware,  was  the  featured  speaker  at  the  American 
Entomological  Society's  first  regular  meeting  of  the  1983-84  year.  Thirteen  members  and  nine 
guests  were  treated  to  Dr.  Caron's  very  informative  talk  on  the  "Status  of  the  Killer  Bee." 

Although  the  "killer  bee"  is  morphologically  almost  identical  to  the  normal  European 
honey  bee,  behaviorly  it  is  distinct  and  is  considered  to  be  a  separate  race  of  Apis  mellifera. 
These  bees  are  no  more  venomous  than  their  European  kin,  but  they  are  considerably  more 
aggressive  and  will  attack  en  masse  with  the  slightest  provocation.  The  race  originated  in  the 
sub-Sahara  of  Africa  and  was  introduced  to  Brazil  in  1957.  They  accidently  escaped,  quickly 
established  themselves,  and  have  now  displaced  commercial  colonies  and  many  native  bee 
species  throughout  tropical  and  part  of  temperate  South  America.  Currently  they  are 
advancing  across  Central  America  at  the  rate  of  200  to  300  miles  per  year.  They  are  expected 
to  arrive  in  the  southern  United  States  in  about  1990  and  eventually  to  infest  much  of  the 
southern  and  coastal  United  States. 

The  implications  of  this  imminent  arrival  are  hard  to  assess  but  they  may  be  great.  Bee- 
keeping for  the  hobbyist  may  become  impossible  as  it  has  in  much  of  South  America.  Culture 
techniques  will  have  to  change.  The  current  40  or  so  deaths  per  year  due  to  bee  stings  may  well 
increase.  Furthermore,  there  is  likely  to  be  an  effect  on  the  one-third  of  the  American  diet 
estimated  to  be  derived  from  bee  pollinated  crops. 

Although  it  had  been  theorized  that  the  aggressive  traits  of  the  killer  bee  would  be  diluted 
by  mating  with  local  bee  populations.  Dr.  Caron's  research  in  Panama  indicates  that 
"Africanization"  occurs  by  displacement  without  hybridization.  Thus  it  seems  unlikely  that 
their  unwanted  traits  will  be  reduced  by  the  docile  local  honey  bees. 

In  notes  of  local  entomological  interest,  Roger  Fuester  predicted  that  the  southern  New 
Jersey  and  Delaware  populations  of  the  gypsy  moth  would  not  collapse  until  1985  or  1986. 
Other  members  noted  the  apparent  abundance  of  earwigs,  aphids,  and  preying  mantids  this 
fall. 

Harold  B.  White 
Corresponding  Secretary 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983  191 

THE  TICKS  OF  SOUTH  DAKOTA:  AN 

ANNOTATED  CHECKLIST  (ACARI: 

IXODOIDEA)1'2 

Emmett  R.  Easton^ 

ABSTRACT:  Collection  data  are  reported  for  16  species  of  ticks  from  South  Dakota.  Nine 
species,  Argas  cooleyi  Kohls  &  Hoogstraal,  Ornithodorus  concanensis  Cooley  &  Kohls, 
Otobius  megnini  (Duges),  Dermacentor  andersoni  Stiles,  Haemaphysalis  chordeilis  (Packard), 
H.  leporispalustris  (Packard),  Ixodes  eastoni  Keirans  &  Clifford,  /.  kingi  Bishopp  and  /. 
spinipalpis  Hadwen  &  Nuttall  are  restricted  in  distribution  to  the  western  portion  of  the  state, 
west  of  the  Missouri  River.  Six  species,  Ornithodoros  kelleyiCoo\ey  &  Kohls,  Dermacentor 
albipictus  (Packard),  D.  variabilis  (Say),  Ixodes  sculptus  Neumann,  /.  muris  Bishopp  & 
Smith  and  Rhipicephalus  sanquineus  Latreille  are  more  widely  distributed,  while  /.  cookei 
Packard  is  restricted  in  distribution  to  the  eastern  edge  of  the  state. 

Ticks  have  long  been  recognized  as  important  transmitters  of  various 
disease  agents  to  both  man  and  animals.  Saliba  et  al.  (1966)  described  an 
outbreak  of  tularemia  among  native  Americans  on  the  Rosebud  and  Pine 
Ridge  Indian  Reservations  of  southwestern  South  Dakota  that  was 
associated  with  Dermacentor  variabilis.  Cases  of  Rocky  Mountain  spotted 
fever  in  man,  associated  with  D.  variabilis,  regularly  occur  each  year,  more 
often  in  eastern  South  Dakota,  and  the  virus  of  Colorado  tick  fever 
associated  with  D.  andersoni  is  probably  transmitted  to  man  each  year  in 
the  Black  Hills  of  the  western  portion  of  the  State.  Powassan  virus,  a 
proven  human  disease  agent,  has  been  isolated  from  the  blood  of  small 
mammals  and  ticks,  /.  spinipalpis  and  D.  andersoni  from  Spearfish 
Canyon  in  the  northern  Black  Hills  (Keirans  and  Clifford  1983). 

Non-human  etiological  agents  of  disease  have  also  been  isolated  from 
ticks  in  this  state.  Several  isolations  of  the  soft  tick  viruses  Sapphire  II  and 
Six  Gun  City  have  been  recovered  from  Argas  cooleyi  collected  from  the 
Badlands  and  the  Wind  Cave  National  Parks  of  southwestern  South 
Dakota  (C.E.  Yunker,  pers.  comm.). 

The  relationship  to  disease  of  these  16  species  of  ticks  and  their 
distribution,  as  provided  in  this  list,  will  become  more  important  as  this 
geographical  area  is  shared  with  an  ever  expanding  tourist  population. 
Currently  many  vacationers  from  the  50  United  States  as  well  as  the 


1  Received  for  publication  April  15,  183.  Accepted  July  25,  1983. 

2Technical  paper  No.  1916  cf  the  South  Dakota  State  University  Agricultural  Experiment 
Station. 

•> Associate  Professor  of  Entomology,  Plant  Science  Department,  South  Dakota  State 
University,  Brookings,  South  Dakota  57007. 

ENT.  NEWS,  94(5)  191-195  November  &  December  1983 


192  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

provinces  of  Canada  find  the  Black  Hills  area  and  the  Badlands  National 
Park  pleasant  areas  to  visit.  Unless  otherwise  indicated  by  the  name  of  the 
collector,  the  tick  records  included  here  were  made  by  the  author  and  most 
are  on  file  at  the  Rocky  Mountain  Laboratories  (USPHS),  Hamilton, 
Montana.  Entomologists  and  other  persons  concerned  with  ticks  should  be 
advised  that  the  RML  tick  collection  was  transferred  to  The  Smithsonian 
Institutions's  new  facility  at  Silver  Hill,  Maryland  in  August  of  1983  (J.E. 
Keirans,  pers.  comm.). 

Family  Argasidae  Canestrini 

Genus  Argas  Latreille 

Argas  cooleyi  Kohls  &  Hoogstraal,  Ex.  nesting  sites  of  cliff  swallows,  Petrochelidon 
pyrrhonota  from  the  following  locations:  on  face  of  cliff,  20  Aug.  1977,  Wind  Cave 
Canyon,  Wind  Cave  NatM  Pk.,  Custer  Co.;  nesting  sites  under  small  bridge,  24  Aug.  1977, 
Badland  Nat'l  Pk.  n.  of  Interior,  Jackson,  Co.;  nests  in  metal  road  culvert,  30  June  1980,  e. 
side  of  Cuny  Table  near  Rockford  in  Northern  Shannon  Co.;  19  July  1980,  18  mi  se.  of 
Scenic,  Pennington  Co. 

First  published  record  in  state  was  by  Wilson  ( 1978)  from  P.  pyrrhonota  nesting  sites  in 
a  road  culvert  near  Wanblee  on  the  Pine  Ridge  Indian  Reserv.,  Washabaugh  Co. 

Genus  Ornithodoros  C.L.  Koch 

Ornithodoros  concanensis  Cooley  &  Kohls.  Ex.  nesting  site  of  P.  pyrrhonota  on  face  of  cliff, 
20  Aug.  1977,  Wind  Cave  Canyon  in  Wind  Cave  Nat'l  Pk.,  Custer  Co.;  ex.  imm.  prairie 
falcons  Falco  mexicanus,  24-25  June  1967,  western  South  Dakota  J.  Flavin  (RML 
47651);  ex.  woman,  Aug.  1967.  Ft.  Pierre,  Stanley  Co.  B.  Diamond  (RML  48622). 

First  published  record  by  Wilson  (1978)  was  from  cliff  swallow  nests  near  Wanblee, 
Washabaugh  Co. 

Ornithodoros  kelleyi,  Cooley  &  Kohls.  Ex.  Myotis  lucifugus  carissima,  29  May  1968, 
Harding  Co.,  J.K.Jones,  Jr.  ( RML  50369);  ex.  A/Vo/ws.  subulatus,  20  June  1947, 2  mi.se 
Wall,  Pennington  Co.,  M.L.  Johnson  (RML  24329);  ex.  Myotis  lucifugus  in  school,  Sept. 
1979,  Mission,  Todd  Co.  (RML  109699). 

First  published  record  of  this  species  by  Anderson  and  Jones,  Jr.  ( 1 97 1 )  was  from  a  barn 
at  Ralph  in  eastern  Harding  Co. 

Genus  Otobius  Banks 

Otobius  megnini  (Duges).  Cooley  and  Kohls  (1944)  reported  the  spinose  ear  tick  from 
the  ears  of  cattle  in  Haakon  and  Fall  River  Counties. 

The  lack  of  recent  record  of  O.  megnini  from  South  Dakota  as  well  as  the  permanent 
establishment  of  the  parasite  in  neighboring  states  suggests  that  previous  records  probably 
resulted  from  interstate  movement  of  livestock. 

Family  Ixodidae  Murray 

Genus  Dermacentor  Koch 

Dermacentor  albipict us  (Packard).  Ex.  mountain  goat,  Oreamnos  americanus,  22  Novem- 
ber 1951,  Custer  State  Park,  Custer  Co.,  collector  unknown,  ( RML  3003 3 );  ex.  elk,  Cervus 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983  193 


canadensis,  25  Jan.  1924,  Wind  Cave  Nat'l  Pk.,  Custer  Co.,  collector  unknown,  (RML 
60433);  ex.  drag,  13  June  1962,  Spearfish  Canyon,  Lawrence  Co.,  R.  Kennedy;  (RML 
38013);  ex  beneath  bale  of  hay,  4  May  1980,  Redig,  Harding  Co.;  ex.  cattle,  8  Dec.  1982, 
Tyndall,  Bon  Homme  Co. 

Bishopp  and  Trembley  ( 1945)  first  reported  this  tick  from  South  Dakota,  but  hosts  were 
not  listed.  Boddicker  and  Hugghins  ( 1 969)  found  D.  albipictus  on  mule  deer,  Odocoileus 
hemionus  in  the  Slim  Buttes  area  of  Harding  Co.  and  the  record  from  Bon  Homme  Co. 
listed  above  is  the  first  reported  occurrence  of  this  species  in  eastern  South  Dakota. 

Dermacentor  andersoni  Stiles.  Ex.  woman,  August  1950,  Newell,  Butte  Co.,  collector 
unknown,  (RML  27865);  ex.  drag,  18  May  1955,  Wind  Cave  Nat'l  Pk.  campground, 
Custer  Co.  (RML  33268);  ex.  drag  1 3  May  1955,  1  mi.  w.  headquarters,  Custer  State  Pk., 
Custer  Co.,  Kohls  and  Jellison,  (RML  33260);  ex.  drag,  14  June  1978,  Hells  Canyon, 
Jewell  Cave  Nat'l  Mon.,  Custer  Co.;  in  sheep  pens,  16  May  1955,  12  mi.  w.  of  Edgemont, 
Fall  River  Co.  (RML  33264);  ex.  Eutamias  minimus  pallidus,  15  May  1968,2mi.s.  3  1/4 
mi.  from  Reva,  Harding  Co.,  J.K.  Jones,  Jr.  (RML  50367);  ex.  drag,  13  June  1978,  12  mi. 
s.  of  Reva.  Custer  Nat.  For.,  Harding  Co.;  ex.  drag,  28  May  1963,  near  Interior,  Jackson 
Co.,  J.  Bell  and  G.M.  Kohls  (RML  38798);  ex.  drag,  2  May  1982.  Spearfish  Canyon, 
Lawrence  Co.  (RML  1 15987);  ex.  drag,  2  May  1 980,  Bear  Butte  State  Pk.,  Meade  Co.;  ex. 
man,  1 1  April  1948,  Rapid  City,  Pennington  Co.,  collector  unknown  (RML  25337);  ex. 
drag,  3  May  1982,  Pine  Ridge  Indian  Reservation,  Shannon  Co.  (RML  1 15990). 

Dermacentor  variabilis  (Say).  Ex.  drag,  24  May  1977,  Oak  Lane  Girl  Scout  Camp,  7  mi.  s. 
of  Astoria,  Brookings  Co.  (RML  105144);  ex.  drag,  3  June  1963,  Belle  Fourche  River 
between  Newell  and  Belle  Fourche,  Butte  Co.,  G.M.  Kohls  and  J.  Bell;  ex.  drag,  8  May 

1981,  Bailey's  Lake  9  mi.  n.  of  Clark,  Clark  Co.;  ex.  drag,  10  May  1977,  2  1/2  mi.  NE 
Watertown,  Codington  Co.;  ex.  drag,  20  June  1981,  Mitchell,  along  Big  Sioux  River, 
Davison  Co.;  ex.  dog.  22  July  1957,  Enemy  Swim  District,  Day  Co.  (RML  34616);  ex. 
drag,  1  June  1979,  2  miles  northwest  of  Gary,  Deuel  Co.,  Kieckhefer  and  Swartos  (RML 
109474);  ex.  drag,  18  May  1955,  1 1  mi.  NW  Oelrichs,  Fall  River  Co.,  G.M.  Kohls  and 
W.L.  Jellison  (RML  33269);  ex.  drag,  15  May  1980,  Damerow  road  side  park,  4  mi.  s.  of 
Milbank,  Grant  Co.;  ex.  coyote,  Canis  latrans,  5  May  1977,  3  miles  northwest  of  Lucas, 
Gregory  Co.,  E.  Sheldon;  ex.  drag,  10  May  1977,  Lake  Poinsett  State  Pk.,  HamlinCo.;ex. 
drag,  23  May  1979,  St.  Lawrence  Natural  Pk.,  St.  Lawrence,  Hand  Co.;  ex.  drag.  30  April 

1 982,  Farm  Island  State  Pk.,  SE  of  Pierre,  Hughes  Co.,  (RML  1 1 5992);  ex.  drag  3 1  May 
1977,  Cottonwood  Range  and  Livestock  Research  Station,  2  mi.  E.  of  Cottonwood, 
Jackson  Co.;  ex.  drag,  1 3  May  1980,  Lake  Whitewood  s.  of  Lake  Preston,  Kingsbury  Co.; 
ex.  Erethizon  dorsatum,  25  May  1979,  Whitewood,  Lawrence  Co.,  (RML  109470);  ex. 
drag,  3  June  1978,  Newton  Hills  State  Pk.,  5  mi.  s.  of  Canton,  Lincoln  Co.;  ex.  drag,  21 
May  1977,  Sica  Hollow  State  Pk.,  16  mi.  NW  of  Sisseton,  Marshall  Co.  (RML  105 143): 
ex.  drag,  10  July  1979,  Bear  Butte  State  Pk.,  9  mi.  n.  of  Sturgis,  Meade  Co.  (RML  109490); 
ex.  dog,  2  May  1972,5  mi.  n.  ofColman,  Moody  Co.;  ex.  man,  28  April  1937,  Rapid  City, 
Pennington  Co.,  R.J.  Jackson  (RML  1 3 167);  ex.  drag,  30  June  1978,  Shadehill  Reservoir, 
Perkins  Co.;  ex.  drag,  20  May  1979,  Hartford  Beach  State  Pk.,  Roberts  Co.  (RML 
109462);  ex.  drag,  30  April  1982,  Pine  Ridge  Indian  Reservation,  Shannon  Co.,  J.  Casken 
and  E.R.  Easton  (RML  115989);  ex.  porpupine,  Erethizon  dorsatum,  9  July  1979,  17 
miles  n.  Midland,  Stanley  Co.,  (RML  109491);  ex.  dog,  3  May  1982,  Rosebud  Indian 
Reservation,  Todd  Co.,  R.  Ballinger  (RML  115991);  ex.  drag,  12  May  1979,  Union 
County  State  Park,l  1  mi.  s.  of  Beresford,  Union  Co.,  (RML  109460);  ex.  drag,  24  May 
1977,  12  miles  ne  Dupree,  Ziebach  Co.,  G.M.  Kohls  and  J.  Bell. 

Saliba  et  al.  ( 1 966)  reported  this  species  from  Todd  and  Shannon  Counties  in  the  western 
part  of  the  state,  but  Ulrich  and  Vaughn  (1963)  were  first  to  report  it  from  Clay  County  in 
southeastern  South  Dakota. 


194  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Genus  Haemaphysalis  Koch 

Haemaphysalis  chordeilis  (Packard).  Boddicker  and  Hugghins  (1965)  collected  this  tick 
from  sharptailed  grouse,  Pedioecetes phasinaellus,  in  either  Haakon,  Jackson,  Mellette  or 
Washabaugh  Co.  of  WC  South  Dakota. 

Haemaphysalis  leporispalustris  (Packard).  Ex.  Sylvilagus  audubonii,  6  Aug.  1980, 
Martin,  Bennett  Co.,  (B.  Baran  &  E.R.  Easton);  ex.  Sylvilagus  floridanus,  30  May  1980, 
Spearfish  Canyon,  s.  of  Spearfish,  Lawrence  Co.,  (E.R.  Easton,  C.M.  Clifford  and  J.E. 
Keirans. 

Even  though  Bishopp  and  Trembley  (1945:  Fig.  11)  show  H.  leporispalustris  as 
occurring  nationwide,  their  collections  at  that  time  did  not  contain  material  from  South 
Dakota.  Turner  (1974)  evidently  was  first  to  report  this  species  from  S.  auduboni  near 
Minnekahta  in  Fall  River  Co.  Thus  far,  I  have  been  unable  to  find  the  rabbit  tick  in  South 
Dakota  east  of  the  Missouri  River. 

Genus  Ixodes  Latreille 

Ixodes  cookei  Packard.  The  only  record  of  this  tick  available  to  me  is  from  Banks  ( 1 908),  who 

reported  /.   cookei  from  a  small  mammal  (possibly  a  woodchuck)  from  Brookings, 

Brookings  Co. 
Ixodes  eastoni  Keirans  &  Clifford.  Reported  originally  by  Keirans  and  Clifford  (1983)  from 

rodents  and  insectivores  from  Lawrence  and  Pennington  Counties  of  the  northern  Black 

Hills  as  well  as  from  Harding  Co.,  in  the  northwestern  part  of  the  state. 
Ixodes  kingi  Bishopp.  Ex.  red  fox,  vulpes  vulpes,  19  May  1978,  16  Mi.  e.  of  Chamberlain, 

Brule  Co.,  C.  Emmett;  ex.  Peromvscus  maniculatus,  17  June  1967,  Fall  River  Co.,  J.K. 

Jones,  Jr.  (RML  48986);  ex.  C.  latrans,  12  October  1976,  Harding  Co.,  (L.  Sheldon);  ex. 

Mustelafrenata,  29  July  1972,  e.  of  Cottonwood,  Jackson  Co.  (RML  64200);  ex.  Mustela 

nigripes,  23  Oct.  1952,  Zeona,  4  mi.  n.  ofMoreau  River,  Perkins  Co.  (RML  64214);  ex. 

swift  fox,  Vulpes  velox,  June-Aug.  1978,  14  mi.  n.  of  Ogalala,  Shannon  Co.,  J.  Sharp. 

First  reported  by  Boddicker  (1968)  from  M.  nigripes  in  Mellette  Co. 
Ixodes  muris  Bishopp  &  Smith.  Ex.  Zapus  hudsonius  pallidus,  8  July  1967,  LaCreek 

National  Wildlife  Ref.,  4  mi.  s.  8  mi.  e.,  Martin,  Bennett  Co.,  J.K.  Jones,  Jr.  (RML 48988); 

ex.  Microtus  p.  pennsvlvanicus,  18  June  1965,  Hartford  Beach  State  Pk.,  Roberts  Co., 

J.K.  Jones,  Jr.  (RML46415). 

First  reported  in  this  state  by  Keirans  and  Clifford  (1978)  without  additional  data. 
Ixodes  sculptus  Neumann.  Ex.  Spermophilus  tridecemlineatus,  27  July  1968,  Cusler  Co. 

J.K.  Jones,  Jr.  (RML  53745);  ex.  Cynomys  ludovicianus,  April- June  1977,  Wind  Cave 

Nat'l  Pkg.,  Custer  Co.,  (J.  Hoogland);  ex.  S.  tridecemlineauts,  24  March  1977,  Buffalo, 

Harding  Co.:  ex.  Canis  latrans,  11  Sept.  1976,  Harding  Co.;  ex.  longtail  weasel  M. 

frenata,  June  1977,  7  mi.  w.  of  Highmore,  Hyde  Co.;  ex.  S.  tridecemlineatus,  24  July 

1972,  se  of  Cottonwood,  Jackson  Co.  (RML  64256). 

Cooley  and  Kohls  ( 1 945 )  record  this  tick  from  S.  tridecimlineatus  in  Brookings  Co.,  but 

the  earliest  report  was  apparently  by  Bishopp  (1911)  (RML  66141). 
Ixodes  spinipalpis  Hadwen  &  Nuttall.  Ex.  Neotoma  cinerea,  26  July  1967,  2  mi.  s.,  10  mi. 

w.  of  Lead,  Lawrence  Co.,  J.K.  Jones,  Jr.  (RML  48989);  ex.  N.  cinerea,  14  Aug.  1979, 

Spearfish  Canyon,  Lawrence  Co.;  ex.  Peromvscus  maniculatus,  27  Aug.  1968,  Wind 

Cave  Canyon,  Wind  Cave  Nat'l  Pk.,  Custer  Co.,  J.K.  Jones,  Jr.  (RML  53746);  ex.  P. 

maniculatus,  4  Sept.  1983, 1  mi.  n.,5  1/2  mi.  e.  of  Hot  Springs.  Fall  River  Co.,  J.K.  Jones, 

Jr.  (RML  53768). 

McLean  et  al.  (1964)  mentioned  isolations  of  Powassan  virus  from  /.  spinipalpis 

collected  from  Peromvscus  mice  in  Spearfish  Canyon  in  Lawrence  Co. 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983  195 


Genus  Rhipicephalus  Koch 

Rhipicephalus  sanguineus  (Latreille).  Ex.  dog  in  home,  21  Apr.  1980,  Huron,  Beadle  Co. 
Nelson  (1966)  was  first  to  report  this  species  in  South  Dakota  on  a  map  of  record 
nationwide.  Later  Nelson  ( 1 968)  listed  a  single  record  from  Madison,  Lake  Co..  according 
to  a  U.S.  Dept.  of  Agriculture  collection  dated  21  April  1962.  The  lack  of  additional 
records  of  this  species  in  South  Dakota  indicates  that  R.  sanguineus  not  only  cannot 
overwinter  out-of-doors  at  this  latitude,  but  ticks  would  have  to  be  accidentally  introduced 
during  the  short  summer  season  through  the  movements  of  pet  animals  for  tick  multiplication 
to  occur. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The  author  thanks  James  E.  Keirans  and  Carleton  M.  Clifford  of  the  Rocky  Mountain 
Laboratories  (USPHS),  Hamilton,  Montana,  59840,  for  permission  to  include  records  from 
their  files.  James  E.  Keirans  critically  read  the  manuscript. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Anderson,  K.W.  and  J.K.  Jones,  Jr.  1971.  Mammals  of  Northwestern  South  Dakota.  Univ. 

Kans.,  Publ.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.  19:  361-93. 
Banks,  N.  1908.  A  revision  of  the  ixodoidea,  or  ticks  of  the  United  States.  Tech.  Ser.  Bur. 

Entomol.  U.S.  Dept.  Agr.  15.  61  p. 
Bishopp,  F.C.  1911.  Some  new  North  American  Ixodidae  with  notes  on  other  species.  Proc. 

Biol.  Soc.  Wash.  24:   197-208. 
Bishopp,  F.C.  and  H.L.  Trembly.  1945.  Distribution  and  hosts  of  certain  North  American 

ticks.  J.  Parasitol.  31:   1-54. 
Boddicker,  M.L.  1968.  Parasites  of  the  black-footed  ferret.  Proc.  So.  Dak.  Acad.  Science 

47:   141-148. 
Boddicker,  M.L.  and  E.J.  Hugghins.  1965.  Parasites  of  sharp-tailed  grouse  in  South 

Dakota.  Proc.  So.  Dak.  Acad.  Science  44:  244. 
Boddicker,  M.L.  and  E.J.  Hugghins.  1969.  Parasites  of  white  tail  and  mule  deer  in  South 

Dakota.  Proc.  So.  Dak.  Acad.  Science  48:  47-57. 
Cooley,  R.A.  and  G.M.  Kohls.  1944.  The  Argasidae  of  North  America,  Central  America 

and  Cuba.  Amer.  Midi.  Natur.  Monog.  1. 
Cooley,  R.A.  and  G.M.  Kohls.  1945.  The  genus  Ixodes  in  North  America.  Natl.  Inst.  Health 

Bull.  184.  246  pp. 
Keirans,  J.E.  and  C.M.  Clifford.  1 978.  The  genus  Ixodes  in  the  United  States:  A  scanning 

electron  microscope  study  and  key  to  the  adults.  Suppl.  No.  2.  J.  Med  Entomol.  149  pp. 
Keirans,  J.E.  and  C.M.  Clifford.  1983.  Ixodes (Pholeoixodes)eastonin.  sp.  (Acari:  Ixodidae),  A 

parasite  of  rodents  and  insectivores  in  the  Black  Hills  of  South  Dakota,  USA.  J.  Med. 

Entomol.  20:  90-98. 
McLean,  D.M.,  J.M.  Best,  S.  Mahalingham,  M.A.  Chernesky  and  W.E.  Wilson.  1964. 

Powassan  virus:  Summer  infection  cycle,  1964.  Can.  Med.  Assoc.  J.  91:    1360-62. 
Nelson,  V.A.  1966.  Pinpointing  brown  dog  ticks.  Pest  Control  34:    18. 
Nelson,  V.A.  1 968.  The  brown  dog  tick  in  the  United  States.  Melsheimer  Entomol.  Ser.  2: 1  - 

2. 
Saliba,  G.S.,  F.C.  Harmston,  B.E.  Diamond,  C.L.  Zymet,  M.I.  Goldenberg,  and  T.D.Y. 

Chin.  1966.  An  outbreak  of  human  Tularemia  associated  with  the  American  dog  tick, 

Dermacentor  variabilis.  Amer.  J.  Trop.  Med.  &  Hyg.  15:   531-38. 
Turner,  R.W.  1 974.  Mammals  of  the  Black  Hills  of  South  Dakota  and  Wyoming.  Misc.  Publ. 

Univ.  Kans.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.  60.  178  pp. 
Ulrich,  M.G.  and  C.M.  Vaughn.  1963.  Some  intestinal  and  external  parasites  of  the  Deer 

mouse,  Peromyscus  maniculatus.  Proc.  So.  Dak.  Acad.  Sci.  42:    140-143. 
Wilson,  N.  1978.  Four  ectoparasites  from  South  Dakota.  Entomol.  News  89:   77-78. 


196  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


THE  HORSE  FLIES  AND  DEER  FLIES  OF 
SOUTH  DAKOTA 

NEW  STATE  RECORDS  AND  AN  ANNOTATED 
CHECKLIST  (DIPTERA:  TABANIDAE)1' 2 

Emmett  R.  Eastern^ 

ABSTRACT:  Collecting  data  are  reported  for  33  species  of  Tabanidae  from  South  Dakota. 
New  state  records  and  ecological  data  are  presented  for  6  tabanid  species:  Haematopota 
americana  Osten  Sacken,  Hybomitra  epistates  (Osten  Sacken),  H.  opaca  (Coquillett), 
Tabanus  lineola  Fabricus,  T.  marginalis  Fabricus,  and  Tabanus  punctifer  Osten  Sacken. 

The  horse  and  deer  flies  have  always  been  considered  one  of  the  more 
economically  important  groups  in  the  order  Diptera.  They  not  only  possess 
the  potential  for  transmitting  pathogenic  organisms  to  livestock  and  man 
(i.e.  anaplasmosis,  equine  infectious  anemia,  tularemia)  but  their  control  is 
difficult  to  achieve  by  any  means.  Insecticides,  although  widely  used,  are 
only  partially  effective. 

Egg  masses  of  Tabanus  similis  Macquart  and  Chrysops  aestuans  Van 
der  Wulp  are  laid  on  aquatic  emergent  vegetation  that  surrounds  farm  ponds 
and  impoundments  in  many  of  the  north  central  states.  When  beef  cattle 
have  access  to  these  sites,  vegetation  is  often  consumed  or  trampled, 
reducing  the  available  oviposition  sites  for  these  flies.  The  lower  numbers  of 
horse  and  deer  flies  that  inhabited  farm  ponds  in  western  South  Dakota  in 
1980  indicate  that  vegetative  management  on  farms  and  ranches  can 
appreciably  lower  populations  of  both  T.  similis  and  C.  aestuans  (Easton 
1982). 

The  present  list  includes  33  species,  of  which  six  are  reported  in  the 
state  for  the  first  time.  Records  are  based  on  specimens  in  the  South  Dakota 
State  University  insect  collection,  in  addition  to  those  collected  by  the 
author.  Determination  of  Tabanidae  in  the  SDSU  collection  has  been  made 
previously  by  L.L.  Pechuman  of  Cornell  University  and  C.B.  Philip 
(California  Academy).  The  initials  following  each  collection  refer  to  the 
original  collector.  Records  of  species  lacking  an  initial  were  collected  by  the 
author. 


1  Received  April  4,  1983.  Accepted  June  16,  1983. 

^Technical  paper  No.  1910  of  the  South  Dakota  State  University  Agricultural  Experiment 
Station. 

•> Associate  Professor  of  Entomology,  Plant  Science  Department,  South  Dakota  State 
University,  Brookings,  South  Dakota  57007. 

ENT.  NEWS,  94(5)  196-200  November  &  December  1983 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983  197 

Subfamily  Chrysopsinae 

Genus  Silvius  Meigen 

Silvius  quadrivittatus  (Say).  14  June  1936,  Springfield,  Bon  Homme  County,  HCS;  10  July 
1924,  Hot  Springs,  Fall  River  County,  H;  22  July  1982,  10  miles  east,  5  miles  south  of 
Buffalo,  Harding  County;  23  June  1923;  Philip,  Jackson  County.  HCS;  1  July  1946,  Elk 
Point,  Union  County,  HCS;  23  June  1 946,  Yankton,  Yankton  County.  Miller  (1978)  first 
reported  this  species  in  South  Dakota  but  county  records  were  not  given. 

Silvius pollinosus  Williston.  1  July  1 978,  Badlands  National  Park,  Jackson  County;  1 8  July 
1 980,  2  miles  east  of  Cottonwood,  Jackson  County;  9  July  1 979,  Haakon  County;  1 5  July 
1977,  10  miles  east,  3  miles  south  of  Buffalo,  Antelope  Range  and  Livestock  Research 
Station,  Harding  County;  12  July  1979,  Wasta,  along  the  Cheyenne  River,  Pennington 
County.  Reported  earlier  in  South  Dakota  by  Philip  (1965)  and  more  recently  by  Easton 
(1982)  from  the  Cottonwood  Range  and  Livestock  Experiment  Station  in  Jackson  County. 

Genus  Chrysops  Meigen 

Chrysops  aestuans  Wulp.  24  June  1939, 10  miles  south  of  Wolsey,  Beadle  County,  HCS;  28 
June  1939,  5  miles  east  of  Wessington,  Beadle  County,  NPL;  5  August,  1967,  LaCreek 
Lake  Wildlife  Refuge,  Bennett  County,  EUB;  25  June  1924,  Springfield,  Bon  Homme 
County,  H.;  24  June  1923,  Newell,  Butte  County,  HCS;  31  July  1940,  Belle  Fourche. 
Butte  County,  NPL;  1 9  June  1 92 1 ,  Volga,  24  Aug.  1 923,  Bruce,  Brookings  County,  HCS; 
19  June  1933,  Hecla,  Brown  County,  HCS;  12  July  1966,  Aberdeen,  Brown  County;  5 
July  1946,  Henry,  Codington  County,  HCS;  5  July  1946,  Watertown,  Codington  County, 
HCS;  20  July  1967,  Mclntosh,  Corson  County,  EUB;  5  August  1967,  Stockade  Lake, 
Custer  State  Park,  Custer  County,  EUB;  15  August  1924,  Waubay,  Day  County,  H;  16 
July  1967,  Dry  Lake,  Hamlin  County,  EUB;  15  June  1977,  15  miles  southeast  of  Buffalo, 
Harding  County;  15  July  1945,  Canning,  Hughes  County,  HCS;  11  July  1974,  Farm 
Island,  Hughes  County,  PEC  and  EUB;  17  July  1947,  Pierre,  Hughes  County,  HCS;  5 
July  1945,  Highmore,  Hyde  County,  HCS;  8  July  1947,  Kennebec,  Lyman  County,  GPS; 
17  July  1947,  Presho,  Lyman  County,  HCS;  12  July  1974,  Fate  Dam,  Lyman  County, 
PEC  and  EUB;  24  June  1 950,  Cottonwood,  Jackson  County,  HCS;  July  1977, 2  miles  east 
of  Cottonwood,  Jackson  County,  JR;  1 1  August  1969,  2  miles  west,  Arlington,  Kingsburg 
County,  JR;  12  July  1974,  1  1/2  miles  north  of  Vivian,  Lyman  County,  PEC  and 
EUB;  26  June  1 940,  Faith,  Meade  County,  GPS;  30  June  1 977,  West  River  Beef  Research 
Unit,  Ft.  Meade,  Meade  County;  18  June  1929,  Hartford,  Vermillion  River,  Minnehaha 
County,  HCS;  7  July  1966,  2  miles  southeast  of  Rutland,  Moody  County,  EUB;  15  August 
1979;  1  mile  north  Hill  City,  Lake  Mitchell,  Pennington  County;  30  June  1981,  15  miles 
east  of  Pine  Ridge,  Shannon  County,  BB;  2  August  1967.  Hayes,  Stanley  County.  EUB;  1 8 
June  1924,  Elk  Point,  Union  County,  H;  19  June  1924,  Elk  Point,  Union  County.  C. 
Aestuans  is  the  most  commonly  distributed  deer  fly  in  the  state  and  probably  the  most 
important  fly  species  affecting  man  in  recreational  areas.  It  is  found  in  most  of  the  lakes, 
rivers,  and  farm  ponds  in  this  state  from  east  to  west.  Cobb  and  Balsbaugh  ( 1 976)  reported 
C.  aestuans  from  Clark,  Kingsbury  and  Spink  counties. 

Chrysops  callidus  Osten  Sacken.  4  June  1953,  Yankton,  Yankton  County,  HCS.  First 
reported  by  Miller  (1978). 

Chrysops  carbonarius  Walker.  21  June  1941,  10  miles  southwest  of  Belle  Fourche.  Butte 
County,  N.P.  Larson;  19  June  1936,  Newell,  Butte  County,  HCS;  19  luly  1924,  Sylvan 
Lake,  Custer  County,  H;  4  June  1 98 1 ,  Bear  Butte  State  Park.  Ft.  Meade,  Meade  County; 
27  May,  and  3 1  May  1977,2  miles  east  of  Cottonwood,  Jackson  County:  1 0  June  1 940, 
Porcupine,  Shannon  County,  LKB;  3  June  1981,  Wanblee,  Washabaugh  County. 


198  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Chrysops  discalis  Williston.  Jellison  (1950)  reported  this  species  from  Tulare,  Spink 
County,  HCS. 

Chrysops  Julvaster  Osten  Sacken.  6  July  1924,  Martin,  Bennett  County,  H;  25  June  1935, 
Springfield,  Bon  Homme  County,  HCS;  28  June  1923,  Newell,  Butte  County,  HCS;  29 
June  1939,  Fruitdale,  Butte  County,  NRL;  16  July  1924,  Custer,  Custer  County;  13  July 
1924,  Hot  Springs,  Fall  River  County,  H;  21  Aug.  1978,  Antelope  Range  and  Livestock 
Research  Station,  10  miles  east,  3  miles  south  of  Buffalo,  Harding  County;  21  July  1950, 
Cottonwood,  Jackson  County,  HCS;  28  June  1941,  10  miles  southwest  of  Spearfish, 
Lawrence  County,  NPL;  26  July  1947,  Tinton,  Lawrence  County,  HCS;  24  June  1935, 
Newton  Hills,  Canton,  Lincoln  County,  NCS;  22  June  1940,  2  miles  northwest  of  Rapid 
City,  Pennington  County,  HCS;  13  July  1928,  Tulare,  Spink  County,  HCS.  Cobb  and 
Balsbaugh,  Jr.  (1976)  were  first  to  record  this  species  from  Spink  County. 

Chrysops  furcatus  Walker.  19  July,  1924,  Custer,  Custer  County,  H.  Reported  by  Miller 
(1978)  but  without  date  of  collection  or  locality. 

Chrysops  Indus  Osten  Sacken.  3  June,  1969,  Gary,  Deuel  County,  EUB.  Reported  by  Miller 
(1978). 

Chrysops  mitis  Osten  Sacken.  16  July  1924,  Custer,  Custer  County,  H;  21  July  1950,  2 
miles  east  of  Cottonwood,  Jackson  County;  18  June  1968,  Cheyenne  Crossing,  Lawrence 
County,  EUB;  13  June  1978,  Antelope  Range  and  Livestock  Research  Station  10  miles 
east,  3  miles  south  of  Buffalo,  Harding  County;  23  June  1950,  Pierre,  Hughes  County, 
HCS.  First  reported  by  Miller  (1978). 

Chrysops  pikei  Whitney.  30  July  1935,  Edgemont,  Fall  River  County,  HCS.  Reported  by 
Miller.  (1978). 

Chrysops  sequax  Williston.  25  July  1 98 1 ,  7  miles  south  of  Brookings,  Brookings  County;  3 1 
July  1966,  Hide- A- Woods,  Deuel  County,  EUB;  2  miles  east  of  Cottonwood,  Jackson 
County;  2  August  1967,  Bear  Butte,  Meade  County,  EUB.  Reported  originally  by  Miller 
(1978). 

Chrysops  univittatus  Macquart.  One  female  specimen  collected  from  Yankton,  Yankton 
County,  is  represented  in  the  Nebraska  State  Museum. 


Subfamily  Tabaninae 

Genus  Haematopota  Meigen 

Haematopota  americana  Osten  Sacken.  NEW  STATE  RECORD.  1  female,  15  July  1977, 
Antelope  Range  and  Livestock  Research  Station,  10  miles  east,  3  miles  south  of  Buffalo, 
Harding  County. 

Genus  A ty lotus  Osten  Sacken 

Atylotus  bicolor  (Wiedemann).  24  June  1938,  Springfield,  Bon  Homme  County,  WH. 
Reported  originally  by  Miller  (1978). 

Genus  Hybomitra  Enderlein 

Hybomitra  criddlei  (Brooks).  25  July,  1924,  Spearfish,  Lawrence  County,  H;  4  August, 
1967,  5  miles  northwest  Rockford,  Road  231,  Lawrence  County,  EUB.  Listed  in  Miller 
(1978). 

Hybomitra  epistates  (Osten  Sacken).  NEW  STATE  RECORD.  1  female  collected  from 
Spearfish,  Lawrence  County,  is  in  the  Nebraska  State  Museum  (Lincoln). 

Hybomitra frontalis  (Walker).  24  Aug.  1924,  Brookings,  Brookings  County,  GPS;  12  July 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983  199 


1923,  Lake  Hendricks,  Brookings  County,  HCS:  15  July  1946,  Henry,  Codington  County, 
HCS;  19  July  1924,  Custer,  Custer  County,  H;  15  August  1924,  Waubay,  Day  County, 
H;  16  July  1967,  Dry  Lake,  Hamlin  County,  HUB;  30  June  1977,  West  River  Beef 
Research  Unit,  Ft.  Meade,  Meade  County;  12  July  1932,  Onida,  Sully  County,  GPS. 
McAlpine  (1961)  reported  this  species  from  numerous  fresh  water  sloughs  characterized  by 
aspens  or  willows  at  3  localities  in  the  northeastern  and  one  locality  in  the  southwestern  area 
of  the  state  near  the  Nebraska  state  line. 

Hybomitra  illota  (Osten  Sacken).  6  July  1982,  7  miles  south  of  Brookings,  Brookings 
County;  10  July  1976,  Willow  Lake,  Clark  County,  PEC;  25  June  1967,  Sieche  Hollow, 
Roberts  County,  EUB.  Cobb  and  Balsbaugh,  Jr.  (1976)  reported  this  species  from  Clark 
and  Kingsbury  counties  of  eastern  South  Dakota. 

Hybomitra  lasiophthalma(Macquart).  22  July  1924,  Custer,  Custer  County,  H.  Reported 
by  Miller  (1978). 

Hybomitra  opaca(Coqm\\ett).  NEW  STATE  RECORD.  1  female,  30  June  1978,  Antelope 
Range  and  Livestock  Research  Station,  10  mi.  east,  3  miles  south  of  Buffalo,  Harding 
County. 

Hybomitra pediontis  (McAlpine).  16  July  1978,  Antelope  Range  and  Livestock  Research 
Station,  10  miles  east,  3  miles  south  of  Buffalo,  Harding  County.  Adults  and  immatures  are 
associated  with  alkaline  sloughs.  H.  pediontis  was  first  reported  in  this  state  by  McAlpine 
( 1 96 1 )  in  August  and  July  from  Henry,  Codington  County  and  Gettysburg,  Potter  County. 

Hybomitra  rhombica  rhombica  (Osten  Sacken).  17  July  1932,  Custer,  Custer  County, 
FRB;  4  August  1967,  Crooks  Tower  Lake,  Lawrence  County,  EUB.  Reported  by  Miller 
(1978). 

Hybomitra  rupestris  (McDunnough).  Custer,  Custer  County  H.  Reported  by  Miller  ( 1 978). 

Hybomitra  tetrica  hirtula  (Bigot).  22  June  1924,  Custer,  Custer  County,  H;  28  June  1977; 
West  River  Beef  Research  Unit,  Ft.  Meade,  Meade  County.  Recorded  originally  from 
South  Dakota  by  Philip  (1965). 

Genus  Tabanus  Linnaeus 

Tabaus  atratus  Fabricius.  29  June  1 923,  Newell  Butte  County;  28  July  1 940,  Belle  Fourche. 
Butte  County,  NPL;  24  July  1937,  Gary,  Deuel  County,  NCS;  25  August  1925,  Faulkton, 
Faulk  County,  NCS;  1 1  July  1938,  Estelline,  Hamlin  County,  HCS;  17  July  1947,  Pierre, 
Hughes  County,  HCS;  August  1941,  Wessington  Springs,  Jerauld  County,  HCS;  18  July 
1933,  Lead,  Lawrence  County;  17  August  1931,  Canton,  Lincoln  County,  HCS;  9  August 
1 92 1 ,  Wood,  Mellette  County;  July  1 980,  Soiux  Falls,  Minnehaha  County,  SM;  1 7  July 
1939,  Flandreau,  Moody  County,  HCS;  7  Sept.  1979,  9  miles  south  of  Brookings,  Moody 
County;  1  July  1948,  Sisseton,  Roberts  County,  HCS;  12  August  1922,  Witten,  Tripp 
County;  17  July  1921,  Parker,  Turner  County:  11  August  1980,  Centerville,  Turner 
County,  JG.  Reported  by  Miller  (1978). 

T.  atratus,  as  a  pest  of  livestock,  is  the  largest  fly  in  the  state  however,  numbers  of  this 
species  are  not  particularly  high  in  any  area.  Manitoba  or  black-ball  traps  do  not 
particularly  attract  this  species. 

Tabanus  lineola  Fabricus.  NEW  STATE  RECORD.  1  specimen  from  Yankton,  Yankton 
County,  collected  by  J.  Edman,  is  in  the  Nebraska  State  Museum. 

Tabanus  marginalis  Fabricus.  NEW  STATE  RECORD.  1  female,  6  August  1977, 
Cottonwood  Range  and  Livestock  Research  Station,  Jackson  County. 

Tabanus  orbicallus  Philip.  First  reported  in  S.  Dakota  by  Philip  (1936)  at  Yankton  in 
Yankton  County,  however,  Easton  ( 1982)  reported  it  more  recently  in  the  western  part  of 
the  state  at  Cottonwood  in  Jackson  County. 

Tabanus  puncttfer  Osten  Sacken.  NEW  STATE  RECORD.  4  females,  15  July  1977,  10 
miles  east,  3  miles  south  of  Buffalo,  Harding  County;  4  July  1982,  Spearfish,  Lawrence 


200  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


County;  1  July  1980,  Presho,  Lyman  County;  30  June  1977,  West  River  Beef  Research 

Unit,  Ft.  Meade,  Meade  County. 
Tabanus  quinquevittatus  Wiedemann.  27  June  1924,  Springfield,  Bon  Homme  County. 

Listed  originally  from  S.  Dakota  by  Philip  ( 1 965 ). 
Tabanus  reinwardtii  Wiedemann.  2  August  1924,  Springfield,  Bon  Homme  County,  H; 

Antelope  Range  and  Livestock  Research  Station,  10  miles  east,  3  miles  south  of  Buffalo, 

Harding  County;  23  July  1969,  Wood,  Mellette  County,  HCS. 
Tabanus  similis  Macquart.  5  August  1967,  LaCreek  Lake  Wildlife  Ref.,  Bennett  County, 

EUB;  25  June  1924,  Springfield,  Bon  Homme  County,  H;  30  June  1923,  Brookings, 

Brookings  County,  HCS;  16  June  1944,  Hecla,  Brown  County,  HCS;  25  August  1944, 
Chamberlain,  Brule  County,  HCS;  29  June  1923,  Newell,  Butte  County,  HCS;  30  June 
1924,  Lake  Andes,  Charles  Mix  County,  H;  19  June  1974,  Willow  Lake,  Clark  County, 
PEC;  1 8  June,  Mitchell,  Davison  County,  HCS;  1 4  July  1951;  Bristol,  Day  County,  J AL; 
15  July  1945,  Canning,  Hughes  County,  HCS;  26  July  1948,  Highmore,  Hyde  County, 
HCS;  July  1977-83;  2  miles  east  of  Cottonwood,  Jackson  County;  28  June  1941,  10  miles 
southwest  of  Spearfish,  Lawrence  County,  NPL;  1 2  July  1 974,  Fate  Dam,  Lyman  County, 
PEC  and  EUB;  2  August  1967,  Bear  Butte,  Meade  County,  EUB;  28  June  1977,  West 
River  Research  Station,  Meade  County;  19  June  1924,  Elk  Point,  Union  County,  H.  Cobb 
and  Balsbaugh  (1976)  reported  this  species  from  Day,  Kingsbury  and  Spink  Counties  of 
eastern  South  Dakota. 

Tabanus  stonei  Philip.  1 1  July  1 94 1 ,  Belle  Fourche,  Butte  County,  NPL.  Reported  by  Miller 
(1978). 

Abbreviations  for  collectors:  BB,  Bruce  Baran;  EUB,  Edward  U.  Balsbaugh,  Jr.;  FRB, 
Fred  R  Bingham;  LKB,  Lynn  K.  Brunn;  PEC,  Philippe  E.  Cobb;  JG,  Joey  Gednalske;  H, 
H.C.  Hallock;  WH,  William  Horsfall;  NPL,  N.P.  Larson;  JAL,  John  A.  Lofgren;  SM, 
Stephen  Munk;  JR,  Jerry  Riedel;  WMR,  William  M.  Rogoff;  HCS,  Harry  C.  Severin;  and 
GBS,  G.B.  Spawn. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The  author  wishes  to  thank  Dr.  Richard  H.  Roberts  (USDA,  Gainesville,  Florida)  and 
Dr.  John  F.  Burger  (Department  of  Entomology,  University  of  New  Hampshire,  Durham)  for 
determining  the  species  of  Tabanidae  collected  by  the  author  in  this  study. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Cobb,  P.E.,  and  E.U.  Balsbaugh,  Jr.  1976.  The  Tabanidae  (Diptera)  of  Spink  County, 

South  Dakota.  J.  Kans.  Entomol.  Soc.  49:  514-520. 

Easton,  E.R.  1982.  Reduction  of  horse  and  deer  flies  on  the  Cottonwood  Range  and 

Livestock  Experiment  Station  as  a  result  of  grazing.  J.  Econ.  Entomol.  75:   292-294. 

Jellison,  W.L.  1 950.  Tularemia  geographical  distribution  of  "deer  fly  fever"  and  the  biting  fly, 

Chrysops  discalis  Williston.  Public  Health  Reports.  65:   1321-1329. 
McAlpine,  J.F.  1961.  Variation,  distribution  and  evolution  of  the  Tabanus  (Hybomitra) 

frontalis  complex  of  horse  flies  (Diptera:  Tabanidae).  Canad.  Ent.  93:  894-924. 
Miller,  E.L.  1978.  A  checklist  of  the  Diptera  in  the  South  Dakota  State  University  Insect 

Collection.  I.  Suborders  Nematocera  and  Brachycera.  Proc.  S.D.  Acad.  Sci.  57:  32-45. 
Philip,  C.N.  1936.   Tabanus  rhombicus  and  related  western  horse  flies.  Canad.  Ent. 

68:    148-160. 
Philip.  C.N.  1965.  Family  Tabanidae,  In  A.  Stone.  C.W.  Sabrosky,  W.W.  Wirth,  RH. 

Foote  and  J.R.  Coulson.  A  Catalog  of  the  Diptera  of  America,  North  of  Mexico.  ARS, 

USDA  Agric.  Handbook  No.  276.  pp.  319-342. 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983  201 

PREY- STALKING  BEHAVIOR  OF  A  THOMISID 

SPIDER,  XYSTICUS  CALIFORNICUS 
KEYSERLING  (ARANEAE:  THOMISIDAE)1 

Roy  R.  Snelling2 

ABSTRACT:  The  thomisid  spider,Xysticus  californicus  Keyserling,  was  seen  to  deliberately 
stalk  and  capture  individuals  of  the  ant,  Veromessorchicoensis  M.  Smith,  at  three  localities  in 
northern  California. 

Xysticus  (X.)  californicus  Keyserling  is  a  common  crab  spider  that 
ranges  from  British  Columbia  to  southern  California  (Schick,  1965).  While 
many  thomisids  secrete  themselves  in  flowers  to  await  potential  prey, 
others  actively  pursue  their  prey  (Gertsch,  1939).  Xysticus  californicus  is 
one  such  active  predator.  Within  a  period  of  a  few  days,  I  was  able  to 
observe  the  stalking  behavior  of  this  spider  at  three  different  sites  in 
northern  California. 

The  first  observation  site  was  situated  along  State  Highway  32,  4.4 
miles  east  of  its  junction  with  U.S.  Highway  99  in  the  city  of  Chico,  Butte 
County.  This  site,  at  an  elevation  of  about  1100  feet,  is  oak  woodland 
grading  into  chaparral.  In  early  evening,  18  June  1979,  alate  females  and 
males  of  the  harvester  ant,  Veromessor  chicoensis  M.  Smith,  were 
emerging  from  nests  for  mating  flights.  Individuals  of  both  sexes  usually 
climbed  up  nearby  grass  blades  and  took  flight  shortly  thereafter.  A  few, 
especially  males,  milled  about  on  the  soil  surface  amidst  the  many  workers. 
At  1940  hours  PST,  an  adult  female  of  X.  californicus  was  seen  at  about  10 
cm  from  the  periphery  of  the  area  occupied  by  the  milling  group  of  ants.  She 
slowly  approached  to  within  3  or  4  cm  of  the  group,  near  a  quiescent  male 
ant.  After  hesitating  for  a  few  seconds,  the  spider  rushed  up  to  the  ant,  seized 
it  and  retreated  into  the  grass,  climbed  a  few  cm  up  a  grass  stem  and  began 
feeding. 

Several  meters  away,  at  another  nest,  much  the  same  procedure  was 
utilized  by  another  X.  californicus  female.  The  ant  initially  attacked, 
however,  was  a  large  worker.  The  ant  responded  to  the  approaching  spider 
by  adopting  a  threatening  posure,  facing  the  spider,  with  gaping  mandibles. 
The  spider  immediately  withdrew  a  few  cm  along  the  periphery  of  the  area 
occupied  by  the  ants.  She  then  successfully  attacked  another  smaller 
worker  and  disappeared  into  a  clump  of  grass. 

The  second  site  was  in  Tehama  County  along  State  Highway  36, 


'Received  May  7,  1983.  Accepted  June  24,  1983. 

2Natural  History  Museum  of  Los  Angeles  County,  900  Exposition  Blvd.,  Los  Angeles, 
California  90007. 

ENT.  NEWS,  94(5)  201  203  November  &  December  1983 


202  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


approximately  5.8  miles  northeast  of  the  junction  with  U.S.  Highway  99. 
This  site,  at  an  elevation  of  about  550  feet,  now  consists  of  open  grassland 
with  scattered  live  oaks.  Observations  here  were  made  late  in  the  afternoon 
on  22  June  1979.  A  foraging  column  of  the  harvester  ant  was  crossing  the 
pavement  of  old  Highway  36.  At  1905  hours  PST,  an  adult  female  of  X. 
californicus  approached  the  file  of  ants  and  halted  about  4  cm  away.  After  a 
few  minutes,  the  column  of  ants  thinned  momentarily;  the  spider  darted 
forward,  seized  an  isolated  ant  and  rapidly  retreated  about  10  cm.  There  she 
halted  a  few  seconds  and  then  moved  at  a  more  leisurely  pace  into  a  small 
clump  of  grass. 

A  final  observation  was  made  on  24  June  1979  along  Neal  Road,  about 
6.1  miles  northeast  of  its  junction  with  U.S.  Highway  99,  Butte  County. 
This  site  was  a  grassy  clearing  in  chaparral,  at  an  elevation  of  about  1000 
feet.  An  adult  female  of  X.  californicus  approached  a  foraging  column  of  V. 
chicoensis  at  1932  hours  PST  and  took  an  isolated  worker  ant  from  the 
column. 

During  the  period  in  June  when  these  observations  were  made,  foraging 
columns  and  mating  flights  of  another  Veromessor,  V.  andrei  (Mayr),  were 
also  studied.  This  is  a  larger  species  of  ant  than  V.  chicoensis  (the  sexual 
forms  are  much  larger)  and  has  monomorphic  workers,  rather  than 
polymorphic  workers.  X.  californicus  never  attacked  or  approached  V. 

andrei,  although  both  ant  species  occupied  the  same  sites  and  have  similar 
periods  of  activity.  Possibly  the  larger  size  of  V.  andrei  is  a  deterrent  to 
predation. 

Veromessor  workers  lack  a  functional  sting,  but,  when  disturbed,  emit  a 
somewhat  foul-smelling  liquid  from  the  gastric  apex.  Their  powerful 
mandibles,  used  to  crush  seeds,  are  capable  of  inflicting  serious  damage  to 
other  anthropods.  V.  andrei,  by  virtue  of  its  larger  size  and  correspondingly 
more  powerftil  mandibles,  probably  is  a  more  formidable  opponent  than  V. 
chicoensis.  It  seems  possible,  then,  that  some  individuals  of  X.  californicus 
may  by  able  to  discriminate  between  the  two  ant  species. 

According  to  MacKay  (1982),  another  thomisid,  Misumenops 
californicus  (Banks),  preys  upon  foraging  workers  of  another  harvesting 
ant,  Pogonomyrmex  rugosus  Emery,  capturing  the  ants  in  vegetation 
around  nests.  Holldobler  (1976)  observed  M.  coloradensis  Gertsch 
capture  resting  females  of  Pogonomyrmex  spp.  MacKay  (1982)  mentions 
that  Xysticus  sp.  preys  primarily  or  exclusively  upon  Pogonomyrmex 
rugosus.  Neither  of  the  authors  comments  on  spider  foraging  behavior. 

It  would  be  interesting  to  learn  more  about  the  prey  preferences,  if  any, 
of  individuals  of  X.  californicus.  The  specimens  I  observed  seemed  to  be 
performing  a  routine  procedure. 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983  203 


ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

I  wish  to  thank  Dr.  J.H.  Redner  for  the  identification  of  the  crab  spider.  Thanks  are  due 
also  the  several  reviewers  of  this  note. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Gertsch,  W.J.  1939.  A  revision  of  the  typical  crab-spiders  (Misumeninae)  of  America  north 

of  Mexico.  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.  76:  277-442. 
Holldobler,  B.  1976.  The  behavioral  ecology  of  mating  in  harvester  ants  (Hymenoptera: 

Formicidae:  Pogognomyrmex).  Behav.  Ecol.  Sociobiol.  1:  405-423. 
MacKay,  W.P.  1 982.  The  effect  of  predation  of  western  widow  spiders  ( Araneae:  Theridiidae) 

on  harvester  ants  (Hymenoptera:   Formicidae).  Oecologia  53:  406-411. 
Schick,  R.X.  1965.  The  crab  spiders  of  California  (Araneida,  Thomisidae).  Bull.  Amer. 

Mus.  Nat.  Hist.  129:    1-180. 


INTERNATIONAL  COMMISSION  ON  ZOOLOGICAL 

NOMENCLATURE 

c/o  BRITISH  MUSEUM  (NATURAL  HISTORY), 
CROMWELL  ROAD,  LONDON,  SW7  5BD 

ITZN  59  20  July,  1983 

The  following  Opinions  have  been  published  by  the  International  Commission  on 
Zoological  Nomenclature  in  the  Bulletin  of  Zoological  Nomenclature,  vol.  40.  part  2,  on  15 
July,  1983: 

Opinion  No. 

1247  (p.  77)      Dactylopius Costa, (Nov.  1829) and PseudococcusWeslwood,  1840(Insecta, 

Homoptera):  designation  of  type  species. 

1248  (p.  81)      Lethocerus  Mayr,  1853  (Insecta,  Hemiptera):   conserved. 

1250  (p.  85)  Gvro/n'prcws  Samouelle,  1819,  ex  Leach  MS,  Xantholinus  Dejean,  1821,  ex 
Dahl,  and  Othius  Stephens,  1829,  ex  Leach  MS  (Insecta,  Coleoptera):  type 
species  designated  for  these  genera. 

1255  (p.  97)  Lespesia  Robineau-Desvoidy,  1863  (Diptera,  Tachinidae):  designation  of 
type  species. 


The  Commission  regrets  that  it  cannot  supply  separates  of  Opinions. 


R.V.  MELVILLE. 
Secretary 


204  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

PERISSOPHLEBIODES,  A  REPLACEMENT  NAME 

FOR  PERISSOPHLEBIA  SAVAGE  NEC  TILLYARD 

(EPHEMEROPTERA:  LEPTOPHLEBIIDAE)1 

Harry  M.  Savage^ 

ABSTRACT:  A  new  generic  name,  Perissophlebiodes,  is  proposed  for  Perissophlebia 
Savage  nee  Tillyard  (Ephemeroptera:  Leptophlebiidae:  Atalophlebiinae).  A  misspelling  of 
Perissophlebia  Tillyard  (Odonata:  Anisozygoptera)  is  noted. 

Recently,  Savage  ( 1 982)  established  a  new  genus,  Perissophlebia,  for  a 
curious  new  species  of  mayfly,  P.  flint i,  from  the  southern  coastal  mountains 
of  Brazil.  Previously,  Tillyard  (1918)  had  established  Perissophlebia 
based  upon  a  fossil  wing  fragment  placed  as  Odonata  incertae  sedis  from 
the  Triassic  Ipswich  Fossil  Bed  in  Queensland,  Australia.  Perissophlebia 
Tillyard  was  recently  placed  as  Anisozygoptera  incertae  sedis  in  Rohdendorf  s 
(1962)  treatment  of  the  fossil  Odonata.  Perissophlebia  Tillyard  was 
misspelled  as  Periassophlebia  by  Rohdendorf  ( 1962),  and  this  misspelling 
was  repeated  by  Hennig  (1969). 

Perissophlebia  Savage  is  a  junior  homonym  of  Perissophlebia  Tillyard; 
therefore,  I  propose  the  replacement  name  Perissophlebiodes  for  Peris- 
sophlebia Savage. 

Etymology,  perissos,  Gr.,  meaning  odd,  extraordinary;  phlebos,  Gr.,  vein,  a  common 
stem  within  the  Leptophlebiidae;  -odes,  Gr.,  suffix  denoting  likeness;  masculine. 

Type-species:  Perissophlebia  flinti  Savage  =  Perissophlebiodes  flinti  (Savage)  NEW 
COMBINATION. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Hennig,  W.  1969.  Die  Stammesgeschichte  der  Insekten.  W.  Kramer,  Frankfurt.  436  pp. 
Rohdendorf,  B.B.  1962.  Otryad  Odonata.  Strekozi.  pp.  73-85.  In  Rohdendorf,  B.B.,  Osnovi 

Paleontologii,  v.  9,  Akad.  Nauk  SSSR,  Moscow.  560  pp.  (in  Russ.) 
Savage,  H.M.  1982.  A  curious  new  genus  and  species  of  Atalophlebiinae  (Ephemeroptera: 

Leptophlebiidae)  from  the  southern  coastal  mountains  of  Brazil.  Stud.  Neotrop.  Fauna 

Environ.  17:  209-217. 
Tillyard,  R.J.  1918.  Mesozoic  insects  of  Queensland.  No.  3.  Odonata  and  Protodonata.  Proc. 

Linn.  Soc.  New  South  Wales  43:  417-436. 


1  Received  June  23,  1983.  Accepted  July  16,  1983. 

Department  of  Entomology,  Florida  A&M  University,  Tallahassee,  Florida,  32307. 


ENT.  NEWS,  94(5)  204  November  &  December  1983 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983  205 

MOUNTING  AND  PRESERVING  NEUROPTERA 
FOR  SCIENTIFIC  STUDY1 2 

Charles  W.  Agnew^ 

ABSTRACT:  Proper  techniques  for  mounting  and  preserving  adult  specimens  of  Neuroptera 
are  described.  All  neuropterans  should  be  pinned  or  pointed  except  the  Coniopterygidae, 
which  are  best  preserved  in  alcohol.  Summaries  of  special  mounting  practices  for  each  family 
are  provided.  Procedures  for  preparing  genitalia  for  study  are  also  discussed. 

Authors  of  publications  dedicated  to  proper  techniques  for  mounting 
and  preserving  insects  have  generally  assigned  methods  of  preservation  to 
groups  of  insects  based  on  body  size  and  structure  without  regard  to 
important  taxonomic  characters  of  individual  families.  Generalizations 
within  certain  orders  such  as  Neuroptera,  with  its  widely  varied  forms,  have 
proved  unsatisfactory  and  usually  vary  with  authors.  Consequently, 
specimens  of  a  single  taxon  within  a  large  collection  may  be  preserved  in  a 
variety  of  ways  due  to  confusion  or  disagreement  of  collectors  as  to  the  best 
techniques. 

Members  of  each  family  possess  certain  characters  important  for  their 
determinations  to  species.  Any  specimen  should  be  preserved  to:  1 )  best 
retain  and  allow  examination  of  important  characters  with  a  minimum  of 
future  manipulation;  2)  reduce  the  likelihood  of  breakage;  and  3)  facilitate 
incorporation  into  a  large  permanent  collection  for  future  study.  The  best 
techniques  often  require  a  compromise  of  these  considerations. 

This  paper  deals  specifically  with  the  best  methods  for  mounting  and 
preserving  Nearctic  species  of  Neuroptera.  There  seldom  is  unanimous 
agreement  as  to  which  methods  should  be  employed.  This  paper  is  a 
compilation  of  ideas  with  the  purpose  of  identifying  inferior  practices, 
suggesting  which  techniques  are  superior  and  providing  alternatives  when 
no  consensus  exists. 

METHODS  AND  MATERIALS 

The  fact  that  most  Neuroptera  tend  either  to  shrivel  or  discolor  when 
dried  has  prompted  many  collectors  to  opt  for  alcoholic  preservation  of 
specimens.  One  advantage  of  alcohol  is  that  specimens  remain  soft  and 


1  Received  February  10,  1983.  Accepted  July  5,  1983. 

2  Approved  for  publication  as  TA   18334  by  Director,  Texas  Agricultural  Experiment 
Station. 

-'Department  of  Entomology,  Texas  A&M  University,  College  Station,  Texas  77843. 
ENT.  NEWS,  94(5)  205  212  November  &  December  1983 


206  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


flexible,  thus  reducing  breakage  problems  associated  with  fragile  insects 
such  as  neuropterans.  Another  advantage  is  that  broken  parts  remain 
associated  with  the  specimen.  Generally,  however,  dried  specimens  retain 
all  important  taxonomic  characters  and  usually  require  less  trouble  to 
maintain  than  those  in  alcohol.  Most  neuropterists  find  it  easier  to  work  with 
pinned  material.  Even  liquid-preserved  specimens  are  often  difficult  to 
manipulate  and  wing  tearing  or  antennal  breakage  can  result.  In  addition, 
coloration  nearly  always  fades  in  alcohol  (for  example,  Chrysopidae), 
although  color  usually  is  of  limited  importance  in  taxonomic  studies. 
Occasionally,  neuropterists  will  retain  a  few  specimens  of  certain  groups  in 
alcohol  when  collecting  a  series,  but  pinning  (or  pointing)  remains  the 
general  preference. 

Some  collectors  use  glassine  envelopes  for  storing  larger  forms  such  as 
ascalaphids  or  myrmeleontids.  Envelopes  allow  more  compact  storage 

and  help  keep  broken  parts  from  being  lost  without  the  disadvantage  of 
fading  caused  by  alcohol;  however,  they  are  not  recommended  except  for 
temporary  storage  before  spreading.  Specimens  so  preserved  are  often 
difficult  to  examine  and  breakage  is  frequently  a  problem.  The  fact  that 
alcohol,  envelope,  and  pinned  collections  must  be  maintained  separately  is 
inconvenient.  In  the  interest  of  standarization,  pinning  or  pointing  neurop- 
terans should  be  the  general  rule  with  the  exception  of  the  Coniopterygidae. 
The  latter  should  be  stored  in  alcohol. 

Materials  needed  for  mounting  and  preserving  Neuroptera  are  basically 
simple.  For  a  detailed  treatment  of  general  collecting  and  mounting 
techniques,  see  Martin  ( 1977).  There  is  disagreement  regarding  which  sizes 
of  pins  to  use.  Most  neuropterists  use  sizes  no.  1  to  3;  however,  some  prefer 
the  use  of  size  0  to  00  pins  for  more  delicate  forms  in  order  to  reduce  damage 
to  the  thorax  and  the  need  for  double-mounting  or  pointing.  The  main 
disadvantages  of  thin  pins  are:  they  are  only  practical  for  foam  pinning 
surfaces;  they  tend  to  bend  easily;  and  their  springing  action,  if  flipped,  can 
cause  destruction  of  the  specimen.  For  these  reasons,  and  the  fact  that 
characters  of  the  mesothorax  are  seldom  important,  I  do  not  recommend 
specimens  be  pinned  directly  with  anything  smaller  than  a  no.  1 .  A  good 
rule  is  to  use  the  largest  pin  that  will  not  cause  damage  to  the  specimen. 

For  small  specimens  that  are  too  delicate  to  be  pinned,  there  are  two 
alternatives:  double-mounting  and  pointing.  Double  mounting,  using  a 
minuten  pin  through  a  strip  of  polyporous  material  (pith),  is  preferred. 
When  pointing,  the  right  side  of  the  specimen  is  glued  to  the  paper  point 
which  has  been  bent  at  the  tip.  The  disadvantage  of  this  technique  is  that 
specimens  often  break  loose  and  become  damaged,  lost  or  cannot  be 
associated  with  proper  labels.  One  should  use  a  sufficient  amount  of  glue  for 
a  good  bond  and  affix  the  point  to  the  thorax  of  the  specimen  rather  than  to 
the  wing.  Specimens  bonded  at  the  wing  alone  tear  loose  more  frequently 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983  207 


leaving  only  the  forewing  attached. 

A  styrofoam  block  is  useful  for  support  during  drying,  or  a  grooved 
spreading  board  is  useful  when  the  spreading  of  wings  is  desired.  Specimens 
can  also  be  dried  in  a  box  placed  in  the  vertical  position.  This  eliminates  the 
need  for  support  and  allows  the  abdomens  to  dry  parallel  to  the  pinning 
bottom. 

A  few  general  rules  should  be  followed  when  mounting  Neuroptera.  It  is 
preferable  to  pin  freshly  collected  material.  Relaxing  dried  neuropterans 
should  be  avoided,  when  possible,  to  prevent  wings  from  sticking  together  and 
loss  of  color.  When  mounting,  care  should  be  taken  that  wings  and  antennae 
do  not  dry  in  a  position  where  they  might  be  broken  by  subsequent  handling 
of  the  specimen.  Bending  the  head  and  antenna  downward  before  drying, 
and  the  use  of  pins  securing  the  wings  will  prevent  this.  It  is  also  important 
not  to  allow  the  wings  to  dry  in  a  position  too  close  to  the  abdomen  so  that 
removal  of  terminal  abdominal  segments  is  difficult. 


Special  Instructions 

The  Hemerobiidae  are  usually  too  small  to  be  pinned  directly  with 
anything  except  the  smallest  size  pins.  It  is  recommended  that  they  be 
double-mounted.  Because  examination  of  external  male  genitalia  is  sufficient  to 
determine  most  species,  it  is  desirable  to  pull  out  at  least  one  pair  of  wings  to 
allow  a  better  view  of  the  abdomen.  This  procedure  also  allows  examination 
of  hindwing  characters  which  sometimes  aid  in  determinations.  It  can  be 
easily  accomplished  by  pulling  out  the  wings  individually  with  a  pin  beneath 
the  wing  and  securing  them  in  place  as  illustrated  in  Fig.  1.  A  spreading 
board  can  also  be  used  for  drying  the  wings  flat.  Double-mounting  should  be 
done  before  embedding  the  minuten  in  the  strip.  When  using  paper  points, 
allow  the  glue  to  set  with  the  specimen  supported  on  a  block  of  styrofoam, 
then  pull  the  left  pair  of  wings  away  from  the  body  and  secure  with  pins.  If 
spreading  the  wings  flat  is  desired,  this  can  be  done  in  a  grooved  board  after 
the  glue  dries.  If  the  specimen  dies  with  the  wings  in  an  upstroke  position, 
some  manipulation  of  the  wings  may  be  necessary  in  order  to  allow  forewing 
characters  to  be  seen. 

Most  Chrysopidae  are  large  enough  to  be  pinned  directly  with  no.  1 
pins.  Because  wings  are  transparent,  it  is  seldom  necessary  that  they  be 
spread,  but  it  may  be  advantageous  for  several  specimens  of  a  series  or  for 
uncommon  species.  Wing  venation  is  used  extensively  as  a  taxonomic 
character  at  the  generic  level,  but  male  genitalia,  which  are  primarily 
internal,  are  the  most  important  for  specific  (and  some  generic)  determina- 
tions. Markings  of  the  head  and  body  are  also  used  to  a  great  degree  but 
variation  can  make  them  unreliable  characters. 


208  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Fig.  1 .  Double-mounted  hemerobiid. 

If  preserving  chrysopids  in  alcohol  is  necessary,  it  should  be  noted  that 
color  markings,  especially  reds  and  oranges,  often  fade  completely  and  some 
dark  veins  in  the  wing  may  become  pale.  This  can  cause  confusion  when 
attempting  determinations. 

It  should  be  noted  that  chrysopid  genitalia  do  not  fully  develop  and 
sclerotize  until  a  few  days  after  emergence.  For  this  reason,  it  may  be  wise 
to  hold  live  specimens  for  a  few  days  if  genitalic  examinations  are  desired. 
This  is  essential  for  reared  material. 

The  Sisyridae  are  small  and  should  always  be  double-mounted  or 
pointed.  The  few  North  American  species  of  this  family  can  be  separated  by 
characters  of  the  forewing.  Still,  genitalia  of  both  sexes  are  usually 
diagnostic  so  it  is  suggested  these  insects  be  mounted  like  Hemerobiidae 
(wings  partially  spread). 

The  Mantisipidae  are  usually  large  enough  to  be  pinned  directly.  The 
wings  may  be  spread  if  desired,  but  wing  venation  is  seldom  used  for 
determinations.  Mantisipid  taxonomy  is  in  need  of  revision,  thus  important 
diagnostic  characters  have  not  been  identified  in  some  cases.  Color  patterns 
are  important  in  determining  Mantispinae  (Redborg  1982),  while  male 
genitalia  are  used  in  Platymantispinae  (Rehn  1939).  The  only  special 
mounting  consideration  might  be  to  spread  the  forelegs  so  that  setal  patterns 
are  easily  seen. 

The  Myrmeleontidae  are  among  the  largest  Neuroptera  and  can  create 
spatial  problems  if  wings  are  fully  spread.  Stange  ( 1 970)  prefers  pining  ant- 
lions  with  wings  held  rooflike  over  the  body  and  recommends  against  use  of 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983 


209 


a  stabilizing  pin  to  prevent  loss  of  the  abdomen.  I  have  found  that  spreading 
the  right  pair  of  wings  slightly  out  from  the  body  (Fig.  2)  allows  easier 
examination  of  the  important  hindwing  without  sacrificing  much  additional 
space.  This  can  be  done  with  a  grooved  spreading  board,  a  block  of 
styrofoam  or  by  the  use  of  pins  in  a  box.  Some  workers  prefer  the  right  pair 
of  wings  spread  at  right  angles,  primarily  for  aesthetic  reasons. 

The  Ascalaphidae  are  the  most  robust  Neuroptera  and  no.  3  pins  can 
always  be  used.  As  with  ant-lions,  specimens  require  more  space  in 
collections  if  wings  are  spread.  Moreover,  their  long  antennae  are  easily 
broken  if  left  to  dry  while  extended  away  from  the  body,  thus,  wings  should 
be  held  over  the  body  and  antennae  pulled  back  as  in  Fig.  3.  This  practice 
can  reduce  space  requirements  by  about  one-half.  The  six  recognized 
Neartic  species  can  usually  be  separated  without  difficulty  and  the  visibility 
of  characters  is  not  a  problem  in  this  group. 

The  Coniopterygidae  is  the  only  group  best  preserved  in  alohol.  Pinned 
material  is  much  more  difficult  to  determine  and  removal  of  terminalia  for 
genitalic  examination  is  always  required.  In  alcohol,  the  characteristic 
whitish  coat  of  wax  covering  the  insect  is  lost,  but  this  proves  to  be  an 


Fig.  2.   Suggested  method  of  mounting 
myrmeleontids. 


Fig.  3.   Suggested  method  of  mounting 
ascalaphids. 


210  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


advantage  since  removal  of  the  wax  facilitates  interpretation  of  veins  which 
can  aid  in  placing  specimens  to  genus.  Specimens  in  alcohol  can  be 
manipulated  to  allow  examination  of  the  hindwing  and  external  genitalia  of 
the  male,  which  can  sometimes  be  diagnostic  without  having  to  be  cleared  in 
KOH.  This  may  prove  unreliable  unless  one  has  experience  with  the  group, 
but  is  time-saving  if  many  specimens  are  to  be  examined.  Females,  for  the 
most  part,  lack  sclerotized  structures  (except  in  the  Aleuropteryx)  and 
cannot  be  determined  to  species  unless  associated  with  males. 

There  are  a  few  lesser-known  families  of  Neuroptera  that  are  not  often 
encountered  by  collectors.  The  Berothidae  are  similar  to  Hemerobiidae  but 
can  usually  be  pinned  successfully  with  no.  1  pins.  The  shape,  venation,  and 
markings  of  the  forewing  along  with  internal  genitalia  are  the  most 
important  characters.  Spreading  of  wings  is  recommended  since  these 
insects  are  not  usually  common. 

The  Dilaridae  are  rare  in  collections,  partially  because  they  resemble 
small  moths  and  are  overlooked.  The  two  Nearctic  species  of  this  group  are 
easily  separated  by  wing  venation  and  geographic  range.  They  are  delicate 
insects  and  should  be  double-mounted. 

Our  few  species  of  Polystoechotidae  and  Ithonidae  are  large  and  can  be 
pinned  without  any  problem.  They  all  have  distinctive  forewings  and 
spreading  is  unnecessary  for  determination. 

Sometimes  considered  as  part  of  the  Neuroptera  are  the  Megaloptera 
(Corydalidae  and  Sialidae)  and  the  Raphidioptera  (Raphidiidae  and 
Inocelliidae.  These  insects  should  be  pinned.  It  might  be  necessary  to  examine 
the  hindwing  of  some  Corydalidae  to  be  able  to  work  certain  keys,  but  on  the 
whole,  no  special  procedures  are  needed.  The  genitalia  remain  the  most 
important  characters  in  making  determinations,  especially  in  Sialidae. 

There  are  several  exotic  families  not  considered  here.  A  basic  rule  is  to 
pin  or  point  everything  except  Coniopterygidae.  If  there  are  external 
genitalic  structures,  their  view  should  be  unobstructed  by  wings  and  if  the 
forewing  is  not  wholly  transparent,  some  degree  of  spreading  may  be 
necessary  to  see  hindwing  characters.  Also  keep  in  mind  the  risk  of 
breakage  and  conservation  of  space. 

Genitalia  Preparation 

Accurate  identification  of  most  neuropterans  to  species  often  requires 
examination  of  genitalic  structures,  usually  of  the  male.  In  some  cases,  the 
last  few  abdominal  segments  must  be  removed  and  treated  in  a  10% 
solution  of  KOH^  to  dissolve  internal  tissue  and  clear  the  abdominal  wall 


^Bram  and  Bickley  (1963)  used  a  15%  KOH  solution  to  clear  chrysopid  genitalia  (boiling  for 
13  minutes)  while  Meinander  used  a  5%  solution  for  Coniopterygidae). 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983  211 


for  examination  of  internal  sclerotized  structures.  The  time  of  treatment 
depends  largely  on  size  of  the  specimen  and  temperature  of  the  solution. 
The  clearing  procedure  will  usually  take  about  24  hours  in  a  room 
temperature  solution  (Tauber  1969).  The  smaller  Coniopterygidae  require 
less  time,  about  2-10  hours  (Johnson  1980).  A  hot  or  boiling  solution  of 
KOH  greatly  reduces  the  time  required  for  clearing.  Dr.  Phillip  Adams 
(pers.  comm.)  recommends  about  5  minutes  for  chrysopids.  Martin  (1977) 
recommended  bringing  the  solution  short  of  an  actual  boil  to  prevent 
possible  damage.  To  eliminate  this  risk,  a  small  beaker  with  KOH  and 
genitalia  can  be  placed  inside  a  larger  beaker  of  water.  The  water  boils, 
heating  the  KOH  without  damaging  setae. 

After  the  abdomen  has  been  cleared,  it  is  usually  desirable  to  flush  out 
any  remaining  residue  using  a  small  (27  gauge)  hypodermic  syringe  (Bram 
and  Bickley  ( 1 963).  After  flushing,  terminalia  should  be  rinsed  in  distilled 
water.  Sometimes  structures  may  be  everted  for  better  viewing  with  a  strong 
flush  with  a  syringe  (Tauber  1969)  or  with  forceps  for  large  forms  such  as 
myrmeleontids  (Stange  1970). 

Staining  is  often  desirable  in  order  to  better  discern  the  internal 
structures.  Dr.  Adams'  method  (pers.  comm.)  requires  injecting  the  cleared 
abdomen  with  5%5  chlorazol  black  E  aqueous  solution  and  rinsing  in 
distilled  water.  The  specimen  is  placed  in  glycerine  for  viewing  with 
glycerine  being  injected  into  the  abdomen.  A  fine  needle  is  used  to  apply  the 
stain.  For  best  results,  the  tip  should  be  nicked,  broken  off  square  and  the 
edges  rounded  with  Arkansas  stone. 

Some  workers  mount  genitalia  on  slides,  but  they  should  be  preserved  in 
glycerine-filled  microvials  (known  as  genitalia  vials)  and  pinned  with  the 
specimen  or  placed  in  the  vial  of  alcohol  (silicone  stoppers  preferred). 
Mounting  genitalia  on  slides  does  not  allow  manipulation  to  view  dorsal  or 
ventral  aspects  and  they  usually  must  be  dissolved  off  slides  for  critical 
examination. 

Female  genitalia  are  not  extensively  used  in  most  groups  for  species 
determinations.  Usually  structures  are  not  sclerotized  and  while  some  are 
diagnostic,  they  are  difficult  to  interpret.  Structures  such  as  spermatheca, 
copulatory  bursa  or  subgenital  plate  have  been  used  in  some  groups. 
Stange's  1970  revision  of  the  brachynemurine  ant-lions  uses  digging  setae 
and  posterior  gonapophysis  in  the  keys. 

Larvae 

Larvae  of  Nearctic  species  of  Neuroptera  are  poorly  known  and 
represent  a  challenge  for  future  workers.  In  some  groups  such  as  the 
Coniopterygidae,  larvae  of  very  few  species  have  been  described,  while 
others  such  as  Chrysopidae  are  better  known. 

5  Some  workers  recommend  a  1%  solution  to  reduce  the  risk  of  overstaining,  noting  that 
destaining  with  Clorox *  is  possible,  but  hard  on  specimens. 


2 1 2  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Larval  stages  should  be  treated  in  KAAD  (Peterson  1959)  and 
preserved  in  80-90%  alcohol  (ethyl  or  isopropyl).  Dr.  Catherine  Tauber 
(pers.  comm.)  recommended  treating  chrysopids  and  hemerobiids  for  20 
minutes  while  Stange  (1970)  treated  myrmeleontid  larvae  for  about  24 
hours.  Henry  ( 1 976)  discussed  a  method  for  clearing  ascalaphid  larvae  for 
study. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I  would  like  to  thank  Drs.  P.A.  Adams,  H.R.  Burke,  J.E.  Eger,  R.S.  Peigler,  K.E. 
Redborg,  L.A.  Stange  and  C.A.  Tauber  for  their  contributions  to  this  manuscript. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Bram,  R.A.,  and  W.E.  Bickley.  1963.  The  green  lacewings  of  the  genus  Chn'sopa  in 

Maryland  (Neuroptera:  Chrysopidae).  Univ.  Maryland  Agric.  Exp.  Sta.  Bull.  A-124:   1- 

18. 
Henry,  C.S.  1976.  Some  aspects  of  the  external  morphology  of  larval  owlflies  (Neuroptera: 

Ascalaphidae),  with  particular  reference  to  Ululodes  and  Ascaloptvnx.  Psyche.  83:   1- 

31. 
Johnson,  V.  1980.  Review  of  the  Coniopterygidae  (Neuroptera)  of  North  America  with  a 

revision  of  the  genus  Aleuropteryx.  Psyche  87:  259-98. 
Martin,  J.E. H.  1977.  The  insects  and  archnids  of  Canada  Part  1:  Collecting,  preparing,  and 

preserving  insects,  mites   and  spiders.   Biosystematics   Res.   Inst.   Ottawa,  Ontario 

1643:   182  pp. 
Meinander,  M.  1972.  A  revision  of  the  family  Coniopterygidae  (Planipennia).  Acta  Zool. 

Fennica  136:   1-357. 
Peterson,  A.  1959.  A  manual  of  entomological  techniques.  How  to  work  with  insects.  9th  ed. 

Edward  Brothers  Inc.  Ann  Arbor,  Mich.  435  pp. 
Redborg,  K.E.  1982.  Mantispidae  (Insecta:  Neuroptera)  parasitic  on  spider  egg  sacs:  an 

update  of  a  pioneering  paper  by  B.J.  Kaston.  J.  Arachnol.  10:  92-3. 
Rehn,  J.W.H.  1939.  Studies  in  North  American  Mantispidae  (Neuroptera).  Trans.  Amer. 

Entomol.  Soc.  65:  237-63. 
Stange,  L.A.   1970.   Revision  of  the  ant-lion  tribe  Brachynemurini  of  North  America 

(Neuroptera:  Myrmeleontidae).  Univ.  Calif.  Publ.  Entomol.  55:1-192. 
Tauber,  C.A.  1969.  Taxonomy  and  biology  of  the  lacewing  genus  Meleoma  (Neuroptera: 

Chrysopidae).  Univ.  Calif.  Publ.  Entomol.  58:    1-94. 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983  213 


PARAPHROSYLUS  PRAEDATOR  AND 

P.  NIGRIPENNIS,  NEW  TO  WASHINGTON, 

WITH  NOTES  ON  THE  GENUS  (DIPTERA: 

DOLICHOPODIDAE)  ^ 

Larry  D.  Corpus-* 

ABSTRACT:  Adult  Paraphrosylus praedator (Wheeler),  P.  nigripennis  (Van  Duzee),  and 
P.  direptor(Van  Duzee)  were  collected  from  Freshwater  Bay,  Clallam  County,  Washington, 
This  represents  the  first  report  of  P.  praedator  and  P.  nigripennis  occurring  within  the  state. 
Habitat  preferences  of  the  3  species  are  described. 


Paraphrosylus  Becker,  originally  proposed  as  a  subgenus  otAphrosylus 
Haliday  (Becker  1922)  later  considered  a  synonym  ofAphrosylus  (Foote 
et  al.,  1965;  Cole  1969)  is  presently  considered  a  valid  genus  (Robinson  and 
Vockeroth  1981).  Paraphrosylus  contains  8  species  (Van  Duzee  1924; 
Harmston  1951,  195 2)  found  in  the  western  Nearctic  region.  Collection  of 
adult  Diptera,  at  low  tide,  from  a  beach  in  Freshwater  Bay,  22.5  km  west  of 
Port  Angeles,  Clallam  County,  Washington  on  23  May  1981  yielded  3 
species  of  Paraphrosylus.  Six  males  and  6  female  Paraphrosylus  praedator 
(Wheeler),  4  male  and  3  female  adults  of  P.  nigripennis  (Van  Duzee),  and 
4  male  and  3  female  adults  of  P.  direptor(Van  Duzee)  were  collected.  The 
finding  of  P.  praedator  and  P.  nigripennis  represents  new  records  for 
Washington  state. 

Prior  collection  records  for  P.  praedator  list  various  California 
locations  from  La  Jolla  in  the  south  to  Bodega  Bay  in  the  north  (Wheeler 
1897;  Cole  1969)  and  Departure  Bay  in  British  Columbia  (Saunders 
1928).  P.  nigripennis  has  been  recorded  from  Seaward,  Alaska  (Van 
Duzee  1924)  and  Waldport,  Oregon  (Cole  1969).  Cole  incorrectly 
indicated  Waldport  as  being  in  Washington.  P.  direptor  has  been  collected 
from  Pacific  Grove  in  California,  and  Ilwaco,  Pacific  County,  Washington 
(Cole  1969).  Specimens  of  the  latter  two  species,  in  the  James  Entomological 
Collection  at  Washington  State  University,  are  from  Seaview,  Pacific 
County,  Washington  (Fig.  1). 

Adults  were  collected  during  low  tide,  between  1000  and  1 1 30  hours, 
by  sweep  netting  close  to  the  shaded  regions  of  rocks  covered  with  Fucus 


Deceived  February  12,  1983.  Accepted  July  25,  1983. 

^Scientific  Paper  Number  6454,  Washington  State   University,  College  of  Agriculture 
Research  Center,  Pullman.  Work  done  under  Project  0037. 

•'Department  of  Entomology,  Washington  State  University,  Pullman,  WA  99164-6432. 
ENT.  NEWS,  94(5)  213-215  November  &  December  1983 


214 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


sp.  This  alga  is  found  in  abundance  along  the  beach  (Fig.  2).  Adults  seemed 
to  congregate  only  about  the  Fucus,  since  intensive  sweeps  and  disturbance 
of  other  beach  debris  and  seaweed  wrack  yielded  only  coelopid  and 
ephydrid  adults.  This  may  be  an  indication  that  members  ofParaphrosylus 
prefer  to  congregate  on  and  may  be  attracted  to  Fucus. 

Wheeler  (1897)  and  Saunders  (1928)  described  the  larvae  and  pupae 
of  P.  praedator,  and  indicated  that  the  immatures  were  found  in  the  algae 
growing  on  beach  rocks.  A  thorough  search  of  the  Fucus  at  Freshwater  Bay 
failed  to  provide  immatures,  but  continued  investigations  should  eventually 
result  in  other  life  stages  of  these  species  being  found  here. 


»  F.»iSw 

®S«avl*»»  *  llwaca 
3  woklpo.i 


<3>  Forollao    Il 

ific  G 
®  Point    lobo, 

La    JoMa 
1  Point  L 


Fig.  1.  Collection  localities  of  Paraphrosylus  in  Washington,  Oregon  and  California. 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983 


215 


Fig.  2.  Specific  collection  sites  ofParaphrosylus  from  shaded  portions  ofFucus  covered  rocks 
(arrows). 


LITERATURE  CITED 

Becker,  T.  1922,  Dipterologishe  Studien.  Dolichopodidae.  B.  Nearktische  und  neotropische 

Region.  Zool.  -  Bot.  Gessel,  Wien,  Abhandl.  13:    1-394. 

Cole,  F.R.  1969.  The  flies  of  western  North  America.  Univ.  Calif.  Press:  Berkeley,  693  p. 
Foote,  R.H.,  J.R.  Coulson,  and  H.  Robinson,  1965.  Family  Dolichopodidae.  p.  482-530. 

In:  A.  Stone  et  al.  A  catalog  of  Diptera  of  America  North  of  Mexico.  USDA  Agr.  Hndbk. 

276.  1969  p. 
Harmston,  F.C.  1951.  New  species  of  Dolichopodidae  from  California  and  Utah  (Diptera). 

Great  Basin  Nat.  11:    11-17. 

.  1952.  New  species  of  Dolichopodidae  in  the  U.S.  National  Museum.  Proc.  Ent. 

Soc.  Wash.  54:  281-294. 
Robinson,  H.  and  J.R.  Vockeroth.  1981.  Dolichopodidae.  p.  625-639.  In:  J.  McAlpine  et 

al.  A  manual  of  the  Nearctic  Diptera.  Vol.  1 .  Biosystematics  Research  Institute,  Monogr 

27.  Ottawa.  674.  p. 
Saunders,  L.G.  1928.  Some  marine  insects  of  the  Pacific  coast  of  Canada.  Ann.  Ent.  Soc. 

Am.  21:  521-545. 
Van  Duzee,  M.C.  1924.  North  American  species  of  Paraphrosvlus  Becker,  a  subgenus  of 

Aphrosylus  Walker,  Pan-Pac.  Ent.  1:   73-78. 
Wheeler,  W.M.  1897.  A  genus  of  maritime  Dolichopodidae  new  to  America.  Proc.  Cal. 

Acad.  Sci.  Ser.  3.  1:    145-152. 


216  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


MAILING  DATES 
VOLUME  94,  1983 

No.  Date  of  Issue  Pages  Mailing  Date 

1  Jan.  &  Feb.  1   -  36  Mar.  14,  1983 

2  Mar.  &  Apr.  37-    72  May  11,  1983 

3  May  &  June  73-108  Aug.  10,  1983 

4  Sept.  &  Oct.  109  -  160  Oct.  12,  1983 

5  Nov.  &  Dec.  161-220  Dec.  27,  1983 


STATEMENT  OF  OWNERSHIP,  MANAGEMENT  &  CIRCULATION 

1.  Title  of  publication:  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

2.  Date  of  filing:  October  13,  1983 

3.  Frequency  of  issue:  Bimonthly  (every  other  month)  except  July  and  August 

4.  Location  of  known  office  of  publication:   Oak  Shade  Rd.,  RD  7,  Tabernacle  Twp., 
Vincentown  PO,  New  Jersey  08088 

5 .  Location  of  the  headquarters  or  general  business  offices  of  the  publishers:    1 900  Race  St. . 
Philadelphia,  Pa.  19103 

6.  Name  and  addresses  of  publisher,  editor  and  managing  editor: 

Publisher:  American  Entomological  Society,  1900  Race  St.,  Philadelphia, 
Pa.,  19103.  Editor:  Howard  P.  Boyd,  Oak  Shade  Rd.,  RD  7,  Tabernacle 
Twp.,  Vincentown  PO,  New  Jersey,  08088 

7.  Owner:  American  Entomological  Society,  1900  Race  St.,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  19103 

8.  Known  bondholders,  mortgagees  and  other  security  holders  owning  or  holding  one 
percent  or  more  of  total  amount  of  bonds,  mortgages  and  other  securities:  None 

9.  For  optional  completion  by  publishers  mailing  at  the  regular  rates:  signed 

10.  For  completion  by  nonprofit  organizations  authorized  to  mail  at  special  rates:  The 
purpose,  function  and  nonprofit  status  of  this  organization  and  the  exempt  status  for 
Federal  income  tax  purposes: 

Have  not  changed  during  preceding  12  months  (checked) 


Average  No.  Actual  Number 
Copies  Each  of  Copies  of  Single 

Issue  During  Issue  Published 

Preceding  12  Nearest  to 

Months  Filling  Date 

1 1 .  EXTENT  AND  NATURE  OF  CIRCULATION 

A.  TOTAL  NO.  COPIES  PRINTED                                       800  800 

B.  PAID  CIRCULATION 

1.  SALES  THROUGH  DEALERS  AND  CAJIRIERS,           0  0 
STREET  VENDORS  AND  COUNTER  SALES 

2.  MAIL  SUBSCRIPTIONS                                                686  683 

C.  TOTAL  PAID  CIRCULATION                                          686  683 

D.  FREE  DISTRIBUTION  BY  MAIL,  CARRIER  OR             0  0 
OTHER  MEANS,  SAMPLES,  COMPLIMENTARY, 

AND  OTHER  FREE  COPIES 

E.  TOTAL  DISTRIBUTION                                                    686  683 

F.  OFFICE  USE,  LEFT-OVER,  UNACCOUNTED,            114  117 
SPOILED  AFTER  PRINTING 

G.  TOTAL                                                                                  800  800 

12.  I  certify  that  the  statements  made  by  me  above  are  correct  and  complete.  Signed: 
Howard  P.  Boyd,  editor. 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983 


217 


INDEX:  VOLUME  94 


Acari,  31,  103,  139,  191 

A.E.S.  meetings,  20,  48,  54,  105,  106 

A.E.S.  125th  anniversary  notice,  105 

Agnew,  C.W.,  205 

Mounting  &  preserving  Neuroptera  for 
scientific  study 

Alloperla,  55 

Amblvomma  maculatum,  gulf  coast  tick, 
103 

Amaletus  cryptostimulus,  47 

Amphipoea  velata  attacking  corn  in  Md., 
101 

Amrine,  J.W.,  Jr.,  L.  Butler,  101 

Amphipoea  velata  attacking  corn  in 
Md. 

Announcements,  6,  14,  24,  40,  46,  80,  85, 
105,  107 

Arachnida,  31,  49,  103,  139,  201 
Araneae,  201 

Arthropods  from  saw-whet  owl  nest  in  Ct., 
60 

Asheum,  replacement  name  in  Chironomidae, 

34 

Auplopus  carbonarius,  spider  wasp  new  to 
U.S.,  notes  on,  29 


Baetisca  rubescens  record  in  W.  Va.,  141 

Betz,  B.W.,  152 

Biol.  of  Trichadentotecnum  alexanderae, 
its  habitat,  life  stages  &  events 

Bombyliidae,  25 
Book  review,  159 

Books  received  &  briefly  noted,  92,  100, 
102,  106,  116,  130,  135,  140,  142, 
159,  160 

Bousquet,  Y.,  95 

Bowen,  T.W.,  35 

New  records  of  Ceratopogonidae  from 
No.  Carolina 

Brachvdeutera,  notes  on,  from  No.  Amer., 

177 

Burke,  H.R.,  37 
Butler,  L.,  101 


Calabrese,  D.M.,  145 
Callipodida,  1 1 
Caspiopetalidae,  1 1 
Cerambycidae,  7 
Cerceris,  45 
Ceratopogonidae,  35 

Chalvbion  californicum  aggregation  in  a 
bell,  145 

Checklist  of  beetles,  announcement,  107 
Chironomidae,  34,  109 
Chloroperlidae,  55 
Cicadellidae,  89,  127,  187 

Cicindela  speculans,  redescrip.  of  &  rela- 
tionship to  other  neotropical  Cicindela, 
81 

Clausen,  P.J.,  33 

Two  new  synonyms  ofEutaenionotum 
guttipennis 

Coleoptera,  7,  37,  81,  97,  161 

Corpus,  L.D.,  213 

Paraphrosylus  praedator  &  P. 
nigripennis,  new  to  Washington,  with 
notes  on  genus 

Corydalidae.  15 

Cultural  entomology,  commentaries  in,  an 
ent.  explanation  of  Ezekiel's  wheels, 

73 

Curculionidae,  37 
Cydnidae,  176 


Davic.  R.D.,  47 

So.  range  ext.  of  Ameletus 
cryptostimulus 

Deer  &  horse  flies  of  So.  Dakota,  new  state 
records  &  annotated  checklist,  196 

DeLong,  D.M. 

N.  sp.  &  distrib.  of  Mexican  &  Bolivian 
Idiodonus,  89 

N.  sp.  Loreta  &  Icaia  from  Bolivia  & 
Peru,  127 

Delophon,   new  milliped  of  genus,  from 
Miss.,  1  1 

DeSimone,  P.,  60 


218 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Despins,  J.L.,  41 
Diplopoda,  1 1 

Diptera,  25,  33,  34,  35,  86,  109,  117,  122, 
177,  196,  213 

Dolichopodidae,  2 1 3 

Dominguez,  E.,  M.L.  Pescador,  21 

N.  sp.  of  Penaphlebia  from  Argentina 

Dryinidae,  98 

Dunkle,  S.W.,  136 

New  records  of  No.  Amer.  Odonata 


Easton,  E.R. 

Ticks  of  So.  Dakota,  annotated  check- 
list, 191 

Horse  &  deer  flies  of  So.  Dakota, 
new  state  records  &  annotated  checklist, 
196 

Ellipes  minutus  in  Ky.,  99 

Enaphalodes  rufulus,   red  oak  borer  in 
white  oak,  life  history  of,  7 

Ephemeroptera,  21,  47,  141,  204 
Ephydridae,  33,  177 
Eucinetidae,  97 
Euscaphurus  saltator,  97 

Eutaenionotum  guttipennis,  two  new 
synonyms  of,  33 

Euxesta  quaternaries  biol.  of.,  122 

Evans,  H.E.,  45 

Nests  &  prey  of  two  little  known  species 
of  Cerceris 

Evenhuis,  N.L.,  25 

Obs.  on  territorality  of  Oligodranes 
mitis  on  flowers  of  Erigeron 
neomexicanus 

Ezekiel's  wheels,  entomological  explanation, 
73 


Feminella,  J.,  55 

Flint,  O.S.,  Jr.,  15 

Nothochauliod.es  penai,  new  genus  & 
sp.  of  Megaloptera  from  Chile 

Formicidae,  143 

Freytag,  P.H.,  187 

New  sp.  Unerus  from  Honduras 


Froeschner,  R.C.,  W.E.  Steiner,  Jr.,  176 
Second  record  of  So.  Amer.  burrowing 
bug,  Scaptocoris  castaneus  in  U.S. 


Galford,  J.R,  7 

Life  history  of  red  oak  borer, 
Enaphalodes  rufulus  in  white  oak 

Goddard,  J.,  B.R.  Norment, 

Geog.  distrib.  of  gulf  coast  tick, 
Amblyomma  maculatum,  103 
New  record  forlxodes  texanus  in  Miss, 
with  new  host  record,  1 39 

Goff,  M.L.,  31 
Gottfried,  P.K.,  109 


Hansen,  R.W.,  E.A.  Osgood,  147 

Insects  visiting  flowers  of  wild  red 
raspberry  in  spruce-fir  forested  areas  in 
eastern  Maine 

Harris,  S.C.,  181 
Hemiptera,  131,  176 
Hoebeke,  E.R.,  86 

Hogue,  C.L.,  73 

Entomological  explanation  of  Ezekiel's 
wheel 

Holman,  R.E.,  122 

Holmberg,  R.G.,  E.G.  Kokko,  49 
A  blind  Homolophus  biceps 

Homolophus  biceps,  49 
Homoptera,  89,  127,  187 

Horse  &  deer  flies  of  So.  Dakota,  new  state 
records  &  annotated  checklist,  1 96 

Huryn,  A.D.,  93 

Descrip.  of  female  Hydroptila 
jackmanni,  with  biol.  notes 

Hydropsychidae,  18 

Hydroptila  jackmanni,  93 
Hydroptilidae,  93,  181 
Hymenoptera,  29,  45,  98,  143,  145 


Icaia  sp.  from  Bolivia,  127 

Idiodonus  sp.  from  Mexico  &  Bolivia,  89 

Internat'l.  Commiss.  Zool.  Nomenclature 
Announcements,  28,  30,  52,  108 


Vol.  94,  No.  5,  November  &  December  1983 


219 


Ixodidae,  103 


Kelly,  R.E.,  L.E.  Klostermeyer,  98 
New  records  of  Dryinidae  in  Tenn. 

Kelley,  R.W.,  S.C.  Harris,  181 

New  Hydroptilidae  from  Alabama  & 
So.  Carolina 

Klostermeyer,  L.E.,  98 
Kokko,  E.G.,  49 

Kondratieff,  B.C.,  J.L.  Despins,  41 

Seasonal  flight  pattern  of  Plecoptera, 
No.  Otter  Ck.,  Va. 

Kovarik,  P.,  H.R.  Burke,  37 

Sexual  dimorphism  of  tarsal  claws  in 
anthonomine  weevils 


Larson,  O.R.,  53 

No.  Dakota  Fleas:  2  new  geog.  records 
from  northern  flying  squirrel 

Lepidoptera,  101 
Leptophlebiidae,  21,  204 

LeSage,  L.Y.  Bousquet,  95 

New  record  of  attacks  of  Pedilus  on 
Meloe 

Loreta  from  Bolivia  &  Peru,  127 
Lygaeidae,  131 


Mailing  dates  for  1983,  216 
Mathew,  M.T.,  122 

Mathis,  W.W.,  177 

Notes  on  Brachydeutera  from  No. 
Amer. 

Matthysse,  J.G.,  31 

Meloe,  attacks  on  by  Pedilus,  95 

Mingo,  T.M.,  65 

Annotated  checklist  of  stoneflies   in 
Maine 

Mounting  &   preserving   Neuroptera   for 
scientific  study,  205 

Murray,  R.R.,  81 

Redescrip.  of  C.  speculans  &  its  relation- 
ship to  other  neotropical  Cicindela 

Mutillidae,  143 


Neuroptera,  15,  205 

Nickle,  D.A.,  1 

New  sp.  pseudophylline  katydid  from 
Cocos  Is.,  Costa  Rica 

Noctuidae,  101 

Nolfo,  S.,  29 

Notes  on  Auplopus  carbonarius,  a 
spider  wasp  new  to  U.S. 

Norment,  B.R.,  103,  139 

Norrbom,  A.L.,  117 

Four  acalyptrate  Diptera  reared  from 
dead  horseshoe  crabs 

Nothochauliodes  penai,  n.  genus  &  sp.  of 
Megaloptera  from  Chile,  1 5 

Nugen,  C.K.,  D.C.  Tarter,  18 

Larval  Hydropsyche  &  Smyphitopsyche 
records  from  West  Va. 


Odonata,  new  No.  Amer.  records,  1 36 

OHgodranes  mutis,  obs.  on  territorality  of, 
on  flowers  of  Erigeron  neomexicanus, 

25 

Opiliones,  49 
Orthoptera,  1,  99 
Osgood,  E.A.,  147 
Otitidae,  122 


Paraphrosylus  praedator  &  P.  nigripennis, 
new  to  Washington,  with  notes  on 
genus,  213 

Parascopioicus  binoditergus,  n.  sp.  of 
katydid  from  Costa  Rica 

Pechuman,  L.L.,  E.R.  Hoebeke,  86 

European  Rhagionidae  in  eastern  No. 
Amer.  &  records  of  newly  discovered 
sp. 

Pedilus  attacks  on  Meloe,  95 

Perissophlebiodes,  replacement  name  for 
Perissophlebia,  204 

Pescador,  M.L.,  21 
Peltry,  D.K.,  141 
Phalangida,  49 

Philips,  J.R.,  M.  Root,  P.  DeSimone,  60 
Arthropods  from  saw-whet  owl  nest  in 
Ct. 


220 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Phillippi,  M.A.,  99 

Occurrence  of  Ellipes  minutus  in  Ky. 

Plecoptera,  41,  55,  65 
Pompiliidae,  29 
Psocoptera,  152 
Ptilodactyliae,  161 
Publisher's  statement,  216 

Rhagionidae,  86 

Rochette,  R.A.,  97 

Lectotype  desig.  for  Euscaphurus 
saltator 


Savage,  H.M.,  204 

Perissophlebiodes,  replacement  name 
for  Perissophlebia 

Scaptocoris  castaneus,  2nd  record  of  So. 
Amer.  burrowing  bug  in  U.S. 

Schoenly,  K.,  D.M.  Calabrese,  145 

Aggregation  ofChalybion  californicum 
in  a  bell. 

Seasonal  flight  pattern  of  Plecoptera,  No. 
Otter  Cr.,  VA.,  41 

Sexual  dimorphism  of  tarsal  claws  in  anthono- 
mine  weevils,  37 

Shelley,  R.M.,  1 1 

New  milliped  of  genus  Delophon  from 
Miss. 

Siphlonuridae,  47 
Siphonaptera,  53 
Smyphitopsyche,  18 

Snelling,  R.R.,  201 

Prey-stalking  behavior  of  thomisid 
spider,  Xysticus  californicus 

Society  (A.E.S.)  meeting  reports,  20,  48, 
54,  105,  106 

Spangler,  P.J.,  161 

Mature  stages  &  biology  of  Tetraglossa 
palpalis 

Sphecidae,  45,  145 

Stark,  B.P.  K.W.  Stewart,  J.  Feminella,  55 
New  records  &  descrip's.  ofAlloperla 
from  Ozark  -  Ouachita  region 

Steiner,  W.E.,  Jr.,  176 
Stewart,  K.W.,  55 


Stygnocoris  rusticus,  new  No.  Amer. 
records  &  distribution  review,  1 3 1 

Sublette,  J.E.,  &  M.,  34 

Asheum,  replacement  name  in 
Chironomidae 


Tabanidae,  196 
Tarter,  D.C.,  18 

Tarter,  D.C.,  D.K.  Pettry,  141 

New  record  of  mayfly  Baetisca  rubescens 
for  West  Va. 

Tennessen,  K.J.,  P.K.  Gottfried,  109 
Variation  in  structure  of  ligulaof  Tany- 
podinae  larvae 

Tetraglossa  palpalis,  immature  stages  & 
biology  of,  161 

Tettigoniidae,  1 
Thomisidae,  201 

Ticks  of  So.  Dakota,  annotated  checklist, 
191 

Trichadentotecnum  alexanderae,  biol.  of, 
its  habitat,  life  stages,  &  events,  152 

Trichoptera,  18,  93,  181 
Tridactylidae,  99 
Trombiculidae,  31 


Unerus,  n.  sp.  from  Honduras,  187 


Wheeler,  A. G.,  Jr.,  131 

Stygnocoris  rusticus,  new  records  in 
No.  Amer.,  &  distrib.  review 

Wheeler,  G.C.,,  143 

Mutillid  mimic  of  an  ant 

Whitaker,  J.O.,  Jr.,  M.L.  Goff,  J.G. 

Matthysse,  31 

Chiggers  from  some  small  mammals 

from  Nigeria 


Xysticus  californicus,  a  thomisid  spider, 
prey-stalking  behavior  of,  201 


Yoon,  J.S.,  M.T.  Mathew,  R.E.  Holman, 
122 
Biol.  of  Euxesta  quatemaria 


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f! 


Vol.  9E 


US  ISSN  0013-872X 
JANUARY  Cr  FEBRUARY  1984  No.  1 


ENT 


EWS 


New  species  of  Prionus  from  Monahans  Sandhills 
of  western  Texas  (Coleoptera:  Cerambycidae) 

F.  T.  Hovore,  R.H  Turnbow,  Jr. 


1 


Range  extension  &  emergence  of  subterranean  nesting 
by  German  yellowjacket,  Vespula  germanica,  in 
No.  America  (Hymenoptera:  Vespidae) 

J.F.  MacDonald,  R.D.  Akre     5 


Revised  key  to  Idiodonus  of  Mexico  &  Bolivia 


(Homoptera:  Cicadellidae) 


Dwight  M.  DeLong     9 


New  species  of  Troglopedetes  from  Guerrero, 
Mexico  (Collembola:  Paronellidae) 

M.  Ojeda,  J.G.  Palacios-Vargas    16 


Helopicus  rickeri,  new  stonefly  from  Tennessee 
(Plecoptera:  Perlodidae) 


Bill  P.  Stark  21 


A  new  Mexican  Epidamaeus  (Oribatei:  Damaeidae) 

J.G.  Palacios-Vargas  23 

Notes  on  distribution  of  evaniid  wasps  in  western 

No.  America  (Hymenoptera:  Evaniidae)  Roy  R.  Smiling  27 

Ants  (Crematogaster  clara)  nesting  in  bird  boxes 
(Hymenoptera:  Formicidae) 

W.H.  Davis,  W.C.  McComb,  P.  Allaire  29 

Indication  of  mounting  media  information 

R.D.  Waltz,  W.P.  McCafferty   31 


Two  undescribed  fossil  Dermaptera  from 
Florissant,  Colorado 


F.  Martin  Brown   33 


Does  old  world  family  Plat  asp  idae  (Hemiptera) 

occur  in  North  America?  Richard  C.  Froeschner  36 


SOCIETY  MEETING  of  November  16,  1983 


30 


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Vol.  95,  No.  1,  January  &  February,  1984 


A  NEW  SPECIES  OF  PRIONUS  (HOMAESTHESIS) 

FROM  THE  MONAHANS  SANDHILLS  OF 

WESTERN  TEXAS  (COLEOPTERA: 

CERAMBYCIDAE)12 

Frank  T.  Hovore^,  Robert  H.  Turnbow,  Jr.4 

ABSTRACT:  Prionus  (Homaesthesis)  spinipennis  is  described  as  new  from  the  Monahans 
Sandhills  of  western  Texas.  Comparisons  are  given  for  related  and  sympatric  species,  and  the 
taxonomic  parameters  of  the  subgenus  are  re-examined.  A  key  to  species  of  Homaesthesis  is 
provided. 

Prionus  (Homaesthesis)  arenarius  Hovore,  described  (1981)  from 
Monahans  Sandhills  State  Park  in  western  Texas,  is  one  of  several 
Homaesthesis  species  associated  with  sand  dune  habitats.  During  a  visit  to 
the  Monahans  dune  system  in  August,  1982,  R.H.  Turnbow,  Jr.,  and  T.P. 
Friedlander  collected  yet  another  undescribed  Homaesthesis  with  structural 
adaptations  similar  to  those  of  P.  arenarius  (and  common  to  many 
arenicolous  arthropods).  The  two  species  share  a  number  of  secondarily 
derived  characters,  and  may  have  a  common  distribution  in  the  Monahans 
dune  system,  but  the  new  species  is  taxonomically  quite  distinct  from 
arenarius.  In  fact,  it  exhibits  characters  which  might  be  interpreted  as 
intermediate  between  Homaesthesis  and  Prionus  sensu  stricto.  The 
inclusion  of  this  new  species  and  arenarius  in  Homaesthesis  limits 
considerably  the  definition  of  the  subgenus  (see  generic  discussion  below). 
For  the  present,  Homaesthesis  may  be  recognized  by  the  opaque, 
nonstriolate  poriferous  areas  on  the  male  antennal  segments,  12-  to  14- 
segmented  antennae  in  both  sexes,  and  smaller  overall  size  (average  length 
usually  less  than  30  mm.). 

Prionus  (Homaesthesis)  spinipennis,  new  species 

Male:  Form  moderate-sized,  robust,  dorsal  surface  broadly  convex,  integument  castaneous 
to  piceous,  thoracic  sternites,  coxae,  femora,  and  head  reddish-brown,  antennal  segments  3  to 
12  lighter  reddish-brown. 

Head  with  antennae  attaining  apical  one-third  of  elytra,  1 2-segmented,  external  processes 
of  segments  3  to  1 1  broadly  rounded  or  feebly  truncated,  apical  segment  elongate,  flattened, 
rounded  at  tip;  upper  lobes  of  eyes  separated  on  vertex  by  about  one-third  greatest  width  of 
head. 

Pronotum  with  discal  surface  coarsely,  irregularly  punctate,  margins  strongly  produced 
and  reflexed,  anterior  tooth  arcuate,  acute,  antemedian  tooth  acute,  moderately  produced, 
posterior  angle  strongly  dentiform,  feebly  acute  or  right-angular  in  dorsal  outline;  metasternum 


Deceived  March  26,  1983.  Accepted  August  18,  1983. 

^Contribution  number  18271  to  the  Texas  Agricultural  Experiment  Station. 

•^Placenta  Canyon  Nature  Center,  19152  W.  Placerita  Canyon  Road,  Newhall.  California 
91321 

^Department  of  Entomology,  Texas  A&M  University,  College  Station,  Texas  77843. 
Current  address:   Route  4,  Box  84,  Lot  10,  Enterprise,  Alabama  36330. 

ENT.  NEWS  95(1):    1-4.  January  &  February,  1984 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


finely,  densely  punctate,  clothed  with  fine,  moderately  long  pubescence;  scutellum  with  sides 
angulated  at  middle,  then  tapered  to  apex,  basal  two-thirds  coarsely,  irregularly  punctate. 

Elytra  feebly  explanate  apically,  parallel-sided  for  most  of  length,  discal  surface 
coriaceous,  coarsely,  irregularly  punctate,  costae  strongly  elevated,  apices  rounded  to  suture, 
sutural  angle  produced  into  a  narrow  acute  spine  (Fig.  2). 

Legs  with  outer  angle  of  protibia  subspiniform,  tibial  spurs  long,  thin,  laminiform, 
metatibial  spurs  thickened,  tarsi  broad,  flattened  (Fig.  4),  first  metatarsal  segment  lacking 
spongy  setal  pads  on  ventral  surface,  pads  greatly  reduced  on  segments  2  and  3,  ventral  surface 
of  segments  densely  punctate  and  pubescent  with  short,  suberect  setae,  margins  of  segments  1 
to  3  acute,  dentiform. 

Length  (exclusive  of  mandibles):   19.5  -  32  mm. 

Female:  Form  robust,  coloration  as  in  male. 

Head  with  antennae  nearly  attaining  basal  one-half  of  elytra,  12-segmented,  external 
processes  of  segments  increasingly  produced  apically,  apical  segment  simple. 

Pronotum  similar  in  dorsal  outline  to  that  of  male,  lateral  teeth  conspicuously  produced; 
metasternum  very  finely  punctate,  glabrous. 

Elytra  with  sides  slightly  expanded  behind  humeri,  gradually  tapered  from  middle  to 
suture,  sutural  angle  spinose. 

Legs  with  tibial  spurs  slightly  more  pronounced  than  in  male,  tarsal  spongy  pads  reduced 
or  absent  on  all  tarsi,  tarsal  segments  similar  in  form  and  setation  of  those  of  male. 

Length  (exclusive  of  mandibles):  29  -  30  mm. 

Type  data:  Holotype  male,  allotype  (California  Academy  of  Sciences)  and  35  paratypes 
(34  cf,  1  9)  from:  TEXAS,  Ward  County,  Monahans  Sandhills  State  Park,  at  lights,  21 
August  1982  (R.H.  Turnbow,  T.P.  Friedlander).  Paratypes  deposited  in  the  following 
collections:  Texas  A&M  University;  University  of  California,  Berkeley;  U.S.  National 
Museum  of  Natural  History;  Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology,  Harvard  University;  R.H. 
Turnbow,  Jr.;  F.T.  Hovore;  R.L.  Penrose;  M.E.  Rice;  and  J.E.  Wappes. 

Diagnosis:  Prionus  (H.)  spinipennis  may  be  distinguished  from  all 
other  known  Homaesthesis  by  the  combination  of  1 2-segmented  antennae, 
expanded  tarsi,  dark-brown  to  piceous  integument  with  wholly  reddish 
antennae,  and  spinose  sutural  angle  of  the  elytra  (Figs.  1 ,  2).  From  P.  (H.) 
rhodocerus  Linsley,  which  it  resembles  in  coloration  and  }  2-segmented 
antennae,  spinipennis  may  be  further  differentiated  by  the  more  elongate 
form,  more  narrowly  placed  upper  eye  lobes  (separated  by  more  than  one- 
third  greatest  width  of  head  in  rhodocerus},  larger  antennae  with  more 
strongly  developed  external  processes,  and,  in  males,  the  much  more 
densely  pubescent  metasternum.  In  the  limited  material  available,  females 
of  spinipennis  possess  a  thin,  elevated  line  on  the  apical  abdominal  tergite, 
absent  in  female  rhodocerus. 

Of  the  known  Homaesthesis,  P.  spinipennis  appears  most  closely 
related  to  P.  (H.)  palparis  Say,  from  which  it  differs  (in  addition  to  the 
combination  of  characters  enumerated  above)  by  the  more  widely-spaced 
upper  eye  lobes  (separated  by  only  one-fourth  greatest  width  of  head  in 
palparis).  The  strongly  developed  pronotal  margins,  form  of  the  tarsi  and 
antennae,  and  coloration  would  have  placed  spinipennis  wilh  palparis  and 
P.  (H.)  simplex  (Casey)  in  Casey's  genus  Prionina  (synonymized  with 
Homaesthesis  by  Linsley,  1962). 

At  the  Monahans  locality,  spinipennis  and  arenarius  appear  to  be 
allochronically  separated,  the  latter  having  been  taken  only  in  late  May  and 
early  June;  little,  however,  is  known  of  their  habits  or  life  histories.  Two  of 


Vol.  95,  No.  1,  January  &  February,  1984 


\ 


4 


Figures  1,  3:  Prionus  arenarius  Hovore,  male:  1,  right  dorsum,  pronotum  and  elytron;  3, 
right  metatarsus.  Figs.  2,  4:  P.  spinipennis  new  species,  male:  2,  right  dorsum.  pronotum  and 
elytron;  4,  right  metatarsus. 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


the  paratypes  of  P.  spinipennis  were  collected  away  from  lights  in 
association  with  shinnery  oaks  (Quercus  havardii  Rydb.)  growing  on  the 
dunes. 

Generic  Discussion  and  Key  to  Species:  The  number  of  characters 
by  which  Homaesthesis  may  be  distinguished  has  been  reduced  by  the 
inclusion  of  arenarius  (possessing  rounded  apices  on  the  third  metatarsal 
segment)  and  spinipennis  (possessing  strongly  produced  and  reflexed 
anterior  pronotal  angles).  For  the  present,  the  12  to  14-segmented 
antennae,  with  non-striolate  poriferous  areas  will  suffice  to  differentiate  all 
known  Homaesthesis  from  other  nearctic  subgenera  of  Prionus. 

Key  to  the  Species  of  Homaesthesis  (adapted  from  Linsley,  1962) 

la  Antennal  processes  distinctly  emarginated  and  bilobed;  color  reddish-brown 2 

Ib  Antennal  processes  at  most  truncated-or  very  feebly  emarginated,  not  bilobed; 

coloration  variable,  usually  brownish  or  piceous 3 

2a  Antennae  1 2-segmented;  pronotal  disk  glabrous;  metatarsi  broadly  expanded,  flattened, 

fimbriate  with  long  hairs  (Fig.  3) arenarius  Hovore 

2b  Antennae  1 3-  or  1 4-segmented;  pronotal  disk  sparsely  to  densely  pubescent;  metatarsi 

narrow,  elongate,  without  fringe  of  hairs emarginatus  Say 

3a  Antennae  1 2-segmented 4 

3b  Antenna  1 3-segmented integer  LeConte 

4a  Eyes  separated  on  vertex  by  one-third  or  more  the  greatest  width  of  head;  coloration 

variable;  antennal  segments  all  or  in  part  light  reddish-brown 5 

4b  Eyes  separated  on  vertex  by  one-fourth  or  less  the  greatest  width  of  head;  coloration 

piceous  to  black;  antennae  concolorous  with  body palparis  Say 

5a  Coloration  dark  brown,  castaneous,  or  piceous;  antennae  all  or  in  part  lighter  reddish- 
brown  6 

5b  Coloration  concolorous  light  reddish- brown,  antennae  not  contrasting 7 

6a  Metatarsi  expanded  and  flattened  (Fig.  4);  sutural  angle  of  elytra  distinctly  spinose; 

male  metasternum  densely  pubescent spinipennis  Hovore  and  Turnbow 

6b  Metatarsi  narrow,  elongated;  sutural  angle  of  elytra  acutely  or  obtusely  dentiform,  not 

spined;  male  metasternum  thinly  pubescent rhodocerus  Linsley 

7 a  Anterior  pronotal  angle  distinct;  sides  of  scutellum  evenly  rounded  to  apex;  first 

metatarsal  segment  subtriangular  in  dorsal  outline,  less  than  twice  as  long  as  broad .... 

simplex  (Say) 

7b  Anterior  lateral  pronotal  angle  irregularly  rounded;  sides  of  scutellum  obtusely 

angulated  at  middle;  first  metatarsal  segment  slender,  elongate,  parallel-sided,  three 

times  as  long  as  broad linsleyi  Hovore 

Corrigenda:  Hovore  (1981)  incorrectly  cited  Monahans  Sandhills  State  Park  as  located 
in  "Webb  County;"  it  is  in  Ward  County,  Texas. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We  thank  D.H.  Riskind,  Texas  Department  of  Parks  and  Wildlife,  for  permission  to 
collect  in  Texas  State  Parks,  and  R.L.  Penrose  and  H.R.  Burke  for  manuscript  reviews. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Hovore,  F.T.  1981.  Two  new  species  of  Prionus  (Homaesthesis)  from  the  southwestern 
United  States,  with  notes  on  other  species.  Coleop.  Bull.  35:  453-7. 

Linsley,  E.G.  1962.  The  Cerambycidae  of  North  America,  pt.  II.  Taxonomy  and  classification 
of  the  Parandrinae,  Prioninae,  Spondylinae,  and  Aseminae.  Univ.  Calif.  Publ.  Entomol., 
Vol.  19,  102.  pp. 


Vol.  95,  No.  1,  January  &  February,  1984 


RANGE  EXTENSION  AND  EMERGENCE  OF 

SUBTERRANEAN  NESTING  BY  THE  GERMAN 

YELLOWJACKET,  VESPULA  GERMANICA, 

IN  NORTH  AMERICA  (HYMENOPTERA: 

VESPIDAE)12 

John  F.  MacDonald^,  Rogers  D.  Akre^ 

ABSTRACT:  The  German  yellowjacket,  Vespula  germanica  (Fab.),  has  continued  to 
extend  its  distribution  to  the  west  and  northwest  and  now  is  established  in  such  cities  as 
Minneapolis/St.  Paul  and  Winnipeg.  In  addition,  this  species  has  been  found  in  Nampa,  Idaho 
and  in  the  Seattle  area  as  of  1981-82.  However,  V.  germanica  had  not  spread  into  the  south 
Atlantic  states  or  the  southwest. 

Previously  known  only  as  a  structural  nester  in  North  America,  subterranean  colonies  of 
V.  germanica  have  appeared  in  Indiana,  where  they  constituted  38%  ( 1 1/29)  of  the  colonies 
studied  in  the  Lafayette  area  in  1982. 

More  so  than  any  other  yellowjacket  species,  the  German  yellowjacket, 
Vespula  germanica  (Fab.),  has  displayed  a  remarkable  propensity  for 
becoming  distributed  and  established  throughout  temperate  regions  of  the 
world  (Edwards  1976).  Although  periodically  introduced  into  the  north- 
western United  States  over  the  past  century,  this  species  probably  did  not 
become  established  until  the  late  1960's( Morse  etal.  1977).  Since  then,  V. 
germanica  has  spread  rapidly  and  steadily  from  the  northeast  into  the  upper 
midwest  (Fig.  1;  Dunn  1980;  MacDonald  et  al.  1980). 

The  established  North  American  biotype  is  noteworthy  because  of  its 
pronounced  tendency  to  nest  inside  structures,  forsaking  the  typical 
subterranean  nesting  site  of  European  conspecifics.  Indeed,  V.  germanica 
in  North  American  was  reported  as  nesting  almost  exclusively  in  structures 
(Dunn  1980;  Keyel  1983;  MacDonald  et  al.  1980;  Morse  et  al.  1977).  In 
contrast,  other  Vespula  species  may  occasionally  nest  inside  structures, 
but  they  are  predominately  subterranean  nesters  (Akre  et  al.  1981).  Thus, 
structural  nesting  surfaced  as  one  diagnostic  criterion  for  the  presence  of  V. 
germanica  in  various  communities  in  eastern  North  America. 

This  paper  reports  the  current  distribution  of  V.  germanica  in  North 
American  and  reveals  the  emergence  of  subterranean  nesting  by  this 


1  Received  July  5,  1983.  Accepted  August  16,  1983. 

2  Journal  paper  number  9526,  Purdue  Agricultural   Experiment  Station,  W.   Lafayette, 
Indiana.  Work  supported  in  part  by  Purdue  Agricultural  Experiment  Station  project  number 
58045  and  Washington  State  College  of  Agriculture  Research  Center,  Project  0037. 

^Associate  Professor,  Department  of  Entomology,  Purdue  University,  W.  Lafayette,  Indiana 
47907. 

^Professor,  Department  of  Entomology,  Washington  State  University,  Pullman,  Washington 
99164. 

ENT.  NEWS  95(1):   5-8.  January  &  February,  1984 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


species  in  Indiana. 

Distribution  of  the  German  Yellowjacket  in  North  America 

As  predicted,  the  German  yellowjacket  has  continued  its  spread  west- 
northwestward  as  evidenced  by  recent  (1981-82)  reports  from  collaborators 
plus  specimens  from  Chicago,  Milwaukee,  Minneapolis/St.  Paul,  and 
Winnipeg.  To  date,  we  have  no  specimens  (or  suspicious  reports  suggesting 
establishment)  of  V.  germanica  westward  between  the  Dakotas  and  the 
Pacific  northwest,  but  we  feel  eventual  establishment  is  inevitable,  at  least 
in  urban  areas. 

The  first  record  of  the  German  yellowjacket  on  the  west  coast  of  North 
American  was  the  collection  of  workers  in  Puyallup,  Washington  in 
September  1982  (Fig.  1 ).  Initially  four  poorly  preserved  specimens,  sent  to 
us  for  identification  by  a  King  County  extension  agent,  were  tentatively 
determined  to  be  V.  germanica.  This  determination  was  confirmed  during 
the  next  several  days  with  nine  additional  workers  collected  from  the  same 
locality  in  Puyallup.  Subsequently,  a  worker  was  collected  in  a  garage  in 
Puyallup,  and  six  males  were  sent  from  a  colony  found  in  the  ceiling  of  a 
home  in  Spanaway,  Washington.  In  addition,  a  queen  V.  germanica  was 
collected  in  Puyallup  in  January  1983.  These  collections,  plus  reports  of  at 
least  three  structural  colonies  in  the  Puget  Sound  area  that  persisted  late 
into  the  year  and  chewed  through  walls  of  homes,  strongly  suggest  that  the 
German  yellowjacket  is  established  in  the  area. 

In  March  of  1983,  workers,  queens,  and  males  from  a  V.  germanica 
colony  collected  in  October  1981  were  received  from  Nampa,  Idaho.  In  this 
case  the  colony  was  subterranean  and  was  located  inside  an  abandoned 
irrigation  pipe.  Although  specific  data  are  lacking,  the  colony  was  large  and 
had  produced  numerous  queens. 

Despite  the  efforts  of  collaborators,  V.  germanica  still  has  not  been 
detected  south  of  Virginia,  the  southeast  or  the  central  midwest.  For 
example,  although  the  German  yellowjacket  is  common  in  the  Indianapolis 
area,  it  has  not  been  detected  in  the  southern  part  of  Indiana. 

Emergence  of  Subterranean  Nesting  in  Indiana 

Establishment  of  V.  germanica  in  Indiana  probably  occurred  in  1975- 
76  (Mac  Donald  et  al.  1980).  For  the  last  few  years,  all  colonies  studied 
were  located  inside  structures,  with  just  over  87%  (69/79)  situated  inside 
structural  voids,  including  57  inside  wall  voids  (Table  1).  The  first 
subterranean  V.  germanica  colony  was  discovered  in  1 980,  situated  among 
roots  of  ivy  adjacent  to  a  building;  an  additional  subterranean  nest  was 
found  in  1980  and  another  in  1981  (Table  1).  However,  subterranean 
nesting  became  readily  apparent  in  1982,  with  38%  ( 1 1/29)  in  such  sites  as 
in  lawns,  shrub  beds  and  in  soil  behind  retaining  walls. 


Vol.  95,  No.  1,  January  &  February,  1984 


Discussion  and  Implications 

The  rate  of  range  extension  of  the  German  yellowjacket  has  been  far  too 
rapid  to  be  explained  by  natural  dispersal  of  inseminated  queens.  Rapid 
dispersal,  initial  detection  of  V.  germanica  in  urban  areas,  and  the  presence 
of  isolated  populations  in  Idaho  and  Washington  suggest  the  major  mode  of 
dispersal  has  been  via  commerce.  However,  once  established  in  an  urban 
area,  natural  dispersal  by  queens  occurs,  for  we  have  discovered  an 
occasional  V.  germanica  colony  in  rural  homes  near  Lafayette,  Indiana  the 
past  two  years.  Thus,  while  most  problems  associated  with  the  German 
yellowjacket  occur  in  urban  areas,  dwellings  in  less  populated  areas  are  also 
subject  to  infestation. 

The  sudden  appearance  of  V.  germanica  on  the  west  coast  suggests  that 
this  species  may  be  discovered  in  other  disjunct  areas  in  the  near  future,  at 
least  in  the  northern  portion  of  the  United  States  and  Canada.  The 
continued  absence  of  V.  germanica  in  the  South  remains  unexplained,  but 
climatic  factors  may  be  responsible  (Keyel  1983). 

Subterranean  nesting  in  other  V.  germanica  populations  may  already 


HAWAII 


Fig.  1.  Distribution  of  V.  germanica  in  North  America  as  of  May  1983. 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


exist  (undocumented)  or  may  develop  in  the  future.  Accordingly,  we  should 
not  continue  to  rely  so  strongly  on  nest  site  as  a  criterion  for  diagnosis  of  V. 
germanica.  It  appears  our  early  characterization  of  the  German  yellowjacket  in 
North  America  as  an  exclusively  structural  nester  was  inaccurate. 

Table  1.  Nest  locations  of  Vespula  germanica  in  the  Lafayette,  Indiana  area  1977-82. 

NUMBER  OF  COLONIES 

Year         Subterranean          Structural Total 

Enclosed  voids3         Basements      Attics     Otherb 

1977  0  5  0005 

1978  0  11  0                  1              0            12 

1979  0  10  2                 1             0           13 

1980  2  8  2                 1              1            14 

1981  1  18  0                 1             0           20 

1982  11  17  0  1  0  29 

Totals  14C  69  4  5  1  93 

aMost  nests  inside  wall  voids;  4  above  drop  ceilings,  3  above  soffits,  3  inside  porch  voids,  1  in  a 
chimney  void. 

^Inside  a  wood  duck  house  suspended  in  a  tree  ca.  8m  above  ground. 
cFive  in  lawns,  7  in  shrub  beds,  2  in  soil  behind  retaining  walls. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Appreciation  is  extended  to  Ron  Mundell,  Purdue  University  Exterminator,  for  his  years 
of  cooperation  in  facilitating  research  on  social  wasps  on  the  Purdue  campus.  We  also  thank 
Byron  Reid  and  Donald  Ross  for  assistance  in  locating  many  of  the  yellowjacket  colonies.  S.  J. 
Collman,  A.  Antonelli,  and  A.  Stanford  provided  specimens  and  records  of  western  V. 
germanica. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Akre,  R.D.,  A.  Greene,  J.F.  MacDonald,  P.  Landholt,  and  H.G.  Davis.  1981.  The 
Yellowjackets  of  America  North  of  Mexico.  USDA  Agric.  Handbook  552,  102  pp. 

Dunn,  G.A.  1980.  The  introduced  yellowjacket  in  Michigan.  Entomol.  Soc.  Mich. 
Newsletter.  25:  1,3. 

Edwards,  R.  1976.  The  world  distribution  pattern  of  the  German  wasp,  Paravespula 
germanica  (Hymenoptera:  Vespidae).  Ent.  Germanica  3:  269-271. 

Keyel,  R.E.  1983.  Some  aspects  of  niche  relationships  among  yellowjackets  (Hymenoptera: 
Vespidae)  of  the  northeastern  United  States.  Ph.D.  Dissertation  thesis,  Cornell  University, 
Ithaca,  New  York,  161  pp. 

MacDonald,  J.F.,  R.D.  Akre,  and  R.E.  Keyel.  1980.  The  German  yellowjacket  ( Vespula 
germanica)  problem  in  the  United  States  (Hymenoptera:  Vespidae).  Bull.  Entomol.  Soc. 
Amer.  26:  436-42. 

Morse,  R.A.,  G.C.  Eickwort,  and  R.S.  Jacobson.  1977.  The  economic  status  of  an 
immigrant  yellowjacket,  Vespula  germanica  (Hymenoptera:  Vespidae),  in  the  north- 
eastern United  States.  Environ.  Entomol.  6:  109-1 10. 


Vol.  95,  No.  1,  January  &  February,  1984 


A  REVISED  KEY  TO  THE  IDIODONUS 

(HOMOPTERA:  CICADELLIDAE) 

OF  MEXICO  AND  BOLIVIA1 

Dwight  M.  DeLong2 

ABSTACT:  A  revised  key  is  presented  for  the  forty  described  species  of  Idiodonus  of 
Mexico  and  Bolivia.  Species  treated  are  2  described  by  Ball:  /.  wickhami  and  /.  schwartzi, 
and  38  described  by  DeLong:  /.  graeculus,  I.  costatus,  I.  rubellus,  I.  spatulatus,  I.  tubulus,  I. 
sexpunctatus,  I.  marginatus,  I.  albifrons,  I.  anademus,  I.  nigridens,  I.  apertus,  I.  beamerellus, 
I.  vinculatus,  I.  incisurus,  I.  caldwelli,  1.  pallidus,  I.  turpiter,  I.  albocinctus,  I.  bicinctus,  I. 
dampfi,  I.  acus,  I.  pravus,  I.  claustrus,  I.  verecundus,  I.  titulus,  I.  mexicanus,  I.  goodi,  I. 
copulus,  I.  latidens,  I.  incidus,  I.  nigifrons,  I.  insculptus,  I.  clastrus,  I.  edentulus,  I. 
excavatus,  I.  dicerus,  I.  bakeri,  and  /.  plummeri.  All  species  are  from  Mexico  except  /. 
costatus  which  is  from  Bolivia.  Illustrations  of  the  color  markings  on  the  head,  pronotum  and 
scutellum,  and  of  the  7th  sternum  of  the  females  are  included. 

The  genus  Idiodonus  was  described  by  Ball  (1936)  with  Jassus 
kennicotti  Uhler  designated  as  the  type  species.  DeLong  (1946)  described 
32  Mexican  species  of  Idiodonus  and  published  a  key  with  illustrations. 
Five  additional  Mexican  species  and  one  from  Bolivia  were  described  by 
DeLong  (1983).  Since  the  male  genital  structures  in  this  genus  are  of  little 
or  no  value,  the  color  patterns  and  9  genitalia  are  used  for  species 
identification  in  this  revised  key  to  the  species  of  Idiodonus.  Illustrations  of 
the  color  markings  on  the  head,  pronotum  and  scutellum  of  all  species  and 
the  female  7th  sternum  of  most  species  are  included.  Females  of  a  few 
species  are  not  known.  The  species  of  Idiodonus  in  Mexico  occur  normally 
on  perennial  plants  and  shrubs,  and  are  found  mostly  at  higher  altitudes, 
5000  to  12000  feet  elevation. 

Revised  Key  to  the  Species  of  Idiodonus   of  Mexico  and  Bolivia 

1 .  Crown  without  black  markings 2 

1 '  Crown  with  black  markings 3 

2(  1 )  Face  with  2  black  spots (Fig-  7)  graeculus  DeLong 

2'  Face  with  black  markings (Fig.  73)  costatus  DeLong 

3(  1 )  Crown  and  pronotum  with  small  punctate  spots  or  flecks  of  red 4 

3'  Crown  and  pronotum  without  reddish  coloration 5 

4(3)  Margin  of  crown,  only,  with  black  spots (Figs.  4,66)  rubellus  DeLong 

4'  Crown  and  pronotum  with  black  markings .  .  .  .  (Figs.  14,37)  wickhamiBM 

5(3')  Crown,  only,  with  black  markings 6 

5 '  Crown  with  black  markings  and  black  or  dark  ful vus  markings  on  pronotum  ....      20 

6(5)  Crown,  only,  with  black  rounded  spots 7 


Deceived  October  1,  1982.  Accepted  August  13,  1983. 

^Department  of  Entomology,  Ohio  State  University,  Columbus,  Ohio  43210. 

ENT.  NEWS  95(1):   9-15.  January  &  February,  1984 


10  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


6'  Crown  with  rounded  spots  in  combination  with  other  color  markings  or 

with  elongate  spots,  or  transverse  bands 11 

7(6)  Crown  with  round  black  spots  only  on  or  near  margin 8 

7'  Crown  with  2  black  spots  on  margin  and  2  distal  spots 10 

8(7)  Female  7th  sternum  with  spatulate  process (Figs.  1,  40)  spatulatus 

DeLong 

8'  Female  7th  sternum  not  spatulate 9 

9(8')          Female  7th  sternum  broadly  rounded,  produced (Figs.  5,  46) 

schwartzi  Ball 

9'  Female  7th  sternum  produced,  broadly,  shallowly  excavated  apically  . . . 

(Figs.  13,  55)  tubulus  DeLong 

10(7')        Margin  of  crown  with  2  large  elongate  spots  at  middle  and  a  small  spot  on 

margin,  close  to  each  eye (Figs.  69,  75)  sexpunctatus  DeLong 

10'  Margin  of  crown  with  a  series  of  fused  black  spots  (fig.  70)  marginatus 

Delong 

1 1(6')        Crown  with  rounded  spots  distal  to  margin 12 

11 '  Crown  with  elongate  markings  distal  to  margin 14 

12(1 1)       Basal  portion  of  crown  with  2  proximal  small  round  spots 

(Figs.  68,  74)  albifrons  DeLong 

12'  Crown  with  small  black  spots  close  to  each  eye 13 

13(12')      Female  7th  sternum  roundly  produced,  with  a  slight  V-shaped  notch  at 

apex (Figs.  6,  38)  anademus  DeLong 

13'  Female  7th  sternum  produced,  excavated  at  apex  and  bearing  a  small 

tooth  in  excavation (Figs.  15,  50)  nigridens  DeLong 

14(  11 ')      Margin  of  crown  with  4  rounded  spots  and  a  black  dash  spot  next  to  each     1 5 

eye 

14'  Without  a  small  dash  spot  next  to  each  eye 17 

15(14)       Female  7th  sternum  with  a  spatulate  process (Figs.  10,  42)  apertus 

DeLong 

15'  Female  7th  sternum  produced  and  rounded 16 

16(  15')      Female  7th  sternum  broadly  rounded  with  a  U-shaped  notch  1/3  length  of 

segment (Figs.  9,  43)  beamerellus  DeLong 

16'  Female  7th  sternum  more  produced,  with  a  slight  U-shaped  notch  at  apex 

(Figs.  2,  35)  vinculus  DeLong 

17(14')     Crown  with  a  narrow  black  band  just  above  margin (Figs.  1 1,  44) 

incisurus  DeLong 

17'  Crown  without  a  continuous  black  band 18 

18(17')      Distal  portion  of  crown  with  a  broken  blackband  . . .  .  (Figs.  3,45)  caldwelli 

DeLong 

18'  Distal  portion  of  crown  with  a  broken  black  band 19 

19(18')      Crown  with  4  dash  lines,  basal  angles  of  scutellum  black 

(Figs.  7 1 ,  76)  pallidus  DeLong 

19'  Crown  with  4  dash  lines,  basal  angles  of  scutellum  not  black 

(Figs.  24,  57)  turpiter  DeLong 

20(5')        Pronotum  with  white  transverse  band  between  fulvus  transverse  bands  .... 

(Figs.  17,  52)  albocinctus  DeLong 

20'  Pronotum  with  black  spots  or  bands 21 

21(20')      Pronotum  with  2  broad,  transverse,  black  bands 22 

21'  Pronotum  with  black  spots  or  only  1  transverse  black  band 24 

22(21 )       Pronotum  with  distal  band  on  apical  margin 25 

22'  Pronotum  with  distal  band  on  disc (Figs.  32,  63)  bicinctus  DeLong 


Vol.  95,  No.  1,  January  &  February,  1984 


11 


23(22)       Female  7th  sternum  with  posterior  margin  produced,  with  a  squarish  notch 

at  center (Figs.  25,  54)  dampfi  DeLong 

23'  Female  7th  sternum  with  posterior  margin  notched  at  apex  and  bearing  a 

small  tooth (Figs.  34,  67)  acus  DeLong 

24(21')      Pronotum  with  a  black  transverse  band  on  basal  margin 25 

24'  Pronotum  with  a  faint  line  or  spots 30 

25(24)      Apical  margin  of  pronotum  slightly  margined  with  black 26 

25'  Apical  margin  of  pronotum  not  margined  with  black 27 

26(25)       Female  7th  sternum  angularly  produced,  with  a  broad  U-shaped  notch  1/3 

length  of  segment (Figs.  22,  60)pravus  DeLong 

26'  Female  7th  sternum  broadly,  slightly  concave  with  a  slight  U-shaped 

notch ( Figs.  27,  51)  claustrus  DeLong 

27(25')      Crown  with  a  transverse  black  band 28 

27'  Crown  with  a  broken  transverse  black  band. . .  (Figs.  33,  58)  verecundus 

DeLong 

28(27)       Pronotum  with  irregular  dark  markings  on  disk (Figs.  23,  55) 

titulus  DeLong 

28'  Pronotum  without  irregular  dark  markings 29 

29(28')      Female  7th  sternum  produced,  with  a  shallow  squarish  excavation 

(Figs.  19,  48)  mexicanus  DeLong 

29'  Female  7th  sternum  roundly  produced,  with  a  slight  V-shaped  notch  at  apex 

(Figs.  20,  47)  goodi  DeLong 

30(24')      Pronotum  with  a  faint  transverse  line,  straight  or  irregular 31 

30'  Pronotum  with  black  spots  or  irregular  markings 33 

31(30)       Pronotum  with  2  incomplete  transverse  dark  lines (Figs.  8,  41) 

corpulus  DeLong 

31'  Pronotum  with  a  broken  line,  or  line  bent  cephalad  at  middle 32 

32(3 1 ')      Pronotum  bearing  a  broken  transverse  line (Figs.  30,  64) 

latidens  DeLong 

32'  Pronotum  with  a  transverse  line  bent  cephalad  at  middle (Figs.  12,39) 

incidus  DeLong 

33(30')      Pronotum  with  large  lateral  black  spots  next  to  eyes 

(Fig.  72)  nigrifrons  DeLong 

Pronotum  with  spots  along  basal  margin 34 

34(33')      Pronotum  with  a  row  black  spots  extending  almost  across  basal  margin  ....     35 

34'  Pronotum  with  black  spots  only  on  central  portion  of  pronotum 36 

35(34)       Pronotum  with  large  black  spots  and  transverse  black  bands  on  crown 

(Figs.  18,  53)  insculptus  DeLong 

35'  Pronotum  with  smaller  black  spots  and  one  broken  transverse  band  on 

crown (Figs.  14,  37)  wickhami  Ball 

36(34')      Crown  with  a  black  transverse  band  ....  (Figs.  21,56)  clathrus  DeLong 

36'  Crown  with  a  broken  band,  with  spots  or  dashes 37 

37(36')      Crown  with  rounded  black  spots  only 38 

Crown  with  elongate  or  squarish  spots 39 

38(37)       Scutellum  with  black  spots  at  apex. . . .  (Figs.  26,  59)  edentulus  DeLong 

Scutellum  with  black  spots (Figs.  16,  49)  excavatus  DeLong 

39(37')      Distal  portion  of  pronotum  margined  with  black (Figs.  28,61 )  diserus 

DeLong 

39'  Distal  portion  of  pronotum  without  black  margin 40 

40(  39')      Female  7th  sternum  slightly  notched  each  side  of  median  apical  tooth 

(Figs.  29,  36)  bakeri  DeLong 

40'  Female  7th  sternum  sloping  to  median  notched  tooth 

(Figs.  31,  65)  plummeri  DeLong 


12 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


SPATULATUS 


VI  NCUL.US 


C  A  LOWtLLI 


C  OPU  LU S 


BEAMERELLUS 


APE  RTUS 


I  N  CISU  R  U  S 


I  NC  I  0  U  S 


T  UBULUS 


W I C  KH AMI 


N  IGRI  DE  N  S 


tXC AVATUS 


ALBOC INCTUS 


INSCULPTUS 


Figs.  1-18,  Head,  pronotum,  species  of  Idiodonus,  as  labeled. 


Vol.  95,  No.  1,  January  &  February,  1984 


13 


C  L  AUSTR  US 


0  ISERUS 


B  AKE  Rl 


PLUMMCRI 


BICINCTUS  VERECUNDUS 


34V 


AC  US 


Figs.  19-34,  Head,  pronotum,  and  scutellum  of  species  of  Idiodonus,  as  labeled. 


14 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


/•     l 

C  OPULUS 
^— — ^ 


67 


AC  US 


Figs.  35-67,  Female  7th  sterna  of  species  of  Idiodonus,  as  labeled. 


Vol.  95,  No.  1,  January  &  February,  1984 


15 


71 


PALLIDUS 


NIGRIFRONS 


COSTATUS 


ALBIFRONS 


SEXPUNCTATUS 


PALLIDUS 


Figs.  68,  74.  /.  albifrons:  68.  head,  pronotum,  and  scutellum;  74.  female  7th  sternum.  Figs. 
69,  75.  /.  sexpunctatus:  69.  head,  pronotum,  and  scutellum;  75.  female  7th  sternum.  Fig.  70, 
/.  marginatus:  head,  pronotum,  and  scutellum.  Figs.  71,  76,  /.  pallidus:  71.  head, 
pronotum,  and  scutellum;  76.  female  7th  sternum.  Fig.  72.  /.  nigrifrons:  head,  pronotum,  and 
scutellum.  Fig.  73:  /.  costatus,  head,  pronotum,  and  scutellum. 


LITERATURE  CITED 

Ball,  E.D.  1936.  Some  New  Genera  of  Leafhoppers  Related  to  Thamnotettix.  Bull.  Brook. 

Entomol.  Soc.  31(2):   57-60. 
DeLong,  D.M.  1946.  The  Mexican  Species  of  Idiodonus(Homoptera:  Cicadellidae).  Ohio 

Jour.  Sci.  46(1):    13-30. 

1983.  New  Species  and  Distribution  Notes  of  Mexican  and  Bolivian  Idiodonus 

(Homoptera:   Cicadellidae).  Ent.  News  94(3):   89-92. 


16  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

A  NEW  SPECIES  OF  TROGLOPEDETES 

(COLLEMBOLA:  PARONELLIDAE)  FROM 

GUERRERO,  MEXICO1 

Margarita  Ojeda,  Jose  G.  Palacios-Vargas^ 

ABSTRACT:  Troglopedetes  oztotlicus  n.sp.  from  Juxtlahuaca  Caves,  Guerrero  State,  is 
described  and  differentiated  from  its  closest  relatives.  Fifteen  drawings  are  included. 

RESUMEN:  Se  describe  la  nueva  especie  Troglopedetes  oztotlicus  de  las  Grutas  de 
Juxtlahuaca,  Estado  de  Guerrero  se  diferencia  de  las  especies  mas  cercanas.  Se  proporcionan 
15  dibujos. 

In  America,  the  genus  Troglopedetes  has  been  found  only  in  caves  of 
the  Neotropical  Region  of  Mexico  and  in  Central  America,  and  in  leaf  litter 
in  South  America.  To  date  only  four  species  have  been  described.  T.  maya 
(Mills,  1938),  described  from  Yucatan  caves,  is  the  only  species  known 
from  Mexico,  although  there  must  be  more  undescribed  taxa  in  the  tropical 
areas  of  the  country.  T.  cfe/a  warn  Massoud  and  Gruia,  1973  was  described 
from  Cuba  and  cited  from  Dominican  Republic  by  Mari  Mutt  (1977).  T. 
/awotfe?  (Delamare-Duboutteville,  1 950)  occurs  in  the  French  Guinea  and 
T.  millsi(Ar\Q,  1939),  known  from  Brasil,  probably  belongs  to  Troglopedetina. 

The  new  species  described  below  was  reported  by  Palacios-Vargas 
(1982)  as  Troglopedetes  sp.  and  belongs  to  the  Neotropical  fauna  that 
probably  invaded  southern  habitats  of  Mexico  recently  (maybe  during  the 
Pleistocene)  after  the  formation  of  the  Eje  Neovolcanico,  which  now  is  a 
barrier  for  the  distribution  of  this  family.  In  Mexico,  the  genus  has  invaded 
various  caves  such  as  Grutas  de  Atoyac  in  Veracruz  State,  where  we  have 
found  a  different  undescribed  species. 

The  species  of  this  genus  are  remarkable  because  of  the  troglomorphism 
they  present,  e.g.,  lack  of  eyes  and  modifications  of  the  tibiotarsal  complex. 
There  also  must  be  some  physiological  adaptations,  because  of  the 
difficulties  of  rearing  these  animals  in  laboratory  conditions. 

Troglopedetes  oztotlicus  n.sp. 

Length  2-3  mm.  Without  eyes  or  trace  of  pigmentation  in  body  and  ocular  region.  Head 
and  body  covered  with  several  types  of  setae  and  trichobothria  (Fig.  1 ).  Scales  elliptical,  oval 
or  somewhat  lanceolate,  with  regular  longitudinal  striations  ( Fig.  2 ).  Dens  with  ciliated  spines. 

Ratio  diagonal  head:  antennae  (average  of  five  specimens)  =  1.0:3.0;  ratio  of  antennal 
segments  I: II:  III: IV  =  1:1.1:0.9:1.7.  Ant.  I  and  ant.  II  with  scales  and  setae,  the  basis  of  the 


Deceived  July  19,  1983.  Accepted  September  23,  1983. 

^Laboratorio  de  Acarologia,  Departamento  de  Biologia',  Facultad  de  Ciencias,  UNAM, 
045 10  Mexico,  D.F. 

ENT.  NEWS  95(1):   16-20.  January  &  February,  1984 


Vol.  95,  No.  1,  January  &  February.  1984 


17 


first  with  small  spinelike  setae.  Sense  organ  of  ant.  Ill  of  2  blunt  sensillae  and  2  guard  sensillae 
subequal  in  length  but  thinner  than  the  first  pair  (Fig.  3).  Ant.  Ill  has  several  sensillae  of 
various  lengths  and  numerous  ciliated  setae.  Ant.  IV  with  weak  tendency  to  annulated  and 
covered  by  ciliated  setae  and  sensillae  (Fig.  4). 


W(9) 


f i     ^»'  'i     ^fc  V', 

^1  w 

tSi       \^ 

"5.1       "?\ 
Vk     -A 


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5d: 


W> 


i    * 


"•^.i 

\''f'( 

~«i 


i?4 

1^,4, 

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. 


Figs.  1-5.   Troglopedetes  oztotlicus  n.sp.  1 .   Types  of  setae;  2.   Scales;  3.   Apex  of  Ant.  Ill; 
Apex  of  Ant.  IV;  5.  Dorsal  setal  pattern  of  head. 


18 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Head  with  two  dorsal  trichobothria,  setae  of  several  lengths,  scales  and  pores  (Fig.  5). 
Labrum  with  five  long  posterior  setae,  five  smaller  medium  setae  and  four  anterior  thicker 
setae  (Fig.  6).  Base  of  labium  with  setae  "r"  small  and  the  others  longer  and  ciliated  (Fig.  7), 
apex  of  labium  with  an  external  differentiated  setae. 


Figs.  6-10.    Troglopedetes  oztotlicus  n.sp.  6.   Setal  pattern  of  Labrum;  7.   Chaetotaxy  of 
Labium;  8.   Trochanter;  9.   Tibiotarsus;  10.   Abdominal  setal  pattern. 


Vol.  95,  No.  1,  January  &  February,  1984 


19 


Tenant  hair  apically  lanceolate,  short  and  thin.  Unguis  with  a  pair  of  minute  outer  teeth,  a 
pair  of  subequal  inner  teeth  in  the  middle  region  and  2  unpaired  inner  teeth,  1  median  and  1 
distal,  the  latter  much  smaller.  Unguliculus  lanceolate,  ventral  lamella  weakly  crenulate  (Fig. 
9).  Ratio  unguis:  unguiculus  =  1.0:0.6;  ratio  unguis:  tenent  hair  =  1.0:0.4.  Trochanteral 
organ  as  in  Figure  8. 

Abd.  I  without  trichobothria;  Abd,  II,  III,  and  IV  with  2,  3  and  2  pairs  of  trichobothria 
respectively  (Fig.  1 0).  Tenaculum  with  4+4  teeth  and  a  thick  setae  on  the  corpus,  which  often 


13 


,,, 

'   '      -A  *  •» 


Figs.   11-15.    Troglopedetes  oztotlicus  n.sp.   11.   Tenaculum;   12.   Collophore;   13.   Basal 
spines  of  dens;  14.   Distal  spines  of  dens;  15.   Mucro. 


20  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


appears  bifid  (Fig.  1 1).  Collophore  with  anterior  setae  much  longer  and  thicker  than  posterior 
ones  (Fig.  12).  Genital  region  with  many  thick  ciliated  setae. 

Manubrium  covered  with  setae  and  scales.  The  ventral  setae  thin  and  long  but  not 
differentiated.  Dens  with  2  rows  of  spines  (35-40  each  row).  Proximal  spines  thick  and  weakly 
ciliated  (Fig.  1 3),  distal  ones  larger  and  thoroughly  ciliated,  similar  to  setae  (Fig.  14).  Mucro 
with  4  teeth,  3  in  a  row  and  1  in  paramedial  position  (Fig.  15).  Ratio  dens:  mucro  =  1.0:0.06. 

Type  Locality:  Mexico,  Guerrero  State,  Grutas  de  Juxtlahuaca.  ex  soil  and  bat  guano.  1 1- 
FV-1981.  J.G.  Palacios  leg.  This  cave  is  in  the  Transitional  Region  between  the  Biotic 
Provinces  Guerrerense  and  Balsas  Inferior,  Neartic  and  Neotropical  regions  respectively 
(Smith,  1940). 

The  Holotype  and  5  paratypes  will  be  kept  in  the  second  authors'  collection  and  2 
paratypes  will  be  deposited  in  the  Museo  de  Historia  Natural  de  la  Ciudad  de  Mexico. 
Derivatio  nominis:  from  the  Nahuatl  oztotl  =  cave,  referring  to  the  habitat  of  this  species. 

DISCUSSION 

The  new  species  differ  from  T.  maya  (Mills,  1938)  by  its  smaller 
ungual  teeth  and  tenent  hair  and  by  the  shape  of  the  mucro,  Troplopedetes 
oztotlicus  differs  from  T.  delamarei (Massoud  and  Gruia,  1973)  in  having 
dental  spines  which  are  shorter,  thicker  and  less  ciliated,  and  in  the  length  of 
the  tenent  hair. 

Several  characters,  e.g.,  sensorial  organ  of  Ant.  Ill,  head  and  abdominal 
chaetotaxy,  number  and  shape  of  dental  spines,  if  included  in  the 
description  of  new  taxa,  could  be  of  assistance  both  in  differentiating 
species,  and  in  the  clarification  of  phylogenetic  relations. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The  authors  express  their  gratitude  to  the  following  collembologists  who  kindly  reviewed 
the  manuscript:  Dr.  Jose  A.  Man  Mutt,  University  of  Puerto  Rico  at  Mayaguez;  Dr.  Peter  F. 
Bellinger,  California  State  University  Northridge,  California;  and  Dr.  Kenneth  Christiansen, 
Grinnell  College,  Iowa. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Delamare-Debouteville,  C.  1950.  Deux  nouvelles  especes  de  Collemboles  du  mont  Nimba 

(Guine'e  francaise)  re'colte's  par  M.  Maxime  Lamotte.  Bull.  Soc.  Zool  Fr.,  75(  1 ):  43-45. 
Mari  Mutt,  J.A.,  1977.  Fifteen  New  Records  and  new  species  of  Collembola  from  the 

Dominican  Republic.  Florida  Ent.,  60(4):  281-286. 
Massoud,  Z.  et  M.  Gruia.  1973.  Collemboles  Arthropleones  de  Cuba  recoltes  en  1969  par  la 

mission  Cubano-Roumaine.  Res.  Exped.  biospeol.  Cubano-Roumanie  a  Cuba  1:  327- 

343. 

Mills,  H.B.  1938.  Collembola  from  Yucatan  Caves.  Carnegie  Inst.   Washington  Publ., 

491:   183-190. 
Palacios- Vargas,  J.G.  1982.  New  Records  of  Cave  Collembola  of  Mexico.  Ent.  News, 

93(4):   104-113. 
Smith,  H.  1940.  Las  provincias  bioticas  de  Mexico,  segun  la  distribucion  geografica  de  las 

lagartijas  del  ge'nero  Sceloporus.  An.  Esc.  nac.  Cien.  biol.  (Mexico),  2(1):   103-1 10. 


Vol.  95,  No.  1,  January  &  February,  1984  21 

HELOPICUS  RICKERI,  A  NEW  STONEFLY  FROM 
TENNESSEE  (PLECOPTERA:  PERLODIDAE)1 

Bill  P.  Stark2 

ABSTRACT:  Helopicus  rickeri,  n.  sp  is  described  from  a  single  male  collected  in  Tennessee 
(USA).  The  epiproct  is  atypical  of  other  Helopicus  in  bearing  spines,  but  the  absence  of  lateral 
stylets,  presence  of  transverse  meso  and  metasternal  pigment  bands  along  with  the 
mesosternal  groove  conformation  suggest  this  tentative  generic  placement. 

William  E.  Ricker  recently  sent  a  distinctive  periodic!  male,  which  he 
recognized  as  a  new  species  in  1965,  to  me  for  study.  As  he  noted  on  his 
determination  label,  this  specimen  "does  not  fit  any  present  subgenus"  but 
it  is  apparently  most  closely  allied  to  Helopicus  Ricker.  Since  Stark  and 
Ray  (1983)  gave  comparative  figures  of  the  known  Helopicus  species,  I 
take  this  opportunity  to  bring  a  remarkable  stonefly  to  the  attention  of 
aquatic  biologists.  Hopefully  this  description  will  promote  discovery  of  the 
nymph  and  female  and  subsequently  the  testing  of  this  generic  placement. 

Helopicus  rickeri  n.  sp. 

Male.  -  Macropterous.  Forewing  length  1 5  mm;  body  length  1 3  mm.  General  color  brown, 
patterned  with  yellow.  Wings  hyaline,  veins  brown.  Mesosternum  and  metasternum  with 
transverse  band,  interrupted  by  areas  of  lighter  pigment  lateral  to  midline.  Hemitergal  lobes 
broadly  rounded,  sparsely  covered  with  setae  and  sensilla  basiconica.  Dorsal  aspect  of 
epiproct  bulbous,  with  slender  recurved  tip;  dorsal  sclerite  tapered  throughout  length;  a  pair  of 
prominent,  posteriorly  directed  sclerotized  spines  located  lateral  to  dorsal  sclerite  in  apical 
third;  membranous  area  of  epiproct  covered  with  fine  short  setae.  Ventral  aspect  of  epiproct 
with  scoop-like  apex  (Figs.  1,  2). 

Mesosternal  grooves  typical  of  genus.  Submental  gills  present.  Lateral  stylets  absent. 

Types.-  Holotype  cf  (100976)  from  5.5  mi  Wof  Hartsville,  Trousdale  Co.,  TN,  USA,  28- 
III- 1965,  M.  Braasch,  deposited  at  the  United  States  National  Museum  of  Natural  History, 
Washington,  DC. 

Etymology.  I  take  great  pleasure  in  naming  this  species  for  Dr.  W.E.  Ricker  in  honor  of  his 
numerous  contributions  to  stonefly  systematics. 

Diagnosis.  -  This  species  is  distinguished  from  other  Helopicus  by  the 
presence  of  dorsal  sclerotized  spines  on  the  epiproct.  The  epiproct 
superfically  resembles  that  of  Hydroperla  crosbyi  (Needham  and  Claassen) 
in  lateral  aspect  (Stewart  and  Stark  1977;  Ray  and  Stark  1981)  but  these 
two  species  are  distinguished  by  the  absence  of  lateral  stylets  in  Helopicus 
rickeri. 


Deceived  June  30,  1983.  Accepted  July  30,  1983. 
2Dept.  of  Biology,  Mississippi  College,  Clinton,  MS  39058. 

ENT.  NEWS  95(1):   21-22.  January  &  February,  1984 


22 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


; ''/)%*•  I 
••')       -j&P  \ 

'  \   Sif1'-i'>!vi?C 


Figures  1-2.  Helopicus  rickeri,  male  genitalia.  1.  Terminalia,  lateral.  2.  Epiproct,  dorsal. 


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I  thank  William  E.  Ricker  for  his  gift  of  the  holotype  specimen.  Paul  Lago  and  S.W. 
Szczytko  provided  helpful  comments  during  review  of  the  manuscript. 


LITERATURE  CITED 

Ray,  D.H.  and  B.P.  Stark.  1981.  The  Nearctic  species  of  Hydroperla  (Plecoptera:  Perlodidae). 

Florida  Entomol.  64:  385-395. 
Stark,  B.P.  and  D.H.  Ray.  1983.  A  revision  of  the  genus  Helopicus  (Plecoptera:  Perlodidae). 

Freshwat.  Invertebr.  Biol.  2:   16-27. 
Stewart,  K.W.  and  B.P.  Stark.  1977.  Reproductive  system  and  mating  in  Hydroperla 

crosby i:  a  newly  discrovered  method  of  sperm  transfer  in  Insecta.  Oikos  24:  84-89. 


Vol.  95,  No.  1,  January  &  February,  1984  23 

A  NEW  MEXICAN  EPIDAMAEUS 
(ORIBATEI:  DAMAEIDAE)1 

Jose  G.  Palacios-Vargas^ 

ABSTRACT:   A  new  mite  species  in  the  genus  Epidamaeus,  inhabitating  leaf  litter  on 
Popocatepetl  volcano,  is  described. 

RESUMEN:  Se  describe  una  nueva  especie  de  acaro  del  genero  Epidamaeus,  habitante  de 
hojarasca  del  Volcan  Popocatepetl. 

The  family  Damaeidae  (sensu  Norton,  1979a)  is  almost  unknown  in 
Mexico;  only  one  species  (Belba  clavisensilld)  has  been  described  recently 
(Norton  and  Palacios-Vargas,  1982).  The  genus  Epidamaeus  includes 
about  30  known  species,  mainly  distributed  in  the  Palearctic  Region 
(Norton,  1979b).  Only  three  of  them  are  known  to  occur  in  South 
America  and  none  has  ever  been  described  or  recorded  from  Mexico;  the 
first  is  described  below. 

The  terminology  used  in  the  description  is  mostly  that  of  Grandjean 
(see  Trave  and  Vachon,  1975  for  many  references). 

Epidamaeus  mitlsensillus  n.sp. 

Dimensions.  Mean  ventral  length  of  five  specimens  68 1  jum  (range  652-740  jum);  mean  total 
length  746  jum  (range  7 1 0-796  jum);  mean  maximum  notogastral  width  429  jum  (range  403- 
460  urn). 

CerotegumenL  Body  and  legs  covered  with  a  layer  of  reticular  cerotegument  (Fig.  1). 

Prodorsum.  (Figs.  2,  3).  Relatively  narrow,  subtriangular.  Integument  smooth.  Dorsosejugal 
enantiophysis  (Da)  present;  without  discernible  postbotridial  enantiophysis.  Setae  le  finely 
barbulated;  ro  smooth  and  thinner;  in  relatively  short,  barbulated.  Sensillus  (ss)  smooth, 
long  (190  /xm),  not  tapering,  distal  end  expanded,  sagittate. 
All  setae  other  than  most  of  tarsi  and  venter,  and  sensillus  birefrigent  in  basal  3/4. 

Notogaster.  (Figs.  2,  3).  Slightly  ovate  viewed  perpendicular  to  circumgastric  suture;  about 
1.1  times  longer  than  broad.  Spinae  adnatae  (sa)  small.  Notogastral  setae  smooth, 
gradually  tapered,  with  dark  pigmentation  except  close  to  insertions.  Setae  C\  and  €2 
directed  anteriad,  others  directed  posteriad  ( except /w  setae).  Setae  decreasing  in  length  from 
C2  to  h\.  Row ps  more  or  less  parallel  to  circumgastric  suture; p$2  andpsj  much  smaller 
than  other  notogastral  setae  and  finely  attentuated.  Opistosomal  glands  and  lyrifissures 
normal  as  for  family.  Nynphal  exuviae  often  carried  by  adults. 

Ventral  region.  (Fig.  4).  Tubercles  E2p,  Va  and  Vp  well  developed.  Tubercles  Sa  and  Sp 
short,  difficult  to  see.  Numerical  formula  for  epimeral  setae  (I  to  IV)  3-1-3-4.  Discidium 
(di)  broadly  rounded.  Anogenital  region  typical  for  family. 

Legs.  (Figs.  5-9).  Porose  areas  on  trochanters  III  and  IV,  on  all  femora,  tibiae  and  tarsi.  Setal 
formulas  for  the  legs,  from  trochanter  to  tarsus  (famulus  included,  number  of  solenidia  in 


Deceived  April  6,  1983.  Accepted  August  22.  1983. 

^Laboratorio  de  Acarologia',  Departamento  de  Biologia,  Facultad  de  Ciencias,  UNAM. 
04510  Mexico,  D.F. 

ENT.  NEWS  95(1):  23-26.  January  &  February,  1984 


24 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


w 

-s^      J&t?w£c      1 


Figs.  1-4.  Epidamaeus  mitlsensillus  n.sp.  1,  cerotegument  between  setae  Cj;  2,  dorsal 
aspect;  3,  lateral  view;  4,  ventral  aspect. 


Vol.  95,  No.  1,  January  &  February,  1984 


25 


Figs.  5-9.  Legs  ofEpidamaeus  mitlsensillus  n.sp.  5,  femur  and  genua  I;  6,  tibia  and  tarsus  I;  7, 
trochanter  IV;  8,  femur  and  genua  IV;  9,  tibia  and  tarsus  IV. 


26  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


parentheses)  as  follows:  Leg  I,  1-7-4(1  )-4(2)-20(2);  leg  II,  l-6-4(l)-17(2);  leg  III,  2-4- 
3(1)-3(1)-17;  leg  IV,  l-4-3-3(l)-14. 

Ratio  of  the  length  of  legs  I:II:III:IV  =  1 :0.8: 1 .0: 1 .3.  Leg  IV  about  1 .2  times  ventral  body 
length.  Relative  length  of  leg  segments  as  follows:  Leg  I,  F:G:Ti:Ta  =  1:0. 3:0. 5: 1.1;  leg  II 
=  1:0.3:0.5:1.3;  leg  III,  Tr:F:G:Ti:Ta  =  1:1.3:0.6:1.0:2.2;  leg  IV  =  1:1.1:0.5:1.0:1.9. 

Derivatio  nominis:  from  the  Nahuatl:  mill  =  arrow  and  the  Latin  sensillum;  referring 
to  the  arrow-like  form  of  the  sensillus. 

Material  Examined:  Specimens  were  obtained  from  Pinus  hartwegii  litter  samples  from 
Popocatepetl  Volcano,  State  of  Mexico,  3,800  m  elevation,  5-IV-1982,  J.G.  Palacios-Vargas 
leg.  There  is  another  record  from  Sta.  Ana,  Milpa  Alta,  D.F.  ex.  leaf  litter,  D.  Chora  leg.  The 
holotype  and  two  paratypes  in  alcohol  are  deposited  in  the  Laboratorio  de  Acarologia, 
Facultad  de  Ciencias,  UN  AM,  Mexico.  Two  paratypes  in  alcohol  will  be  sent  to  each  of 
following  institutions:  Museo  de  Historia  Natural  de  la  Ciudad  de  Mexico,  Mexico,  D.F., 
College  of  Environmental  Science  and  Forestry,  Syracuse,  New  York;  Laboratory  of 
Acarology,  Columbus,  Ohio,  U.S.A. 

DISCUSSION 

The  new  species  here  described  is  similar  to  Epidamaeus  flagelloides 
Norton,  1 979  (Norton,  1 979c)  but  differs  in  the  type  of  cerotegument,  form 
of  setae  ps\ ,  sensillus,  notogastral  setae  and  enantiophyses.  The  new 
species  is  distinguishable  from  all  known  species  of  Epidamaeus  by  the 
reticulate  cerotegument  and  sagittate  sensillus. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The  author  expresses  his  gratitude  to  Dr.  Roy  A.  Norton,  State  University  of  New  York, 
College  of  Environmental  Science  and  Forestry,  Syracuse,  New  York,  USA,  for  his  advice 
and  comments  on  this  paper;  and  to  Dr.  Isabel  Bassols,  Laboratorio  de  Acarologia,  Escuela 
Nacional  de  Ciencias  Biologicas,  IPN,  Mexico,  who  kindly  reviewed  the  manuscript. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Norton,  R.A.  1979a.  Familial  concepts  in  the  Damaeoidea  as  indicated  by  preliminary 
phylogenetic  studies.  In:  Recent  Advances  in  Acarologv  (J.G.  RODRIGUEZ  ED.). 
Academic  Press,  Inc.,  NY.  USA:  529-533. 

.  1979b.  Aspects  of  the  biogeography  of  Damaeidae  sensu  lato  (Oribatei)  with 
emphasis  on  North  America.  In:  Recent  Advances  in  Acarologv  (J.G.  RODRIGUEZ 
ED.).  Academic  Press,  Inc.,  N.Y.  USA:  535-539. 

_.  1979c.  Damaeidae  (Acari:  Oribatei)  collected  by  the  Hungarian  Soil  Zoological 


Expedition  to  South  America.  Fol.  Ent.  Hungarica  52(1):  55-64. 

y  J.G.  Palacios-Vargas,  1982.  Nueva  Belba  (Oribatei:  Damaeidae)  de  musgos 


epifitos  de  Mexico.  Fol.  Ent.  Mex.   52:  61-73. 
Trave,  J.  and  M.  Vachon.  1975.  Francois  Grandjean,  1882-1975.  (Notice  biogeographique 
et  bibliographique).  Acarologia   17:   1-19. 


Vol.  95,  No.  1,  January  &  February,  1984  27 

NOTES  ON  DISTRIBUTION  OF  EVANIID  WASPS 
IN  WESTERN  NORTH  AMERICA 
(HYMENOPTERA:  EVANIIDAE)1 

Roy  R.  Snelling2 

ABSTRACT:  New  distribution  data  are  given  for  Evaniella  californica  (Ashmead)  and 
Hyptia  oblonga  Townes.  A  possible  host,  Parcoblatta  americana  (Scudder),  is  suggested  for 
E.  californica. 

Evaniid  wasps  are  parasitoids  in  the  oothecae  of  roaches  and  attain 
their  greatest  abundance  and  diversity  in  the  tropics  of  both  Old  and  New 
Worlds.  Proceeding  away  from  the  tropics,  these  unusual  wasps  become 
increasingly  less  common;  in  the  arid  lands  of  western  North  America  they 
are  decidedly  uncommon.  When  I  wrote  my  very  brief  paper  (Snelling, 
1963)  on  the  evaniids  of  California,  I  recorded  two  species,  known  from  a 
total  of  only  seven  specimens.  The  few  additional  specimens  recorded 
below  are  thus  of  some  interest. 

Evaniella  californica  (Ashmead,  1901) 

This  species  was  described  from  a  single  male  from  Sacramento 
County,  California.  Snelling  (1963)  recorded  additional  material  from 
Tuolumne  County,  California. 

Two  females  extend  the  range  of  E.  californica  south  to  Tulare  County. 
Both  were  collected  at  Kaweah  Powerhouse  Reservoir  No.  3,  at  Ash 
Mountain.  One  was  collected  on  3  July  1982  by  J.  Halstead  and  one  on  15 
August  1982  by  R.D.  Haines. 

On  23  June  1979  a  single  female  was  collected  by  R.R.  Snelling  and  P. 
Mehlhop,  about  5.8  mi.  NE  of  Chico,  Butte  County,  California,  on  the 
Cohasset  Highway,  elevation  475  feet.  The  specimen  was  taken  while  we 
were  excavating  a  nest  of  the  harvester  ant,  Veromessor  chicoensis  M. 
Smith,  and  was  removed  from  a  chamber  into  which  it  had  darted  when  first 
exposed;  the  chamber  was  at  a  depth  of  about  2.5  cm.  Within  the  upper 
chambers  of  this  nest  were  individuals  of  both  sexes  of  the  roach, 
Parcoblatta  americana  (Scudder).  This  roach  often  resides  within  nests  of 
V.  chicoensis  during  the  day  and  at  night  emerges  to  feed  on  debris  in  the 
chaff  pile  surrounding  the  nest.  Another  roach,  Ischnoptera  deropeltiformis 
(Bruner)  has  similar  habits;  both  species  were  found  associated  with  nests 
of  V.  chicoensis  and  V.  andrei(Mayr)  in  Butte  and  Tehama  Counties.  One, 


'Received  May  7,  1983.  Accepted  June  24,  1984. 

^Natural  History  Museum  of  Los  Angeles  County,  900  Exposition  Blvd.,  Los  Angeles, 
California  90007. 

ENT.  NEWS  95(1):  27-28.  January  &  February,  1984 


28  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

or  both,  of  these  roach  species  may  serve  as  host  for  the  parasitoid. 
Evaniella  neomexicana  (Ashmead,  1901) 

This  species  was  described  from  two  male  specimens  collected  at  Las 
Cruces,  New  Mexico.  Snelling  ( 1 963 )  recorded  a  third  male  from  Riverside 
County,  California.  Two  additional  specimens  are  now  available:  Icf,  5 
mi.  S.  of  Parker,  Yuma  County,  Arizona,  13  April  1965  (D.A.  Barstow);  1 
9,  Kane  Springs,  Imperial  County,  California,  22  April  1964  (R.L. 
Westcott).  According  to  Mr.  Westcott  (personal  communication),  the 
Kane  Springs  specimen  was  flying  through  a  clump  of  Ephedra  sp. 

The  female  differs  from  the  male  specimens  in  that  the  entire  body  is 
bright  ferruginous. 

Hyptia  oblonga  Townes,  1949 

Townes  (1949)  described  this  from  specimens  from  the  Huachuca 
Mountains,  Arizona  (type  locality)  and  from  Alabama  (Evergreen), 
Georgia  (Spring  Creek),  Mexico  (Cuernavaca)  and  Costa  Rica  (Suerre). 

Two  females  were  collected  at  La  Laguna,  5500-5675  feet  elevation, 
Sierra  de  la  Laguna,  Baja  California  Sur,  Mexico,  28  August  - 1  September 
1977  (R.R.  Snelling).  This  is  the  first  record  of  the  species  in  Lower 
California.  The  population  there  is  almost  certainly  isolated  from  that 
which  occurs  to  the  northeast  in  southern  Arizona.  Presumably  the  range 
was  continuous  during  the  Tertiary  when  most  or  all  of  the  intervening  area 
was  forested. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Ashmead,  W.H.  1901.  New  species  of  Evaniidae.  Canad.  Entomol.  33:  300-304. 

Snelling,  R.R.  1963.  The  evaniid  wasps  of  California  (Hymenoptera:  Evaniidae).  Pan- 
Pacific  Entomol.  39:  107-108. 

Townes,  H.  1949.  The  Nearctic  species  of  Evaniidae  (Hymenoptera).  Proc.  U.S.  Natl.  Mus. 
99:  525-539. 


Vol.  95,  No.  1,  January  &  February,  1984  29 

ANTS  (CREMATOGASTER  CLARA  MAYR) 

NESTING  IN  BIRD  BOXES 
(HYMENOPTERA:  FORMICIDAE)1 

Wayne  H.  Davis2,  William  C  McComb3,  Pierre  Allaire4 

ABSTRACT:  Ants  (Crematogaster  clara  Mayr)  occupied  bluebird  boxes  on  metal  posts 
posted  in  reclaimed  coal  mines.  Eggs,  larvae  and  pupae  were  found  covering  the  floor  of  one  of 
the  boxes. 

On  April  8,  1982,  we  established  50  stations  of  experimental  bluebird 
houses  on  reclaimed  surface  mines  of  Falcon  Coal  Co.,  near  Quicksand, 
Breathitt  Co.,  KY.  At  each  station  3  boxes  were  bolted  to  a  board  fastened 
between  two  standard  1.8  m  iron  fence  posts.  The  boxes,  made  of  planed, 
untreated  yellow-poplar  (Liriodendron  tulipferd),  had  inside  dimensions  of 
1 3  cm  x  1 3  cm  and  a  height  of  25  cm.  One  type  was  the  standard  bird  house 
with  a  circular  entrance  38  mm  in  diameter  located  20  mm  below  the  roof.  A 
second  type  had  the  front  panel  reaching  to  within  38  mm  of  the  roof  leaving 
an  entrance  space  of  38  x  1 30  mm.  The  third  type  had  a  similar  entrance  in 
the  roof  made  by  having  the  roof  come  within  38  mm  of  the  front  panel.  The 
roof  of  each  type  was  easily  removed  for  inspection.  Each  station  was 
visited  weekly  throughout  the  summer. 

Ants,  identified  as  Crematogaster  clara  Mayr  by  James  C.  Trager  and 
William  F.  Buren,  began  entering  the  boxes  by  May  15.  In  succeeding 
weeks  more  boxes  were  occupied  until  8  stations  finally  came  to  be  utilized 
by  ants.  The  ants  were  apparently  exploratory  swarms.  There  were  no 
crevices  or  cavities  in  the  wood  that  seemed  suitable  for  colonizing  by  ants. 
There  was  no  nesting  material  in  any  of  the  boxes  used  by  ants.  This 
exploratory  behavior  continued  through  the  next  month. 

On  July  1 5  ant  eggs  were  found  on  the  floor  in  3  of  the  boxes.  On  August 
3  the  entire  floor  of  one  box  was  covered  with  eggs,  larvae  and  pupae. 

The  3  box  types  varied  in  exposure  to  light  and  elements  with  the 
circular  entrance  type  having  the  least  exposure  and  the  top  entrance  type 
the  most.  Ants  preferred  the  most  sheltered  type,  but  at  3  stations  all  3  types 
were  occupied  and  ant  eggs  were  found  on  the  floor  in  both  the  circular 
entrance  and  the  front  slot  entrance  type. 

We  know  of  no  instances  of  ants  nesting  in  situations  such  as  we  have 
described.  Ants  that  nest  above  ground  generally  choose  crevices  with 


Deceived  March  14,  1983.  Accepted  August  4,  1983. 

2 School  of  Biological  Sciences,  University  of  Kentucky,  Lexington,  KY  40506 
-^Dept.  of  Forestry,  University  of  Kentucky,  Lexington,  KY  40546 
^Dept.  of  Science  &  Mathematics,  Lees  Junior  College,  Jackson,  KY  41339 
ENT.  NEWS  95(1):  29-30.  January  &  February,  1984 


30  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


small  openings  to  maintain  humidity  and  to  dampen  temperature  fluctuations 
(Sudd,  1967).  Solenopsis  sp.  and  Monomorim  minimum  (Buckley)  have 
been  reported  entering  bluebird  boxes  and  devouring  young  nestlings 
(Laskey,  1940;  Hurst  1980). 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We  thank  James  C.  Trager  and  William  F.  Buren  for  the  identification  of  the  ants,  and 
Paul  H.  Freytag  for  help  with  the  manuscript. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Hurst,  G.A  1980.  Possible  Predation  by  Ants  on  Nestlings  in  Nesting  Boxes.  Mississippi 

Kite  10(1):  3-4. 
Laskey,  AR.  1940.  The  1939  Nesting  Season  of  Bluebirds  at  Nashville,  Tennessee.  Wilson 

Bull.  52:    183-190. 
Sudd,  J.H.  1967.  An  introduction  to  the  Behavior  of  Ants.  Edward  Arnold  Publ.,  London. 

200  pp. 


SOCIETY  MEETING  OF  NOVEMBER  16,  1983 

The  second  meeting  of  the  1 98  3-84  year  was  held  on  Wednesday  evening  at  the  Academy 
of  Natural  Sciences,  Philadelphia.  Eleven  members  and  two  guests  heard  Joseph  M.  Harrison 
speak  on  "Mounting  Insects  in  Transparent  Media." 

Mr.  Harrison  described  the  history  of  transparent  mounts,  which  date  back  to  the  2-sided 
glass  "book  type"  mounts  of  Titian  Peale  (ca.  1 830),  the  popular  2-sided  glass  mounts  sold  on 
a  large  scale  by  the  Dentons  (ca.  1890-1925),  the  familiar  "Riker"  mounts,  and  finally,  his 
own  acrylic  mounts.  Many  examples  of  various  types  of  mounts  were  on  display,  and  samples 
were  passed  around  the  audience  for  examination.  The  "Harrison"  mounts  have  a  transparent 
1/8"  acrylic  top  and  bottom,  and  opaque  acrylic  sides,  and  provide  excellent  sample  visibility 
without  the  much  greater  weight  and  fragility  of  glass.  Polyure thane  foam  sheeting  provides  an 
attractive  backing  material,  but  discolors  if  exposed  to  sun  or  artificial  light  for  extended 
periods.  Cotton  batting  can  be  substituted  in  the  latter  situations.  Use  of  a  stainless  steel  pin 
through  the  insect's  body  during  the  spreading  process  allows  the  pin  to  be  more  easily 
removed  before  the  insect  in  placed  in  the  mount.  Injection  of  an  insecticide  solution  into  the 
insect's  body  is  recommended  to  prevent  future  dermestid  attacks. 

Numerous  practical  hints  on  field  methods  were  also  provided  by  Mr.  Harrison.  He 
prefers  lighter  fluid  as  a  killing  agent,  injected  hot  water  as  a  relaxant,  and  flea  collars  worn 
around  the  lower  pantlegs  as  a  tick  and  chigger  deterrant. 

Mrs.  Mildred  Morgan,  office  secretary  of  the  Society,  was  presented  with  an  attractive 
butterfly  mount  by  Mr.  Harrison  for  her  conscientious  service. 

Wm.  H.  Day 


Vol.  95,  No.  1,  January  &  February,  1984  31 

INDICATION  OF  MOUNTING  MEDIA 
INFORMATION12 

R.D.  Waltz,  W.P.  McCafTerty3 

ABSTRACT:  The  vast  array  of  mounting  media  currently  being  used  for  slide  mounts  of 
arthropods  makes  it  imperative  that  mounting  media  be  precisely  indicated  with  specimens 
and  in  publications.  Information  should  also  include  the  solvent  and  date  of  mounting.  Such 
information  is  necessary  for  specimen  study,  curation,  and  remounting,  and  is  especially 
important  for  type  specimens. 

The  recent  development  of  a  wide  variety  of  slide-mount  media  for 
arthropod  preservation  gives  rise  to  an  urgent  need  for  incorporating 
medium-related  data  in  the  preparation  and  designation  of  such  specimens 
(or  parts  thereof),  particularly  of  type  specimens.  Recommendations  for 
procedures  must  be  clearly  addressed  because  of  taxonomists'  increasing 
use  of  slide  mounted  and  embedded  materials. 

Prior  to  the  burgeoning  development  of  the  newer  media,  balsam  was 
used  in  most  slide  preparations.  Today  taxonomists  may  use  any  of  several 
acceptable  media  depending  on  requirements  of  the  particular  taxonomic 
group,  ease  of  use,  personal  preference,  and  other  criteria.  Frequently  a 
taxonomist  will  change  preferences  over  time,  thus  perhaps  using  many 
different  media  in  study  materials. 

The  taxonomist  must  also  vary  medium  usage  with  specimen  usage,  as 
media  will  variously  affect  specimens,  their  characteristics,  and  the  ability 
to  interpret  them.  For  example,  Hoyer's  or  some  other  medium  with  similar 
clearing  properties  and  compatibility  with  acids  or  bases  may  be  routinely 
used  by  a  particular  specialist  unless  permanent  storage  is  needed,  when  a 
longer-lived,  more  stable  medium  such  as  Euparal®  or  other  hydrophobic 
type  may  be  used  (cf/Wilkey,  1977).  Too  much  clearing  or  not  enough 
clearing  action  may  prevent  certain  characteristics  from  being  studied,  just 
as  a  refractive  index  near  that  of  chitin  may  prevent  clarity  of  setal  and 
surface  characteristics  (Christiansen  and  Bellinger,  1980;  Salmon,  1951 
and  1954). 

The  taxonomist  should  select  a  medium  carefully  and  indicate  the 
medium  used.  Without  such  information,  others  who  may  have  to  work  with 
the  specimens  in  the  future  may  not  be  able  to  interpret  effects  peculiar  to 
the  medium.  Such  information  is  also  necessary  for  dissolving  the  medium 
when  remounting  is  required,  and  an  appropriate  solvent  should  also  be 
indicated.  Remounting  is  undertaken  i)  so  that  characteristics  (often  newly 
discovered  ones)  may  be  examined,  ii)  as  part  of  long  term  slide  curation, 
iii)  for  improving  permanency,  or  iv)  for  collection  restoration. 

1  Received  April  21,  1983.  Accepted  August  12,  1983. 
^Purdue  Agricultural  Experiment  Station  Journal  No.  9429. 
•^Department  of  Entomology,  Purdue  University,  West  Lafayette,  IN  47907. 
ENT.  NEWS  95(1):  31-32.  January  &  February,  1984 


32  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Given  the  necessity  for  information  on  mounting  media,  we  make  the 
following  recommendations:  For  general  collections  of  slide  mounted 
material,  data  on  media  should  be  routinely  added  to  the  data  label.  This 
could  be  done,  for  example,  as  a  line  following  locality  and  collection  data 
that  would  denote  the  medium  used,  the  appropriate  solvent,  and  the  date  of 
preparation.  A  similar  practice  should  also  apply  to  embedded  parts 
associated  with  pinned  insects,  such  as  Coleoptera  genitalia  mounted  on 
clear  acetate  attached  to  the  pin  of  the  whole  specimen  (cf/Johnson,  1982; 
Smetana,  197 1).  Slides  bearing  type  specimens  or  parts  thereof  could  have 
any  important  information,  including  data  on  the  medium,  permanently 
etched  into  the  glass  in  addition  to  the  usual  label.  Important  information 
such  as  the  general  locale  (country,  state,  county),  mounting  medium, 
solvent,  and  date  of  preparation  could  be  appropriately  etched  under  one 
label  area,  and  type  status,  genus,  species  and  author  under  the  second  label 
area.  The  etching  could  reside  under  a  label  or  on  the  back  of  the  slide  and 
could  be  highlighted  with  ink. 

Data  on  mounting  media  should  also  be  available  in  taxonomic  reviews 
and  revisions,  and  especially  with  species  descriptions.  Whenever  type 
specimen  data  are  given,  data  on  mounting  media  should  be  included  as 
standard  procedure  if  embedded  or  slide  mounted  materials  are  involved. 
Certain  workers  have  recognized  the  importance  of  this  and  routinely 
publish  such  information  (e.g.,  Braasch,  1980;  Johnson,  1982;  Puthz, 
1974;  Smetana,  1971).  An  excellent  format  is  that  of  Puthz  (1974) 
including  both  the  medium  and  its  solvent:  (p.  916)  "Both  syntypes  have 
been  mounted  anew,  the  aedeagus  of  the  male  (internal  sac  everted) 
embedded  in  Euparal®  (soluable  in  ale.  abs.)  on  a  strip  of  celluloid."  We 
hope  all  taxonomists  will  adopt  these  recommendations  to  aid  curators  and 
future  researchers,  and  for  the  general  welfare  of  collection  resources. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Braasch,  D.  1980.  Baetidae  in  Mittelasien  II.  (Ephemeroptera).  Reichenbachia,  Mus.  Tierk. 

Dresden.  18:    147-152. 
Christiansen,  K.  and  P.  Bellinger.  1 980.  The  Collembola  of  North  America,  North  of  the  Rio 

Grande.  Part  I:  Introduction,  Families  Poduridae  and  Hypogastruridae.  Grinnell  College, 

Grinnell,  Iowa,  386  pp. 
Johnson,  C  1982.  An  introduction  to  the  Ptiliidae  (Coleoptera)  of  New  Zealand.  New  Zeal. 

J.  Zool.  9:  333-376. 
Puthz,  V.  1 974.  A  new  revision  of  the  Nearctic  Edaphus  -  species  and  remarks  on  other  North 

American  Euaesthetinae  (Coleoptera:   Staphylinidae).  Rev.  Suisse  Zool.  81:  91 1-932. 
Salmon,  J.T.  1 95 1 .  Polyvinyl  alcohol  as  a  mounting  medium  in  microscopy.  The  Microscope, 

March- April,  pp.  139-142. 

1954.  A  new  polyvinyl  alcohol  mounting  medium.  The  Microscope,  Sept.-Oct., 

pp.  66-67. 
Smetana,  A  1971.  Revision  of  the  tribe  Quediini  of  America  North  of  Mexico  (Coleoptera: 

Staphylinidae).  Mem.  Entomol.  Soc.  Canada  No.  79,  303  pp. 
Wilkey,  R.F.  1977.  How  to  make  professional  microslide  mounts  of  insects  and  other 

arthropods.  Arthropod  Slidemounts,  Inc.,  Bluffton,  Indiana,  4  pp. 


Vol.  95,  No.  1,  January  &  February,  1984 


33 


TWO  UNDESCRIBED  FOSSIL  DERMAPTERA 
FROM  FLORISSANT,  COLORADO1 

F.  Martin  Brown^ 

ABSTRACT:  Names  are  proposed  for  two  undescribed  Oligocene  Dermaptera  from  the 
shales  of  Florissant,  Colorado:  Labiduromma  scudderi,  n.sp.,  and  L.  gurneyi,  n.sp. 

While  preparing  a  revision  and  catalogue  of  fossil  Dermaptera  for  the 
"Natural  History  Inventory  of  Colorado,"  we  set  aside  several  specimens 
that  clearly  were  not  any  of  the  species  Scudder  had  described.  Since  no  one 
else  has  described  fossil  Dermaptera  from  the  Oligocene  in  North  America, 
these  specimens  represent  currently  unnamed  species.  The  specimens 
represent  two  distinct  species.  Both  appear  to  be  best  placed  at  this  time  in 
Scudder's  genus  Labiduromma  (Labiduridae).  One  of  the  species  falls  into 
the  avia  group  and  the  other  into  the  commixtum  group  of  that  genus. 


' 


Fig.  1.  Left:  holotype  Labiduromma  gurneyi.  n.sp.;  center:  holotype  L.  scudderi,  n.sp.; 
right:  paratype  L.  scudderi  n.sp. 

Labiduromma  scudderi,  n.sp. 

This  new  species  resembles  most  closely  labens  Scudder  of  the  avia  - 
group.  It  is  considerably  larger  than  labens,  and  the  cerci  are  quite  different 
from  the  threadlike  ones  of  that  species.  The  resemblance  lies  largely  in  the 
shape  of  the  abdomen. 


1  Received  July  30,  1983.  Accepted  September  1  1983. 

^Research  Associate,  University  of  Colorado  Museum,  Boulder,  CO  80309 


ENT.  NEWS  95(1):   33-34.  January  &  February,  1984 


34 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Holotype:  A  female,  with  counterpart,  UCM  numbers  29907  &  29908.  Collected  by 
Wilmatte  Porter  Cockerell  from  UCM  (Cockerell)  pit  13B,  probably  in  1908.  Total  length 
21.3  mm,  from  tip  of  mouth  parts  to  tip  of  cerci. 

Head:  stout  pear-shaped  (well  rounded  subtriangular),  2.3  mm  long  and  2. 3  mm  wide  at  eyes. 
Antennae:  visible  length  2.3  mm  with  only  4  countable  segments  in  view,  quite  incomplete. 

Basal  segment  very  stout,  0.9  x  0.5  mm. 
Pronotum:  trapezoidal;  posterior  margin  narrower  than  head,  anterior  margin  much  more  so. 

Length  1.0  mm,  anterior  width  1.3  mm,  posterior  width  1.5  mm. 
Tegmina:  partly  opened,  each  legmen  probably  1 .65  mm  wide;  when  closed  probably  nearly 

"square"  in  appearance;  distal  margin  rounded.  Length  3.4  mm. 
Legs:  poorly  preserved.  Leg  1:  femur  2.2  x  0.5  mm,  possibly  includes  some  of  tibia,  tarsus 

3.3  x  0.2  mm;  Leg  2:  femur  1 .8  x  0.7  mm;  Leg  3:  femur  2.2  x  0.8  mm,  tibia  2. 1  x  0.4  mm, 

tarsus  1.8  mm  -  incomplete,  possibly  as  much  as  4.5  x  0.2  mm. 
Abdomen:  six  well  defined  segments;  parallel  sided  to  segment  4.  Dorsal  outline  presents  a 

semi-circular  curve  to  terminate  abdomen.  Width  3.6  mm. 
Note:  The   abdomen  is  not  part  extended  as  in  most  fossils  but  so  compressed 

longitudinally  that  the  heavy  chitinous  tergites  are  in  contact  throughout  showing  none  of 

the  delicate  anterior  and  posterior  margins  of  the  segments.  This  has  had  a  notable  effect  on 

the  total  length. 

Pygidium:  prominent;  a  bluntly  rounded  triangular  structure. 
Forceps:  basal  half  straight,  distal  half  increasingly  curved  to  tips.  Length  5.7  mm,  basal 

width  0.8  mm,  midway  width  0.5  mm,  width  near  tip  0.3  mm.  Forceps  are  33.3%  of  total 

body  length,  or,  to  use  Scudder's  method,  50%  of  body  length,  omitting  the  forceps. 

Named  for  Samuel  Hubbard  Scudder,  the  father  of  American  studies  of 
fossil  insects  and  especially  those  of  the  Eocene  and  Oligocene  of 
Colorado.  His  "Tertiary  Insects  of  North  America"  (1890)  is  the  basic 
work  on  the  topic. 


Fig.  2.  Labiduromma  scudderi,  n.sp.  Left:  head  and  pronotum;  center:  positions  of  legs; 
right:  forceps  and  pygidium.  Bar  scale  is  in  millimeters. 

Labiduromma  guerneyi,  n.sp. 

The  structures  of  cerci  and  pygidium  of  this  species  resemble  those  of 
commixtum  Scudder,  thus  placing  the  insect  in  the  commixtum  -  group  and 
differing  from  all  other  Oligocene  fossil  earwings  of  North  America.  The 
new  species  is  much  larger  than  commixtum  with  proportionally  larger 
forceps. 


Vol.  95,  No.  1,  January  &  February,  1984 


35 


Holotype:  a  male,  UCM  number  29902,  collected  by  Wilmatte  Porter  Cockerell  in  UCM 
(Cockerell)  pit  13B,  probably  in  1908.  Total  length  from  tip  of  mouth  parts  to  tip  of  forceps, 
27.3  mm. 
Head:  broadly  triangular  with  apices.  Eyes  large  but  probably  not  holoptic.  Palpi  and 

mandibles  well  defined.  Length  2.5  mm,  width  2.3  mm. 
Antennae:  only  4  mm  of  length  visible.  Basal  joint  swollen,  0.4  xO.4  mm,  second  joint  0.5  5  x 

0.25  mm,  other  too  vague  to  count  or  measure. 

Pronotum:  quadrilateral,  1.8  mm  long,  1.9  mm  wide,  corners  rounded. 
Tegmina:  not  well  defined,  partly  open,  posterior  margin  almost  straight.  Length  3.0  mm, 

anterior  width  2.7  mm,  posterior  3.9  mm. 
Legs:  Legl:  femur  1.7  x  0.8  mm,  tibia  incomplete  1.0+  x  0.3  mm;  Leg  2:  femur  2. 3x0. 7 

mm,  tibia  2.0  x  0.4  mm  and  slightly  curved,  tarsus  incomplete  with  basitarsus  subchordate; 

Leg  3:  femur  2. 8  xO.75  mm,  tibia  incomplete  0.4  mm  wide.  Leg  2  closer  to  leg  1  than  to  leg 

3. 
Abdomen:  long  and  slender  which  may  be  an  artifact  of  fossilization:  parallel  sided,  last 

segment  appears  much  longer  than  any  other  and  slightly  tapered  to  very  shallowly  convex 

posterior  margin.  This  is  a  ventral  aspect  so  segments  II  through  X  can  be  seen. 
Pygidium:  broad  and  bluntly  rounded.  Base  44%  the  width  of  visible  hind  margin  of  last 

abdominal  segment. 
Forceps:  long,  moderately  stout,  gently  curved  throughout  giving  a  "bow-legged"  appearance. 

Near  the  base  on  inner  side  is  a  large,  strong  tooth  that  embraces  the  pygidium.  This  tooth 

on  both  cerci  almost  encircles  that  structure.  Length  6.9  mm,  width  at  base  0.8  mm  (across 

bases  of  the  two  cerci  2.6  mm);  tooth  width  1.1  mm,  midway  width  0.8  mm.  Forceps 

constitute  25.3%  of  total  length.  Using  Scudder's  method,  forceps  are  34%  of  the  body 

length,  omitting  the  forceps. 

Paratypes:  AMNH:  no.  18912,  a  male,  collected  by  S.A.  Rohwer  in  UCM  (Cockerell)  pit 
14  in  1907. 

UCM:  nos.  29900  &  29901,  counterparts,  a  female  with  no  specific  pit  number  or 
collector's  initial;  no.  29935,  a  male  in  ventral  aspect,  collected  by  Wilmatte  P.  Cockerell  in 
pit  number  1 3B  in  1 908;  no.  29936,  forceps  only,  counterparts,  probably  female,  collected  by 
Harry  McGinite  at  University  of  California  pit  3736  in  1937;  no.  29957,  probably  female, 
with  no  indication  of  pit  number  or  collector's  initial. 

The  species  is  named  for  Dr.  Ashley  B.  Gurney,  United  States 
National  Museum,  the  leading  American  student  of  the  order  Dermaptera. 


Fig.  3.    Labiduromma  gurneyi,  n.sp.  Left:   head  and  pronotum;  center:   positions  of  legs; 
right:   forceps  and  pygidium.  Bar  scale  is  in  millimeters. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Scudder,  Samuel  H.  1890.  The  Tertiary  Insects  of  North  America.  Report  of  the  United 
States  Geological  Survey  of  the  Territories.  F.V.  Hayden.  Vol.  XIII.  Washington,  D.C. 


36  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

DOES  THE  OLD  WORLD  FAMILY 

PLATASPIDAE  (HEMIPTERA)  OCCUR 

IN  NORTH  AMERICA?1 

Richard  C.  Froeschner^ 
Evidence  of  two  sorts  leads  to  the  posing  of  this  question. 

First:  In  the  national  insect  collection  at  the  Smithsonian  Institution 
are  three  females  of  the  Asian  (India  through  Burma  into  Malaysia)  species 
Coptosoma  duodecimpunctatum  (Germar)  hand-labeled  "Alaska.  40  yds 
E.  of  Kerai  Lake  Lodge,  near  Sterling  Bay,  VIM  1-1954,  R.  Coleman."  If 
this  label  is  correct  the  exactness  of  the  locality  should  enable  interested 
persons  in  that  area  to  concentrate  collecting  efforts  to  verify  its  presence 
there. 

Coptosoma  duodecimpunctatum  would  be  easily  recognized  among 
North  American  Heteroptera:  5.9-7  mm  in  length;  broadly  rounded, 
appearing  nearly  as  wide  as  long;  scutellum  much  enlarged,  almost  reaching 
sides  and  apex  of  abdomen;  dorsum  shining  black  with  8  reddish-yellow 
elongate  spots  on  pronotum  and  4  similarly  colored  spots  in  a  row  across 
base  of  scutellum. 

Second:  In  Catalogus  Insectorum  Sinensium,  pages  256-257,  Wu 
(1935)  listed  Coptosoma  biguttulum  Motschulsky  from  China,  Japan, 
Korea  and  "America."  Review  of  the  reference  listed  by  Wu  and  in  works 
by  other  authors  found  no  source  for  this  "America"  record.  Perhaps 
"America"  was  an  improper  copy  of  "Amuria"  listed  by  Oshanin  (1906, 
Verz.  Palaeark.  Hemip.,  1:3). 

Until  fresh  records  support  these  occurrences,  probably  neither  species 
should  be  considered  a  member  of  the  North  American  fauna. 


1  Received  and  accepted  November  26,  1983. 

^National  Museum  of  Natural  History,  Washington,  D.C.  20560. 


ENT.  NEWS  95(1):  36.  January  &  February,  1984 


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VOL  9E 


US  ISSN  0013-872X 
MARCH  &  APRIL  1984  No.  2 


MOLOGICAL  NEWS 


New  species  of  Rhyacophila  group  (Trichoptera: 

Rhyacophilidae)  S.D.  Smith,  J.S.  Weaver,  III  37 

Description  of  last  nymphal  instar  of  Xestocephalus 

ancorifer  (Homoptera:  Cicadellidae)  Paul  S.  Cwikla   40 

Megastigmus  spermotrophus  (Hymenoptera:  Chalcidoidea), 
Douglas  Fir  chalcid,  found  in  New  York  State 

C.E.  Palm,  Jr.,  L.P.  Abrahamson   43 


New  habitat  records  for  Glenanthe  species 
(Diptera:  Ephydridae) 


B.A.  Steinly  45 


Nest  defense  by  social  wasps  Polistes  exclamans  & 
P.  instabilis  (Hymenoptera:  Vespidae)  against  the 
parasitoid  Elasmus  polistis  (Hymenoptera: 
Eulophidae)          G.  G.  Lutz,  J.E.  Strassmann,  C.R.  Hughes  47 


Host  plant  records  for  North  American  ragweed 
flies  (Diptera:  Tephritidae) 


B.A.  Foote   51 


A  spate  of  glowworms  (Coleoptera:  Phenogodidae) 

Steven  R.  Wing   55 

A  simplified  holder  for  eumenid  nesting  blocks 

(Hymenoptera:  Eumenidae)         J.A.  Collins,  D.T.  Jennings   58 


An  inexpensive  carrion  beetle  trap  (Coleoptera: 
Silphidae) 


Paul  P.  Shubeck  63 


Mass  rearing  method  for  large  milkweed  bug  Oncopeltus 
fasciatus  (Hemiptera:   Lygaeidae) 

K.P.  Koerper,  C.D.  Jorgensen   65 

|  A  method  of  storing  insect  genitalia  for  taxonomic 

study  J.E.  O'Hara,  M.G.  Mclntyre   70 


ANNOUNCEMENTS 
BOOK  REVIEW 


39,  44,  46,  50,  54,  57,  62,  69 

42 


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Vol.  95,  No.  2,  March  &  April  1984 

A  NEW  SPECIES  OF  THE  RHYACOPHILA 

BRUNNEA  GROUP  (TRICHOPTERA: 

RH  YACOPHILIDAE) ' 

S.D.  Smith2,  J.S.  Weaver,  IIj3 

ABSTRACT:  Rhyacophila  starki,  new  species  of  the  Rhyacophila  brunnea  species  group, 
from  Oregon  and  northern  California,  is  described  and  figured.  Adults  of/?,  starki  are  similar 
to  those  of  R.  inculta.  However,  R.  starki  is  unique  with  male  in  lateral  view  having 
posterodorsal  margin  of  abdominal  segment  IX  shaped  like  a  human  face  in  profile,  with  a 
short  "nose"  (a  transverse  posterodorsal  ridge)  extending  over  the  base  of  segment  X  and  with 
female  having  posterior  of  abdominal  segment  IX  bearing  a  pair  of  ventrolateral  keel-like 
ridges. 

Recent  examinations  of  caddisfly  collections  from  Oregon  and 
California  revealed  a  previously  unknown  species  of  Rhyaophila.  This 
species  is  included  in  the  Rhyacophila  bninnea  group  (==  R.  acropedes 
group,  sensu  Schmid  1970)  cf.  Smith  and  Manuel  (1984).  This  brings  the 
total  number  of  Nearctic  species  in  the  R.  brunnea  group  to  7,  including/?. 
brunnea  Banks,  R.  grandis  Banks,  R.  inculta  Ross  and  Spencer,  R. 
neograndis  Denning,  R.  sequoia  Denning,  R.  starki  Smith  and  Weaver, 
and  R.  vao  Milne. 

Rhyacophila  starki,  new  species 
figures  1,  2,  3 

This  species  appears  to  be  most  closely  related  to  R.  inculta  Ross  and 
Spencer  (1952).  However,  R.  starki  is  unique,  with  male  in  lateral  view 
having  posterodorsal  margin  of  segment  IX  shaped  like  a  human  face  in 
profile,  bearing  a  short  pointed  "nose"  (a  short  transverse  ridge)  just  above 
segment  X,  and  inferior  appendages  each  with  2nd  article  unlike  those  of 
related  species,  neither  foot  shaped  nor  with  dorsal  margin  greatly  incised; 
females  distinguished  by  having  posterior  of  segment  IX  with  short 
ventrolateral  keel-like  ridges. 

MALE  (fig.  1 ):  Length  1 2  mm.  Head  and  thorax  dark  brown  to  black;  wings  same  color, 
irrorate;  legs  and  abdominal  sclerites  brown.  Genitalia  having  abdominal  segment  IX  in 
lateral  view  (fig.  1  A),  with  dorsum  about  1.5  times  longer  than  pleuron  and  posterior  margin  in 
lateral  view  shaped  like  human  face  in  profile,  just  above  base  of  segment  X;  abdominal 
segment  X  in  lateral  view  somewhat  rectangular,  length  about  2  times  its  height,  in  dorsal  view 
(fig.  1  B)  divided  into  pair  of  wide  elongate  lobes  with  apices  each  bearing  shallow  notch,  about 
3  times  as  long  as  basal  width;  inferior  appendages  in  lateral  view  (fig.  1  A)  similar  to  those  of 

'Received  November  30,  1983.  Accepted  February  14,  1984. 

2Dept.  of  Biological  Sciences,  Central  Washington  University.  Ellensburg.  WA  98926. 

^Dept.  of  Entomology,  Fisheries  and  Wildlife,  Clemson  University,  Clemson,  SC  29631. 

ENT.  NEWS  95(2)  37-39  March  &  April  1984 


38 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


R.  inculta,  but  each  with  1st  article  elongate,  not  sharply  constricted,  widest  at  base,  ventral 
margin  concave,  and  with  2nd  article  somewhat  acuminate,  apex  blunt,  dorsal  margin  not 
greatly  incised,  apical  half  of  mesal  surface  spinose;  phallic  apparatus  typical  of  bnumea 
group,  lateral  arms  membranous,  extensive,  apices  spinose. 

FEMALE  (figs.  2,  3):  Length  14  mm,  with  similar  coloration  as  in  male.  Genitalia  with 
posterior  of  abdominal  segment  IX  in  lateral  view  (fig.  2A)  bearing  ventrolateral,  keel-like 


1A 


2A 


1B 


Figures  1-3  Rhyacophila  starki.  1 .  Male  genitalia;  A.  lateral  view;  B.  dorsal  view.  2.  Female 
abdominal  segment  IX;  A.  lateral  view;  B.  dorsal  view.  3.   Female  vaginal  apparatus,  ventral 


view. 


Vol.  95,  No.  2,  March  &  April  1984  39 


ridges,  in  dorsal  view  (fig.  2B)  posterior  margin  having  wide,  irregular,  W-shaped  emargination 
with  short  mid-dorsal,  curved  flange.  Vaginal  apparatus  (fig.  3)  similar  to  those  of  R.  inculta, 
having  2  pairs  of  elongate,  acuminate  arms  and  shorter  ovate  central  process  about  2  times  as 
long  as  wide. 

Material  Examined 

HOLOTYPE:  Male,  Oregon,  Jackson  Co.,  1  mile  north  of  Wrangle  Camp,  Rogue  River 
National  Forest,  8  July  1979,  W.P.  Stark  &K.W.  Stewart;  deposited  in  California  Academy 
of  Sciences,  §an  Francisco,  CA. 

ALLOTYPE:  Female,  same  data  as  holotype. 

PARATYPE:  Male,  California,  Del  Norte  Co.,  seeps.  Smith  River  Canyon,  U.S.  Hwy. 
1 99,  1 8  March  1 972,  R.A.  Haick  &  D.S.  Potter;  deposited  in  collection  of  Dr.  D.G.  Denning. 
Moraga,  CA. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We  are  grateful  to  Drs.  D.G.  Denning  and  W.P.  Stark  who  made  the  caddisfly  material 
available  to  us  for  examination  which  included  this  new  species. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Ross,  H.H.  and  G.J.  Spencer.  1952.  A  preliminary  list  of  Trichoptera  of  British  Columbia. 

Proc.  Entomol.  Soc.  British  Columbia,  48:  43-51. 
Schmid,  F.  1970.  Le  genre  Rhvacophila  et  la  famille  des  Rhyacophilidae  (Trichoptera). 

Mem.  Entomol.  Soc.  Can.,  66:    1-230. 
Smith,  S.D.  and  K.L.  Manuel.  1984  (in  press).  Reconsideration  of  the  Rhvacophila 

acropedes  group  based  on  adults  (Trichoptera:   Rhyacophilidae).  In  J.C.  Morse,  ed., 

Proc.  4th  Int.  Symp.  on  Trichoptera,  Junk,  The  Hague. 


ELM  RESEARCH  INSTITUTE  TO  AWARD  FIRST  ANNUAL 
PRIZE  FOR  DUTCH  ELM  DISEASE  CONTROL 

In  an  effort  to  develop  new  controls  for  Dutch  elm  disease.  Elm  Research  Institute, 
Harrisville,  NH  has  announced  its  first  annual  research  prize  of  $10,000. 

The  prize  to  be  announced  via  national  media,  will  go  to  the  entry  which  best  outlines  a 
research  program  that  will  ultimately  lead  to  development  of  a  new  systemic  repellent  for  the 
elm  bark  beetle. 

All  proposals  will  be  judged  on  the  basis  of: 

1.  Water  solubility  for  systemic  injection 

2.  Phytotoxicity 

3.  Beetle  deterence  at  point  of  feeding 

4.  Chemical  stability  of  the  repellent 

5.  Bio-assay  technique  for  tracing  distribution 

ERI  stresses  that  this  is  not  a  research  grant.  It  is  an  award  for  originality  in  the 
presentation  of  new  concepts,  new  methods  of  achieving  repellency  through  systemic 
treatment. 

Prizes  will  be  awarded  as  follows:  $5,000.  first  place,  $3.000.  second.  $2.000.  third. 
Judging  will  be  by  a  panel  of  recognized  experts  composed  of  entomologists  and  plant 
pathologists.  All  entries  should  be  mailed  to  Elm  Research  Institute.  Harrisville,  NH  03450 
by  May  1st,  1984  and  will  become  the  property  of  the  Institute. 

For  further  information  call  (603)  827-3048. 


40  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

DESCRIPTION  OF  LAST  NYMPHAL  INSTAR  OF 
XESTOCEPHALUS  ANCORIFER  (HOMOPTERA: 

CICADELLIDAE)1 

Paul  S.  Cwikla2 

ABSTRACT:  The  last  instar  nymph  ofXestocephalus  ancorifer  Linnavuori  is  described  and 
the  pharate  adult  is  illustrated. 

No  nymphal  stage  of  any  member  of  the  leafhopper  genus  Xestocephalus 
Van  Duzee  has  ever  been  described.  Through  the  kindness  of  Dr.  James  P. 
Kramer,  U.S.  National  Museum,  I  have  been  able  to  examine  2  male 
specimens  of  Xestocephalus,  one  of  which  is  a  teneral  adult  still  attached  to 
the  exuviae  and  a  pharate  adult  which  shares  the  same  size  and  characteristics  as 
the  exuviae.  The  adult  is  identified  as  X.  ancorifer  Linnavuori,  1959. 

X.  ancorifer  ranges  from  Panama  south  to  Paraguay  (Linnavuori, 
1959).  The  biology  of  the  genus  is  poorly  known.  Oman  (1949)  suspects 
that  the  nymphs  of  Xestocephalus  live  in  ground  litter  or  other  subterranean 
habitats.  In  addition,  Oman  ( 1 949)  speculates  that  the  nymphs  may  also  be 
myrmecophilous  because  the  closely  related  genus  Myrmecophryne  Kirkaldy 
has  been  collected  in  ants'  nests.  This  is  supported  by  Hamilton  ( 1 975 )  who 
sifted  a  species  of  Xestocephalus  from  topsoil  which  also  contained  ants. 

This  paper  describes  and  illustrates  the  last  instar  nymph  of  X. 
ancorifer.  It  is  hoped  that  the  description  and  illustration  will  aid  in  future 
identifications  of  immature  Xestocephalus  species.  The  collection  data  for 
the  specimens  used  in  this  study  are:  Brazil,  Bahia,  Itabuna,  July  1971, 
T.A.  Winder,  in  cacao  leaf  litter.  The  specimens  are  deposited  in  the  U.S. 
National  Museum. 

Description  of  Last  Instar  Nymph 

Length:  3.2  mm.,  width  of  pronotum  -  0.9  mm. 

Form:  Elongate,  stout  dorsoventrally,  widest  at  wingpads.  Head  rounded  anteriorly  in 
lateral  view,  antennal  pits  not  well  developed,  beak  3-segmented,  extending  to  mesosternum, 
crown  and  clypeus  roughened  by  tuberculi  bearing  small  setae,  surface  of  clypellus,  lora  and 

gena  smooth.  Pronotum  asperate,  trapezoidal  in  dorsal  view,  episternum  triangular,  coxa  of 
prothoracic  leg  about  2/3  that  of  femur,  tibia  with  single  row  of  spines  on  dorsal  margin, 
tarsomeres  of  prothoracic  legs  2-segmented.  Dorsum  of  mesonotum  asperate,  mesonotal 
wingpad  almost  as  long  as  metanotal  wingpad,  episternum  not  divided  as  in  the  adult,  coxa  2 
smaller  than  coxa  1 ,  rest  of  mesothoracic  leg  like  prothoracic  leg.  Dorsum  of  metanotum 
asperate,  wingpad  extending  to  anterior  margin  of  third  abdominal  tergite,  metathoracic  femur 
laterally  flattened,  tibia  with  2  rows  of  spines  on  dorsal  and  ventral  sides,  apex  of  tibia  ringed 

Deceived  October  21,  1983.  Accepted  February  14,  1984. 

2Department  of  Entomology,  1735  Neil  Avenue,  The  Ohio  State  University,  Columbus, 
Ohio,  43210. 

ENT.  NEWS  95(2)  40-42  March  &  April  1984 


Vol.  95,  No.  2,  March  &  April  1984 


41 


with  setae,  tarsomeres  3-segmented.  Abdomen  8-segmented,  ninth  segment  forms  the  genital 
capsule,  posterior  margin  of  abdominal  tergites  with  row  of  setae,  small  setae  occasionally 
scattered  on  surface  of  tergites. 

Coloration:  Dorsum  rust  brown,  ventral  surface  of  abdomen  and  thorax  pale  yellow,  legs 
in  dorsal  view  light  brown. 


Fig.  1 .   Habitus  of  the  pharate  adult  of  Xestocephalus  ancorifer  showing  last  nymphal  instar 
characteristics. 


42  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


ACKNOWLEGMENTS 

I  thank  Dwight  M.  DeLong  and  Charles  A.  Triplehorn,  Department  of  Entomology,  The 
Ohio  State  University,  for  criticizing  an  earlier  draft  of  this  manuscript.  Lori  Capron, 
Columbus,  Ohio,  kindly  prepared  the  habitus  illustration. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Hamilton,  K.G.A.  1975.  A  review  of  the  Northern  Hemisphere  Aphrodina  (Rhynchota: 
Homoptera:  Cicadellidae)  with  special  reference  to  the  Nearctic  fauna.  Can.  Entomol. 
107:  1009-1027. 

Linnavuori,  R.  1959.  Revision  of  the  Neotropical  Deltocephalinae  and  some  related 
subfamilies  (Homoptera).  Ann.  Zool.  Soc.  'Vanamo'  20:  1-370. 

Oman,  P.W.  1949.  The  Nearctic  leafhoppers  (Homoptera:  Cicadellidae):  a  generic  classi- 
fication and  check  list.  Entomol.  Soc.  Wash.  Mem.  3.  253  pp. 


BOOK  REVIEW 

NEW  ZEALAND  BUTTERFLIES  Identification  and  Natural  History.  George  W. 
Gibbs.  1980.  Collins,  Auckland.  207  p.,  197  pis.,  63  text  figs.  Price  $45. 

This  sumptuously  illustrated  and  beautifully  printed  book  recently  made  its  way  to  the 
American  market.  It  is  an  excellent  example  of  the  kind  of  book  those  of  us  interested  in 
butterfly  faunistics  would  like  to  publish;  an  exhaustive  treatment  of  all  species  known  from  the 
area  under  consideration,  with  sharp  colored  plates  depicting  immature  stages,  living  adults, 
habitats,  and  spread  museum  specimens  as  well.  In  addition,  there  are  excellent  scanning 
electron  photomicrographs  of  eggs,  larval  setae,  adult  scale  types,  and  other  ultrastructure. 
Photos  of  parasitoids,  additional  drawings  to  aid  identification  of  adults,  and  distribution  maps 
add  further  to  the  visual  enrichment  of  this  book. 

Of  the  23  species  recorded  from  New  Zealand,  1 1  are  known  only  from  that  island 
country;  the  rest  are  common  to  Australia  and  New  Zealand.  Some  of  the  latter  group-  such  as 
Danaus plexippus,  Pieris  rapae,  and  Lampides  boeticus  -  are  widespread  in  the  world.  After 
an  introduction  in  which  he  discusses  New  Zealand's  paucity  of  butterfly  species  and  a  general 
history  of  New  Zealand  lepidopterology,  Gibbs  discusses  migration  and  introduction  of 
species  "over  the  Tasman"  Sea  from  Australia.  The  body  of  the  book  is  devoted  to  meticulous 
treatment  of  identification,  life  histories,  ecology,  and  habits  of  the  23  species,  with  diagnostic 
introductions  for  each  family,  subfamily,  and  genus.  The  fauna  consists  of  2  Pieridae,  3 
Danaidae,  7  Satyridae  (these  last  2  families  treated  as  subfamilies  of  the  Nymphalidae),  5 
Nymphalidae  (sensu  strictu),  and  6  Lycaenidae  (4  coppers  and  2  blues).  No  Papilionidae  or 
Hesperiidae  have  been  recorded  there  as  yet. 

The  book  is  rounded  out  with  a  chapter  discussing  how  and  where  to  look  for  butterflies  in 
New  Zealand,  and  a  glossary  and  extensive  bibliography.  The  quality  of  writing  and 
illustration  is  high  (though  I  noticed  the  irritating  use  of  "larvae"  in  the  singular),  and  printing 
and  binding  are  more  than  satisfactory.  Gibbs  has  given  us  a  well-researched  and  virtually 
complete  coverage  of  New  Zealand  butterflies  from  all  aspects.  It  could  be  a  model  for  similar 
works  in  other  regions  where  the  butterfly  fauna  is  not  so  overwhelming  in  quantity  as  to 
preclude  such  a  work  from  a  standpoint  of  labor  and  expense. 

Charles  V.  Covell  Jr.,  Dept.  of  Biology,  Univ.  of  Louisville,  Louisville,  KY  40292 


Vol.  95,  No.  2,  March  &  April  1984  43 


MEGASTIGMUS  SPERMOTROPHUS  WACHTL. 

(HYMENOPTERA:  CHALCIDOIDEA) 

(DOUGLAS-FIR  CHALCID)  FOUND  IN 

NEW  YORK  STATE1 

Carl  E.  Palm,  Jr.,  Lawrence  P.  Abrahamson^ 

ABSTRACT:   A  seed  and  cone  insect  survey  in  New  York  state  documented  the  first 
recorded  occurrence  of  Metastigmus  spermotrophus  Wachtl.  in  the  eastern  United  States. 

Preliminary  surveys  of  seed  and  cone  insects  are  being  conducted  in 
conjunction  with  an  evaluation  of  conifer  seed  production  in  New  York. 
Seeds  and  cones  were  collected  and  examined  for  insect  damage.  Adults  of 
Megastigmus  spermotrophus  Wachtl.  emerged  from  a  collection  of 
Douglas-fir  [Pseudotsuga  menziesii(Mirb.)  Franco]  cones.  This  is  the  first 
record  of  M.  spermotrophus  in  the  eastern  United  States. 

M.  spermotrophus  is  widespread  in  the  western  United  States, 
throughout  the  range  of  Douglas-fir  (Hedlin  et  al.  1 980).  In  addition,  it  has 
been  recorded  in  Scotland,  Germany  and  New  Zealand  (Gourlay  1930, 
Hanson  1952  and  Milliron  1949). 

Detection  of  M  spermotrophus  is  difficult  due  to  the  seclusion  of  larvae 
in  seeds,  where  the  larvae  may  remain  in  diapause  for  up  to  three  years. 
Larvae  can  be  detected  by  radiography  (Ruth  1980),  but  no  external 
evidence  of  damage  is  present  until  the  adult  chalcid  emerges  in  the  spring 
(Hedlin  et  al.  1980.  Keen  1958,  and  Milliron  1949). 

METHODS  AND  RESULTS 

Sixty  Douglas-fir  cones  from  Columbia  and  Orange  counties,  (Cler- 
mont  and  Windsor  townships,  respectively)  in  eastern  New  York  were 
examined.  These  cones  were  collected  from  the  ground  beneath  ornamental 
trees  in  April  1983  and  held  indoors  at  approximately  20CC.  Within  three 
weeks,  26  chalcids  (7  males  and  19  females)  emerged  from  the  overwintering 
seeds.  Additional  collections  will  be  made  in  the  coming  year  to  evaluate 
the  impact  and  extent  of  this  Douglas-fir  seed  pest. 


'Received  September  1.  1983.  Accepted  November  4,  1983. 

-Technical  Assistant  and  Senior  Research  Associate,  State  University  of  New  York.  College 
of  Environmental  Science  and  Forestry,  Syracuse.  NY  13210. 


ENT.  NEWS  95(2)  43-44  March  &  April  1984 


44  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We  thank  Kenneth  R.  Law,  U.S.  Department  of  Agriculture,  APHIS,  Newburgh,  New 
York  for  his  assistance  and  Dr.  E.E.  Grissell,  Systematic  Entomology  Laboratory  IIBIII, 
U.S.  Department  of  Agriculture,  Beltsville,  Maryland  for  species  verification. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Gourlay,  E.S.  1 930.  Some  parasitic  Hymenoptera  of  economic  importance  in  New  Zealand. 

The  New  Zealand  Journal  of  Science  and  Technology.  1  1:   339-343. 
Hanson,  H.S.  1952.  Megastigmus  seedflies.  Quarterly  Journal  of  Forestry.  46:  261-264. 
Hedlin,  A.F.,  H.O.  Yates  III,  D.C.  Tovar,  B.H.  Ebel,  T.W.  Koerber  and  E.P.  Merkel. 

1980.  Cone  and  seed  insects  of  North  American  conifers.  Environmental  Canada. 

Canada  Forestry  Service,  Ottawa,  Ontario,  Canada,  122  pp. 
Keen,  F.P.  1958.  Cone  and  seed  insects  of  Western  forest  trees.  USDA  Tech.  Bull.  No. 

1169:    110-111. 
Milliron,  H.E.  1 949.  Taxonomic  and  biological  investigation  in  the  genus  Megastigmus.  The 

American  Midland  Naturalist.  41:   313-316. 
Ruth,  D.S.  1980.  A  guide  to  insect  pests  in  Douglas-fir  seed  orchards.  Canadian  Forestry 

Service,  Pacific  Forest  Research  Centre,  BC-X-204:    19. 


INTERNATIONAL  COMMISSION  ON 
ZOOLOGICAL  NOMENCLATURE 

c/o  BRITISH  MUSEUM  (NATURAL  HISTORY) 
CROMWELL  ROAD,  LONDON,  SW7  5BD 

ITZN  59  21  October  1983 

The  following  Opinions  have  been  published  by  the  International  Commission  on 
Zoological  Nomenclature  in  the  Bulletin  of  Zoological  Nomenclature,  vol.  40,  part  3,  on  21 
October  1983: 

Opinion  No. 

1257  (p.  149)       Tipula  ferruginea  Fabricius,  1805  (Insecta,  Diptera):   conserved. 

1258  (p.  151)      Oc hthera  exsculpia  Loew,  1862  (Insecta,  Diptera):  placed  on  the  Official 

List. 

1260  (p.  157)       Orthunga  Dohrn,  1859  (Insecta,  Hemiptera):   added  to  Official  List. 
The  Commission  regrets  that  it  cannot  supply  separates  of  Opinions. 

RV.  MELVILLE,  Secretary 


Vol.  95.  No.  2.  March  &  April  1984  45 

NEW  HABITAT  RECORDS  FOR  GLENANTHE 
SPECIES  (DIPTERA:  EPHYDRIDAE)1 

B.A.  Steinly2 

ABSTRACT:  New  habitat  records  are  presented  for  Glenanthe  interior  Chillcott.  Several 
specimens  were  collected  over  an  algal-covered  seep  and  sand  shore.  Also,  G.  litorea  Cresson 
was  discovered  in  the  marine  sand  beach  habitat. 

Three  species  of  shore  flies,  Glenanthe  litorea  Cresson,  G.  interior 
Chillcott,  and  G.fascipennis  Sturtevant  and  Wheeler  are  recorded  from  the 
United  States.  Sturtevant  and  Wheeler  ( 1954)  reported  G.fascipennis  and 
G.  litorea  from  rather  barren,  moist  saline  areas.  Also,  G.  litorea  has  been 
recorded  from  saltmarshes  (Cresson,  1925;  Simpson,  1976).  G.  interior 
was  initially  swept  from  Petalostoma  sp.  growing  on  stable  spruce  covered 
sand  dunes  in  Manitoba,  Canada  (Chillcott,  1 964).  A  single  specimen  of  G. 
interior  collected  over  a  sedge  meadow  seepage  area  in  Butler  County, 
Ohio,  constitutes  the  only  United  States  record  (Regensburg,  1978; 
Deonier  and  Regensburg,  1978). 

Morphological  separation  of  Glenanthe  Haliday  species  is  based  upon 
wing  and  antennal  characters.  G.  litorea  has  hyaline  wings  lacking  pattern 
and  gray  antennae.  In  contrast,  G.  fascipennis  has  wings  with  two  broad, 
poorly  defined  dark  fasciae,  one  including  the  posterior  crossvein  and  one 
nearer  the  wing  apex,  as  well  as  yellowish  antennae  (Sturtevant  and 
Wheeler,  1954).  Additional  descriptive  characters  include  a  fourth  vein 
index  of  2.2  for  G.  litorea  and  a  fourth  vein  index  of  2.0  for  G.fascipennis 
( Sturtevant  and  Wheeler,  1 954).  Cresson  ( 1 925 )  listed  the  body  length  of 
G.  litorea  at  1.7  mm,  while  G.  fascipennis  is  slightly  smaller  with  a  body 
length  of  1.5  mm  (Sturtevant  and  Wheeler,  1954). 

While  sampling  in  southern  Ohio,  I  discovered  several  populations  of 
Glenanthe  interior  in  Butler  County.  Several  specimens  were  collected 
with  a  modified  aerial  sweep  net  (Regensberg,  1 977)  in  close  proximity  to  a 
freshwater  creek  above  an  algal  covered  seep  and  sand  shore.  Also,  the 
common  saltmarsh  inhabitant,  G.  litorea,  was  collected  over  a  marine  sand 
beach  in  Milford,  Connecticut.  The  new  aquatic  and  marine  records 
substantiate  wider  habitat  distributions.  The  two  new  Ohio  records  expand 
the  distribution  of  G.  interior  to  four  distinctive  aquatic  habitats.  G.  interior 
has  been  collected  from  these  four  habitats  from  May  through  early  July. 


1  Received  November  19,  1983.  Accepted  February  14,  1984. 

2  Department  of  Entomology,  University  of  Illinois,  Urbana,  Illinois  61801 

ENT.  NEWS  95(2)  45-46  March  &  April  1984 


46  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Family  Ephydridae 

Glenanthe  interior  Chillcott 

Distribution:  Butler  Co.,  Ohio  Four  Mile  Creek,  Algal  covered  seep  with  limestone  mud 
substrate,  four  adults,  V-17-1979;  three  adults,  V-18-1979;  Marker's  Run,  Sand  shore,  5 
adults,  VI-28-1978. 
Glenanthe  litorea  Cresson 

Distribution:   Milford,  Conn.,  Anchor  Beach,  Sand  beach  intertidal  area,  1  adult,  VIII-7- 
1978. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I  thank  Dr.  D.L.  Doenier  for  confirmation  of  species  determinations  and  review  of  an  early 
draft.  I  wish  to  express  appreciation  to  Dr.  May  Berenbaum  for  reviewing  the  final  manuscript. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Chillcott,  J.G.  1 964.  A  new  species  of  Glenanthe  Haliday  (Diptera:  Ephydridae)  from  the 

North  American  interior.  Can.  Ent.  96:   811-812. 
Cresson,  E.T.  1925.  Descriptions  of  new  genera  and  species  of  the  dipterous,  family 

Ephydridae.  VII.  Ent.  New  36:    165-167. 
Deonier,  D.L.  and  J.T.  Regensberg.  1978.  New  records  of  Ohio  shore  flies  (Diptera: 

Ephydridae).  Ohio  J.  Sci.  78:    154-155. 
Regensberg,  J.T.  1977.  A  modified  sweep  net  for  quantitative  sampling.  Ent.  News  88:    141- 

142. 
Regensberg,  J.T.  1978.  A  new  U.S.  record  for  Glenanthe  interior  Chillcott  (Diptera: 

Ephydridae).  Ent.  New  89:  93-94. 
Simpson,  K.W.  1976.  Shore  and  brine  flies  (Diptera:  Ephydridae).  Chapter  17.  In:  L. 

Cheng,  ed.  Marine  insects.  Am.  Elsevier  Publ.  Co.  New  York. 
Sturtevant,  A.H.  and  M.R.  Wheeler.  1954.  Synopses  of  Nearctic  Ephydridae  (Diptera). 

Trans.  Amer.  Entomol.  Soc.  79:  51-257. 


ANNOUNCING 

MEMOIR  #  34 

PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  8TH  INTERNATIONAL  SYMPOSIUM 

ON  CHIRONOMIDAE 

32  papers  on  chironomid  systematics,  ecology,  biology,  and  genetics.  385  pp.  $25.00. 


Vol.  95,  No.  2.  March  &  April  1984  47 

NEST  DEFENSE  BY  THE  SOCIAL  WASPS, 

POLISTES  EXCLAMANS  AND  P.  INSTABILIS 

(HYMENOPTERA:  VESPIDAE)  AGAINST  THE 

PARASYTOID.ELASMUSPOLISTJS  (HYMENOPTERA: 

CHALCIDOIDEA:  EULOPHIDAE)1 

Genie  G.  Lutz,  Joan  E.  Strassmann,  Colin  R.  Hughes^ 

ABSTRACT:  Polistes  exclamans  and  P.  instabilis  were  observed  to  remove  from  their  nests 
larvae  ofElasmuspolistis,  and  to  snap  at  adult  parasitoids.  These  are  newly  reported  defenses 
against  a  parasitoid  that  is  new  to  North  American  Polistes. 

Social  wasps  are  plagued  by  many  nest  parasitoids  which  attack  and  eat 
brood  (Nelson,  1968;  Rau,  1941;  Jeanne,  1979;  Strassmann,  1981). 
Polistes  employ  several  different  defenses  against  these  parasitoids.  When 
adult  parasitoids  are  detected  near  the  nest,  Polistes  engage  in  a  "parasite 
dance"  and  search  all  over  the  nest  and  substrate  for  the  parasitoids  (West 
Eberhard,  1969;  Strassmann,  1981).  Litte  (1981)  found  that  Mischocyttarus 
labiatus  cut  their  nests  down  to  the  pedicel  when  phorid  flies  were  detected 
nearby.  Jeanne  (1979)  discovered  that  Polistes  canadensis  formed  multiple 
combs  to  protect  new  brood  from  tineid  moths  infesting  older  cells.  Starr 
(1976)  suggested  that  nests  of  Polistes  are  not  used  for  more  than  one 
season  because  of  the  parasitoids  that  overwinter  in  them.  This  hypothesis 
was  supported  by  the  observation  that  a  population  of  P.  annularis  that  was 
nearly  free  of  parasitoids  reused  10%  of  its  nests  (Strassmann,  1979). 

METHODS 

The  observations  reported  here  were  part  of  a  larger  study  of  the 
behavior  of  P.  exclamans  and  P.  instabilis.  A  wild  population  of  P. 
exclamans  on  the  roof  of  the  biology  building  at  Rice  University  was 
observed  in  the  summer  of  1982.  P.  instabilis  was  observed  in  Puerto 
Oscondido,  Oaxaca,  Mexico  in  August  1983.  Females  were  marked  in 
both  cases  and  nests  were  monitored  daily. 

RESULTS 

We  found  that  Polistes  exclamans  and  P.  instabilis  actively  defended 
their  brood  against  Elasmus  polistis,  a  small  chalcid  parasite  whose  larvae 


1  Received  October  7,  1983.  Accepted  December  10,  1983. 
^Biology  Department,  Rice  University,  Houston,  Texas  77251 

ENT.  NEWS  95(2)  47-50  March  &  April  1984 


48  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


are  external  parasitoids  on  prepupae  and  pupae  in  capped  cells  of  Polistes 
(Reed  and  Vinson,  1979).  They  snapped  at  adult  parasitoids  with  their 
mandibles,  sometimes  cutting  them  in  two,  and  searched  over  the  nest  for 
females  trying  to  lay  eggs.  Larvae  of  E.  polistis  were  pulled  out  of  cells  and 
dropped  or  fed  to  wasp  larvae. 

We  observed  an  older  worker  that  had  been  marked  on  a  regularly- 
censused  nest  of  P.  exclamans  in  Houston,  Texas,  pull  several  larvae  of  E. 
polistis  out  of  a  cell  and  drop  them.  Since  the  nest  was  in  a  plywood  nest 
box,  the  expelled  larvae  fell  only  a  few  inches  to  the  bottom  of  the  nest  box 
where  about  15  parasitoid  larvae  had  accumulated.  The  worker  P. 
exclamans  had  reached  the  larvae  of  E.  polistis  by  chewing  through  the 
partition  separating  them  from  the  remains  of  the  wasp  larva.  This  partition 
is  made  of  meconia  of  the  larvae  of  E.  polistis  and  is  constructed  just  before 
pupation,  after  they  have  finished  feeding  on  the  host  prepupa,  or  pupa 
(Reed  and  Vinson,  1 979).  The  partition  appears  to  simulate  the  texture  and 
color  of  the  meconium  normally  deposited  in  the  bottom  of  the  cell  by  larvae 
of  Polistes  and  pupation. 

P.  instabilis  was  observed  in  a  tree  in  Puerto  Escondido,  Oaxaca, 
Mexico.  After  briefly  observing  the  nest  one  day  we  returned  the  following 
day  to  find  that  about  half  of  the  cells  with  pupal  caps  had  been  destroyed  by 
the  workers  on  the  nest.  While  we  watched,  two  more  paper  wasp  pupae 
with  larvae  of  E.  polistis  attached  to  them  were  aborted  by  the  workers.  The 
E.  polistis  were  chewed  up  and  fed  to  brood  by  workers. 

DISCUSSION 

The  short  development  times  from  egg  to  adult  of  E.  polistis  of  1 7  to  20 
days  allow  several  generations  of  E.  polistis  to  infest  the  same  nest  over  the 
season  (Reed  and  Vinson,  1979;  Strassmann,  1981).  Strassmann  (1981) 
found  that  males  emerged  before  females,  remain  near  the  nest  to  mate  with 
their  sisters  who  reinfested  the  nest.  Numbers  of  parasitized  cells  increased 
over  the  season  to  a  maximum  of  25  cells  per  nest  parasitized  by  E.  polistis 
(S.D.  =  37,  N  =  41  nests)  in  an  Austin  Texas  population  of  P.  exclamans 
in  1 978  ( Strassmann,  1981).  Since  the  potential  for  increased  parasitism  on 
the  host  nest  exist,  Polistes  with  a  high  incidence  of  parasitism  by  E.  polistis 
may  be  expected  to  benefit  from  an  active  defense  mechanism  —  even  one 
that  removes  parasitoids  after  the  wasp  brood  has  been  killed. 

E.  polistis  is  a  parasitoid  that  is  new  to  central  Texas  Polistes.  Burks 
(1971)  described  it  for  the  first  time  in  1971.  Polistes  have  been  so 
thoroughly  collected  and  studied  that  it  is  unlikely  that  it  was  present  and 
undetected  previously  (Reed  and  Vinson,  1979  and  refs.  therein).  Rau,  a 
most  thorough  collector,  collected  in  Austin,  Texas,  and  does  not  mention 


Vol.  95,  No.  2,  March  &  April  1984  49 


E.  polistis  or  anything  similar  though  he  does  mention  other  parasitoid 
species  (Rau,  1943).  He  stored  his  nests  in  bags  from  which  E.  polistis 
could  not  escape  (Rau,  1941 ).  It  is  possible  that  E.  polistis  has  a  defense 
behavior  that  can  be  defeated  by  wasps  because  Polistes  are  a  new  host  for 
E.  polistis. 

Parasitoids  adopt  one  of  two  general  types  of  defense  against 
destruction  by  Polistes:  concealment  and  fortification.  E.  polistis  have 
pupae  concealed  under  a  layer  which  mimics  meconium  of  Polistes.  E. 
polistis  achieves  this  by  migrating  as  larvae  to  one  position,  and  all  larvae 
depositing  their  meconia  at  one  level  resulting  in  a  plate  of  meconium 
thicker  at  the  edges  than  in  the  center  (Reed  and  Vinson,  1 979).  The  ability 
of  adult  Polistes  to  tear  through  this  and  remove  parasitoids  of  E.  polistis 
once  they  have  defeated  the  mimicry  involved  contrasts  with  the  situation  of 
several  other  parasites.  Chalcoela  iphitalis  (Lepidoptera:  Pyralidae), 
another  common  parasitoid  of  Polistes,  builds  webbing  so  strong  that 
workers  seem  to  be  incapable  of  chewing  through  it.  However  C.  iphitalis  do 
not  reinfest  the  nest  from  which  they  emerge  in  the  same  season  so  it  would 
only  be  worthwhile  to  remove  them  before  they  have  damaged  brood 
( Strassmann,  1981).  Polistes  may  also  remove  brood  of  C.  ipitalis  to  keep 
them  from  attacking  nearby  nests  if  those  nests  are  likely  to  belong  to 
relatives.  Pachysomoides  stupides  and  Pachysomoidesfulvus  (Hymenop- 
tera:  Ichneumonidae)  also  construct  casings  that  Polistes  can  remove  only 
by  destroying  that  entire  region  of  the  nest.  Polistes  also  tear  great  sections 
of  the  nest  away  to  remove  pupae  of  Sarcophaga  polistis  (Diptera:  Sar- 
cophagidae)  which  lie  across  several  cells  at  the  very  bottom  of  the  nest 
where  they  are  concealed  (Strassmann,  unpubl.;  Hughes,  unpubl.).  Appar- 
ently these  pupae  can  only  be  removed  by  substantial  nest  destruction. 

Of  1 6  nests  which  had  extensive  areas  of  the  nest  chewed  away  at  a  field 
site  near  Houston,  seven  contained  brood  of  P.  stupidus  and  2  contained 
brood  of  C  iphitalis.  Since  some  parasitization  probably  went  unrecorded, 
for  example  that  underneath  pupal  caps,  this  nest  destruction  is  probably 
always  a  response  to  parasitoids.  Fourteen  of  the  16  nests  were  P. 
carolinus,  a  species  which  nests  very  close  to  its  natal  nest  site  (Hughes, 
unpubl. ;  Rau,  1931),  and  would  therefore  aid  relatives  by  removing  parasite 
pupae  from  the  immediate  area. 

Over  60%  of  all  nests  of  P.  exclamans  lose  brood  to  the  parasitoids  E. 
polistis  or  C.  iphitalis  or  both  each  year  in  central  Texas  (Strassmann, 
1981 ).  Though  worker  wasps  appear  to  make  every  attempt  to  keep  adult 
parasitoids  from  laying  eggs  in  the  nest,  and  to  remove  parasitoid  eggs  and 
larvae  when  they  do,  many  of  these  attempts  are  ineffective.  The  abundance 
of  E.  polistis  in  nests  of  Polistis  suggests  that  workers  often  do  not  detect  the 
parasitoids. 


50  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We  thank  Bill  Mueller  for  comments  on  the  manuscript.  This  research  was  supported  by 
NSF  DEB81-17682  to  J.E.S. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Burks,  B.D.  1971.  A  North  American  Elasmus  parasitic  on  Polistes.  J.  Wash.  Acad.  Sci. 

61:   194-196. 
Jeanne,  R.L.  1979.  Construction  and  utilization  of  multiple  combs  in  Polistes  canadensis  in 

relation  to  the  biology  of  a  predaceous  moth.  Behav.  Ecol.  Sociobiol.  4:  293-310. 
Litte,  M.  1981.  Social  biology  of  the  polistine  wasp,  Mischocyttarus  labiatus:  survival  in  a 

Colombian  rain  forest.  Smithsonian  Contrib.  Zoology  327:   1-27. 
Nelson,  J.M.  1968.  Parasites  adn  symbionts  of  nests  of  Polistes  wasps.  Ann.  Entomol.  Soc. 

Amer.  61:    1528-1539. 
Rau,  P.  1 93 1 .  The  nesting  habits  of  Polistes  rubiginosiswith  special  reference  to  pleometrosis 

in  this  and  other  species  of  Polistes  wasps. 
Rau,  P.  1 94 1 .  Observations  on  certain  lepidopterous  and  hymenopterous  parasites  of  Polistes 

wasps.  Ann.  Entomoi.  Soc.  Amer.  34:   355-366. 
Rau,  P.  1 943.  The  nesiing  habits  of  Mexican  social  and  solitary  wasps  of  the  family  Vespidae. 

Ann.  Ent.  Soc.  Amer.  36:  515-536. 
Reed,  H.C.  and  S.B.  Vinson.  1979.  Observations  of  the  life  history  and  behavior  of  Elasmus 

polistis  Burks  (Hymenoptera:  Chalcidoidea:  Eulophidae)  J.  Kansas  Entomol.  Soc. 

52:  247-257. 
Starr,  C.K.  1976.  Nest  reutilization  of  Polistes  metricus  (Hymenoptera:  Vespidae)  and 

possible  limitation  of  multiple  foundress  associations  of  parasitoids.  J.  Kansas  Entomol. 

Soc.  49:    142-144. 
Strassmann,  J.E.  1979.  Honey  caches  help  female  paper  wasps  (Polistes  annularis)  survive 

Texas  winters.  Science  204:  207-209. 
Strassmann.  J.E.  1981.  Parasitoids,  predators,  and  group  size  in  the  paper  wasp,  Polistes 

exclamans.  Ecology  62:  1225-1223. 
West  Eberhard,  M.J.  1969.  The  social  biology  of  polistine  wasps.  Misc.  Publ.  Mus.  Zool. 

Univ.  Mich.  140:    1-101. 


The  American  Entomological  Society 

congratulates 

The  Entomological  Society  of  Washington  (D.C.) 

upon  its'  achievement  of  100  years  of  service 

to  the  science  of  entomology 


Vol.  95,  No.  2.  March  &  April  1984  51 

HOST  PLANT  RECORDS  FOR  NORTH  AMERICAN 
RAGWEED  FLIES  (DIPTERA:  TEPHRITIDAE)1 

B.A.  Foote2 


ABSTRACT:  Information  is  given  on  host  plants  and  infestation  rates  for  7  of  the  8  North 
American  species  of  Euaresta.  The  host  plants  are  either  ragweeds  of  the  genus  Ambrosia  or 
cockleburs  of  the  genus  Xanthium,  2  genera  of  the  tribe  Ambrosieae  (Compositae). 

The  genus  Euaresta  is  a  relatively  small  taxon  within  the  family 
Tephritidae  of  the  acalyptrate  Diptera.  It  includes  8  species  from  America 
north  of  Mexico  (Quisenberry,  1950;  Foote,  1965),  as  well  as  several  from 
south  of  the  United  States;  however,  virtually  no  host  data  are  available  for 
these  latter  species  and  some  doubt  exists  as  to  whether  they  actually  belong 
to  the  genus  (R.H.  Foote,  in  litt.).  Relatively  little  is  known  of  the  life 
histories  or  larval  feeding  habits  of  the  Nearctic  species  except  that  they 
seem  to  be  associated  either  with  cockleburs  of  the  genus  Xanthium  or 
ragweeds  of  the  genus  Ambrosia  (Compositae:  Ambrosieae).  Marlatt 
( 1 89 1 )  discussed  the  natural  history  of  E.  aequalis(Loew),  a  seed  predator 
of  cocklebur  (X.  strumarium  L.).  Foote  (1965)  reported  that  larvae  of  E. 
bella(Loew)  and  E.  festiva  (Loew)  attacked  the  seeds  of  common  ragweed 
(A.  artemisiifolia  L.)  and  giant  ragweed  (A.  trifida  L.),  respectively.  He 
also  listed  host  plants  for  selected  species  of  Euaresta  and  discussed  briefly 
the  life  cycles  of  E.  bella  and  E.  festiva.  Batra  (1979)  described  in 
considerable  detail  the  courtship  behavior  and  oviposition  habits  of  these 
two  species.  Goeden  and  Ricker  (1974a,  1974b,  1976)  recorded  host 
plants  for  E.  bellula  Snow  and  E.  stigmatica  Coquillett.  Wasbauer  ( 1972) 
listed  hosts  for  7  species  of  Euaresta. 

Because  species  of  Ambrosia  are  prime  sources  of  hayfever-causing 
pollen  (Dickerson  and  Sweet  1 97 1 )  and  are  important  weeds  in  agricultural 
regions  (Danielson  et  al.  1965),  various  workers  (e.g.  Harris  and  Piper 
1970)  have  suggested  that  seed  predators  such  as  the  larvae  of  Euaresta 
spp.  could  be  important  biocontrol  agents. 

The  present  paper  gives  information  on  the  host  plants  and  infestation 
rates  for  several  of  the  Nearctic  species  of  Euaresta. 

MATERIALS  AND  METHODS 

Unless  otherwise  indicated  on  Table  1 ,  all  of  the  host  plant  records  were 
obtained  by  the  author.  Collections  of  seeds  obtained  in  the  field  were 


'Received  April  22,  1983.  Accepted  February  14.  1984. 

^Department  of  Biological  Sciences,  Kent  State  University,  Kent,  OH  44242 

ENT.  NEWS  95(2)  51-54  March  &  April  1984 


52  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


transferred  to  a  laboratory  where  estimates  of  infestation  rates  and 
identifications  of  the  seed  predators  were  made.  Each  sample  consisted  of 
at  least  10  involucres  containing  one  or  more  seeds,  with  at  least  three 
replicate  samples  of  involucres  being  taken  from  each  host  plant.  Whenever 
possible,  several  individuals  of  the  same  plant  species  were  sampled  (see 
columns  3  and  4  of  Table  1). 

Field-collected  involucres  were  either  dissected  and  examined  in  the 
laboratory  for  Euaresta  larvae  or  placed  in  4-dram  shell  vials  to  allow 
emergence  of  adults.  Infestation  percentages  were  obtained  by  dividing  the 
number  of  seeds  containing  larvae  by  the  total  number  of  seeds  examined  in 
each  sample.  Identifications  of  the  infesting  species  of Euaresta  were  based 
on  adult  flies  that  emerged  from  seeds  of  each  host  plant  in  the  laboratory 
rearings. 

RESULTS  AND  DISCUSSION 

Table  1  presents  information  on  the  host  plants  and  gives  infestation 
levels  for  7  of  the  8  Nearctic  species  of  Euaresta.  Several  conclusions  can  be 
drawn  from  the  data.  It  is  obvious  that  considerable  variation  exists  in  the 
amount  of  seed  damage  sustained  by  different  host  plants.  For  example,  up 
to  98%  of  the  seeds  of  canyon  ragweed  [A.  ambrosioides  (Cav.)  Payne] 
were  attacked  by  larvae  of  E.  bellula,  whereas  never  more  than  8%  of  the 
seeds  produced  by  common  ragweed  (A.  artemisiifolia)  were  destroyed  by 
larvae  of  E.  bella.  A  second  observation  deals  with  the  infestation  levels 
that  were  obtained  for  different  species  of  Ambrosia  that  served  as  the  host 
plant  for  the  same  species  of  Euaresta.  Thus,  it  seems  evident  that  a 
preferred  host  of  E.  stigmatica  is  holly  leaf  bur  sage  [A.  ilicifolia(Gray) 
Payne],  as  up  to  90%  of  its  seeds  were  being  utilized.  Fairly  high  infestation 
levels  were  also  encountered  in  bur  sage  [A.  deltoidea(Torrey)  Payne],  but 
no  more  than  2%  of  the  seeds  of  canyon  ragweed  were  infested  by  this 
species  of  Euaresta.  Another  conclusion  is  that  different  genetic  strains  of  a 
host  plant  can  show  varying  responses  to  Euaresta  attack.  In  northeastern 
Ohio,  over  half  of  the  seeds  of  cocklebur  contained  larvae  of  E.  aequalis, 
whereas  the  same  host  plant  in  southcentral  Arizona  showed  no  larval 
infestation  even  though  the  stand  occurred  well  within  the  range  of  the  fly. 
Finally,  it  should  be  noted  that  several  species  of  Ambrosia  apparently  are 
not  utilized  by  any  species  of  Euaresta.  Seeds  of  A.  cordifolia  (Gray) 
Payne  (270  seeds  examined)  collected  near  Tucson,  Arizona  and  of  A. 
dumosa  (Gray)  Payne  (889  seeds)  collected  in  western  Arizona  contained 
no  larvae  or  puparia  of  Euaresta,  Similarly,  no  infestations  were  encountered  in 
A.  bidentata  Michx.  (20  seeds,  Missouri)  or  A.  grayi  (Nels.)  Shinners  (40 
seeds,  Nebraska). 

The  data  presented  above  give  credence  to  the  idea  that  the  genus 


Vol.  95,  No.  2,  March  &  April  1984 


53 


Euaresta  is  unified  biologically  by  its  restriction  to  host  plants  belonging  to 
the  composite  tribe  Ambrosieae.  It  is  obvious  that  the  genera  A  mbrosia  and 
Xanthium  are  heavily  utilized,  but  whether  species  of  other  genera  of 
Ambrosieae  are  also  attacked  remains  unknown.  Thus,  no  records  are 
available  for  species  of  Iva,  Dicorea,  and  Hymneoclea. 


Table  1.  Host  Plants  and  Infestation  Rates  for  North  American  Euaresta 


Species  of 

Euaresta  Host  Plant 

aequalis       Xanthium  stnimarium 

X.  strumarium 

bella  Ambrosia  artemisiifo/ia 

bellula          A.  acanthicarpa 
A.  ambrosioides 
A.  chamissonis 
A.  chenopodiifolia 
bullans         X.  spinosum 
festiva          A.  trifida 
jonesi  A.  chamissonis 

stigmatica    A.  acanthicarpa 
A.  ambrosioides 
A.  del  to  idea 
A.  ilicifolia 
tapetis          Unknown 

1.  Goeden  and  Ricker,  1974a. 

2.  Goeden  and  Ricker,  1974b. 


No.  of  Plants  No.  of  Seeds  %  of  Seeds 
Sampled        Examined       Infested 


5 
2 
3 

17 


12 


17 
9 

3 


200 

80 

180 


2306 


2207 

841 

40 


8.0-55.0 

0.0 
0.0-  8.0 


2207    50.0-98.0 


2.0-24.4 


1.0-  2.0 

4.0-33.0 

70.0-90.0 


Locality  of 
Study 

Northeastern  Ohio 
Southcentral  Ariz. 
Northeastern  Ohio 
California' 
Southcentral  Ariz. 
California^ 
California-^ 
California-'''' 
Northeastern  Ohio 
Washington 
California' 
Southcentral  Ariz. 
Southcentral  Ariz. 
Southwestern  Ariz. 


3.  Foote  and  Blanc,  1963. 

4.  Aczel,  1952. 


LITERATURE  CITED 

Aczel,  M.L.   1952.  El  genero  Euaresta  Loew  (=Camaromyia  Hendel)  en  la  Region 

Neotropical.  Rev.  Chilena  Entomol.  2:    147-172. 
Batra,  S.W.T.  1979.  Reproductive  behavior  of  Euaresta  bella  and  E.  festiva  (Diptera: 

Tephritidae),  potential  agents  for  the  biological  control  of  adventive  North  American 

ragweeds  (Ambrosia  spp.)  in  Eurasia.  J.N.Y.  Entomol.  Soc.  87:    118-125. 
Danielson,  L.L.,  W.B.  Ennis,  Jr.,  D.L.  Klingman,  W.G.  Shaw,  F.L.  Timmons,  J.E. 

Jernigan,  J.R.  Paulling,  and  P.E.  Strickler.  1965.  A  survey  of  extent  and  cost  of  weed 

control  and  specific  weed  problems.  USDA  Crops  Res.  Bull.,  ARS  34-23-1.  78  p. 
Dickerson,  C.T.,  Jr.,  and  R.D.  Sweet  1971.  Common  ragweed  ecotypes.  Weed  Sci.  1 9:  64- 

66. 
Foote,  B.  A.  1965.  Biology  and  immature  stages  of  eastern  ragweed  flies  (Tephritidae).  Proc. 

Northc.  Br.  Entomol.  Soc.  Am.  20:    105-106. 
Foote,  R.H.  1 965 .  Family  Tephritidae,  p.  658-678.  In  A.  Stone,  et.  al,  eds.,  A  Catalog  of  the 

Diptera  of  America  north  of  Mexico.  USDA  Agric.  Handbk.  276. 

.  1967.57.  Family  Tephritidae,  p.  1-91.  In  Dept.  Zool.  Sec.  Agric.,  Sao  Paulo.  A 

Catalogue  of  the  Diptera  of  the  Americas  south  of  United  States. 
and  F.L.  Blanc.  1963.  The  fruit  flies  or  Tephritidae  of  California.  Calif.  Insect 


Survey  Bull.  7:    1-117. 

Goeden,  R.D.  and  D.W.  Ricker.  1974a.  The  phytophagous  insect  fauna  of  the  ragweed, 
Ambrosia  acanthicarpa,  in  southern  California.  Environ.  Entomol.  3:   827-834. 

.  1974b.  The  phytophagous  insect  fauna  of  the  ragweed.  Ambrosia  chamissonis. 


54  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


in  southern  California.  Environ.  Entomol.  3:  835-839. 

1976.  The  phytophagous  insect  faunas  of  the  ragweed.  Ambrosia  chenopodiifolia, 


A.  eriocentra,  and  A.  ilicifolia,  in  southern  California.  Environ.  Entomol.  5:  923-930. 
Harris,   P.  and  G.L.   Piper.   1970.   Ragweed  (Ambrosia  spp:  Compositae):  its  North 

American  insects  and  the  possibilities  for  its  biological  control.  Commonw.  Inst.  Biol. 

Control  Tech.  Bull.  13:    117-140. 

Marlatt,  C.L.  1891.  The  Xanthium  Trypeta.  Proc.  Entomol.  Soc.  Wash.  2:  40-43. 
Quisenberry,  B.F.  1950.  The  genus  Euaresta  in  the  United  States  (Diptera:  Tephritidae). 

J.N.Y.  Entomol.  Soc.  58:  9-38. 
Wasbauer,  M.  S.  1 972.  An  annotated  host  catalog  of  the  fruit  flies  of  America  north  of  Mexico 

(Diptera;  Tephritidae).  Bur.  Entomol.  Calif.  Dept.  Agric.  Occas.  Pap.  19,  172.  p. 


INTERNATIONAL  COMMISSION  ON 
ZOOLOGICAL  NOMENCLATURE 

c/o  BRITISH  MUSEUM  (NATURAL  HISTORY) 
CROMWELL  ROAD,  LONDON,  SW7  5BD 

ITZN  1 1/4  (A.N.(S.)  128  5  January  1984 

The  Commission  hereby  gives  six  months  notice  of  the  possible  use  of  its  plenary  powers 
in  the  following  cases,  published  in  the  Bulletin  of  Zoological  Nomenclature,  volume  40,  part 
4,  on  30  December  1983  and  will  welcome  comments  and  advice  on  them  from  integrated 
zoologists. 

Correspondence  should  be  addressed  to  the  Secretary  at  the  above  address,  if  possible 
within  six  months  of  the  date  of  publication  of  this  notice. 

Case  No. 

2284  Caeparia  Stal,  1877  (Insecta,  Dictypoptera):  proposed  designation  of  a 

type  species  under  the  plenary  powers. 

2401  Proposal  to  suppress  the  first  designation  of  a  type  species  for  the  generic 

name  Megilla  Fabricius,  1805,  and  to  place  Macropi's  Klug,  1809,  on  the 
Official  List  of  Generic  Names  (Hymenoptera,  Apoidea). 

2436  Cri nodes  Herrich-Schaffer,  1 855  and  Pew  Herrich-Schaffer,  1 855  (Insecta. 

Lepidoptera):   proposed  conservation. 

1686  Euphaedra  Hiibner,  [1819]  (Insecta,  Lepidoptera):   proposed  conservation 
under  the  plenary  powers. 

1687  Ourocnemis  Baker,  1887  (Insecta,  Lepidoptera):  proposed  conservation 
under  the  plenary  powers. 

2180  Ceroplesis  Serville,  1835  (Insecta,  Coleoptera):   proposed  designation  of  a 

type  species  under  the  plenary  powers. 

2405  Zeugophora  Kunze,  1818  (Insecta,  Coleoptera):   proposed  conservation 

under  the  plenary  powers. 

R.V.  MELVILLE,  Secretary 


Vol.  95,  No.  2,  March  &  April  1984 

A  SPATE  OF  GLOWWORMS  (COLEOPTERA: 
PHENOGODIDAE)1 

Steven  R.  Wing2 

ABSTRACT:  At  several  flooded  sites  phengodid  larvae,  tentatively  identified  as  Phengodes 
nigromaculata,  were  found  in  far  greater  abundance  than  any  previously  reported. 

Beetles  of  the  family  Phenogodidae  are  notable  for  their  spectacular 
bioluminescence  (Tiemann  1970),  their  extreme  sexual  dimorphism 
(Tiemann  1967,  Lloyd  1979),  and  their  scarcity  (Smith  1900).  Females 
and  larvae  are  especially  uncommon,  though  males  occasionally  turn  up  in 
light  traps.  Phenogodids  of  the  genus  Phengodes  are  so  rare  that  Harvey 
(1952)  saw  "only  four  living  luminous  specimens  in  25  years."  I  was 
surprised,  then,  to  encounter  90  such  specimens  in  one  hour. 

The  observations  were  made  in  a  field  of  grass  [mostly  Axonopus 
affinis  Chase  and  Eremochloa  ophiuroides(Munro)  Hack.]  with  scattered 
pine  trees,  north  of  the  Gainesville  Regional  Airport  in  Alachua  County, 
Florida.  This  area  has  been  searched  for  glowing  organisms  on  the  ground 
almost  nightly  during  April-October  over  the  past  three  years.  In  that  time 
only  one  phenogodid  was  found. 

This  year  phengodids  were  flooded  from  the  soil  in  large  numbers.  The 
area  is  usually  dry,  but  heavy  rains  in  1 983  left  water  standing  in  ditches  and 
low  areas.  Glowing  phengodid  larvae  were  found  in  every  flooded  site  in  the 
area  shown  in  Fig.  1 ,  but  not  in  the  ditch  or  in  flooded  sites  to  the  north,  west, 
and  east  of  the  area  shown.  The  larvae,  tentatively  identified  as  Phengodes 
nigromaculata  Wittmer,  measured  0.7  to  2.1  cm  in  length  (n=10).  They 
were  found  clinging  to  grass  that  protruded  from  the  water.  No  larvae  were 
found  in  the  unflooded  area  between  sites  (Fig.  1).  As  the  soil  dried,  the 
larvae  apparently  returned  underground.  The  sites  were  inspected  on  nights 
subsequent  to  each  inundation,  but  no  larvae  were  seen. 

One  night  I  spent  about  one  hour  walking  through  the  inundated  sites 
and  found  90  larvae.  More  thorough  searches  were  made  in  1  m2  plots  on 
different  nights  and  at  different  sites  (Table  1).  The  average  count  was  5 
larvae/M^.  If  this  reflects  the  phengodid  density  in  the  area  between 
flooded  sites,  thousands  of  larvae  occur  there.  Five  Iarvae/m2  may  be  an 
underestimate  because  only  glowing  larvae  were  counted  (see  Tiemann 
1970).  Although  it  has  long  been  known  that  phengodids  occur  in  soil 
(Atkinson  1887),  densitites  of  this  magnitude  have  never  before  been 


'Received  October  7,  1982.  Accepted  November  15,  1983. 

^Dept.  Entomology  and  Nematology,  3107  McCarty  Hall.  University  of  Florida,  Gainesville, 
FL  32611. 

ENT.  NEWS  95(2)  55-57  March  &  April  1984 


56 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


reported  (see  Tiemann  1967). 


Figure  1 .  A  map  showing  flooded  sites  (black),  the  ditch  (stippled)  beside  a  paved  road,  and 
some  of  the  trees  in  the  study  area. 


Table  1.  Mean  number  of  Phengodes  larvae  counted  in  flooded  1  m^  plots. 


Date 

14  August  1983 
6  September  1983 
13  September  1983 


Plots 
(n) 

3 

4 

10 


Number   of  Larvae 
~x  range 


5 
6 

5 


5-6 

5-7 
2-8 


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 


Joe  Cicero,  Tim  Forrest,  James  E.  Lloyd,  and  John  Sivinski  reviewed  the  paper.  John 
Sivinski  also  identified  the  specimens,  and  he  and  James  E.  Lloyd  gave  access  to  their 
literature  collections.  David  W.  Hall  identified  the  grasses.  Susan  Wineriter  prepared  Fig.  1 . 
Barbara  Hollien  typed  the  manuscript.  Florida  Agricultural  Experiment  Station  Journal 
Series  No.  5021. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Atkinson,  G.F.  1887.  Observations  on  the  female  form  of  Phengodes  laticollis  Horn.  Am. 

Nat.  21:  853-856. 

Harvey,  E.N.  1952.  Bioluminescence.  Academic,  New  York.  649  pp. 
Lloyd,  J.E.  1 979.  Sexual  selection  in  luminescent  beetles.  Pages  293-342  in  M.  Blum  and  N. 

Blum,  eds.  Sexual  selection  and  reproductive  competition  in  insects.  Academic,  New 

York. 


Vol.  95,  No.  2,  March  &  April  1984  57 


Smith,  J.B.  1900.  The  insects  of  New  Jersey.  MacCrellish  and  Quigley,  Trenton,  NJ. 
Tiemann,  D.L.  1967.  Observations  on  the  natural  history  of  the  western  banded  glowworm 

Zarhipis  integripennis  (Lee.).  Proc.  Cal.  Acad.  Sci.  35(12):  235-264. 
Tiemann,  D.L.  1 970.  R.F.  Sisson.  photographer.  Nature's  toy  train,  the  railroad  worm.  Nat. 

Geog.  Mag.  138:  56-67. 


MEMOIRS  OF  THE  AMERICAN  ENTOMOLOGICAL 

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Genera.  Philip  A.  Munz.  1919.  $10.00. 

4.  The  Blattidae  of  Panama.  Morgan  Hebard.  1920.  $8.00. 

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than  those  of  of  Ezra  T.  Cresson.  Ezra  T.  Cresson.  1928.  $8.00. 

8.  The  Eumastacinae  of  Southern  Mexico  and  Central  America.  James  A.G.  Rehn  and 
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9.  The  Generic  Names  of  the  Sphecoid  Wasps  and  Their  Type  Species.  W.S.L.  Pate.  1937. 
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10.  A  Revision  of  the  North  American  Species  Belonging  to  the  Genus  Pegomvia.  H.C. 
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1 1.  Catalogue  and  Reclassification  of  the  Nearctic  Ichneumonidae.  Henry  K.  Townes,  Jr. 
1944.  $20.00. 

13.  Elaschistidae  of  North  America  (Microlepidoptera).  Annette  F.  Braun.  1948.  $10.00. 

14.  Classification  of  the  Blattaria  as  Indicated  by  their  Wings  (Orthoptera).  John  W.H. 
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58  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

A  SIMPLIFIED  HOLDER  FOR  EUMENID 

NESTING  BLOCKS  (HYMENOPTERA: 

EUMENIDAE)12 

Judith  A.  Collins3,  Daniel  T.  Jennings4 

ABSTRACT:   Materials  and  construction  of  a  simple,  inexpensive  holder  for  eumenid 
nesting  blocks  are  described. 

Many  species  of  solitary  wasps  (Hymenoptera:  Eumenidae)  nest  in 
hollow  stems  and  cavities  constructed  by  wood-boring  insects.  Foundress 
female  wasps  also  accept  and  provision  predrilled  blocks  of  wood  as  nesting 
sites.  Numerous  investigators  have  designed  and  successfully  used  trap 
blocks  for  collecting  eumenid  wasps  (Cooper  1953;  Fye  1965  a;  Medlerand 
Fye  1956;  Krombein  1967),  and  bees  (Parker  and  Bohart  1966).  Koerber 
and  Medler  (1958)  used  bundles  of  sumac  stems  held  together  with  rubber 
inner-tube  bands.  Fye  ( 1 965b)  developed  several  methods  for  placing  trap 
nests  in  elevated  locations.  Although  trap  blocks  are  not  identical  to  natural 
nesting  sites,  they  are  very  useful  for  collecting  and  studying  eumenid  wasps 
in  forest  and  nonforest  habitats. 

Most  trap  designs  consist  of  a  bundle  of  predrilled  blocks  held  together 
with  rubber  bands.  A  solid  piece  of  wood  usually  is  added  to  facilitate 
attachment  of  a  wire  hanger.  The  rubber  bands  frequently  stretch  and  break 
with  prolonged  use.  This  paper  describes  a  simple  but  effective  method  of 
binding  and  hanging  nesting  blocks. 

MATERIALS 

The  materials  needed  for  trap  and  holder  construction  are  readily 
available  at  most  hardware  and  fabric  stores.  Each  trapping  unit  consists 
of:  1)  a  bundle  of  predrilled  blocks  (usually  9  or  12),  2)  a  hanging  board,  3) 
a  wire  hanger,  4)  four  fastening  staples,  and  5)  two  non-roll  ribbed  elastic 
bands  (Fig.  1). 

Our  trap  blocks  were  cut  from  straight-grained  eastern  white  pine, 
Finns  strobus  L.  Each  block  was  2  x  2  x  1 8  cm  with  a  central  hole,  8  mm  in 


1  Received  October  13,  1983.  Accepted  October  21,  1983. 

2A  contribution  to  the  CANADA/UNITED  STATES  (CANUSA)  Spruce  Budworms 
Program. 

•^Graduate  student.  Department  of  Entomology,  University  of  Maine,  Orono,  Maine  04469 

^Principal  Research  Entomologist,  Northeastern  Forest  Experiment  Station,  USDA  Building, 
University  of  Maine,  Orono,  Maine  04469 

ENT.  NEWS  95(2)  58-62  March  &  April  1984 


Vol.  95,  No.  2.  March  &  April  1984 


59 


diameter,  bored  to  a  depth  of  1 4.9  cm.  We  used  a  twist  drill  for  boring  holes. 
Blocks  should  be  straight-grained  and  free  of  knots  to  allow  easy  splitting 
and  study  of  nests. 

The  hanging  board  is  a  solid  block  of  wood;  common  "strapping"  is 
sufficient.  Our  board  was  2  x  6  x  1 8  cm  for  a  nine-block  bundle.  The  size 
may  vary  depending  on  the  number  of  blocks  per  bundle.  The  board  should 
completely  cover  the  top  row  of  nesting  blocks. 

The  hanging  wire  consists  of  a  wire  coat  hanger.  The  botton  half  of  the 
hanger  is  cut  off  about  1 4  cm  below  the  twisted  neck.  Pliers  are  used  to  bend 
the  cut  ends  so  that  they  are  pointing  outward.  The  hanger  is  fastened  to  the 
center  of  the  hanging  board  with  four  #9  double-pointed  wood  staples,  two 
at  each  end.  For  convenience,  the  hook  above  the  neck  of  the  coat  hanger 
may  be  cut  off;  the  twisted  neck  serves  as  a  hanging  point. 

The  bundle  of  nesting  blocks  is  held  together  with  two  pieces  of  3/4  inch 
(1.9  cm)  non-roll  ribbed  elastic,  such  as  used  in  waistbands  of  various 
garments.  Each  piece,  23  cm  long,  is  formed  into  a  loop  with  the  ends 
overlapping  2.5-3.0  cm.  The  ends  are  sewn  together  with  heavy-duty  nylon 


Hanging  Board 
Trap  Block 


Wire  Hanger 


Double  Point  Wood  Staples 


3/4  inch 

Non-roll  ribbed  Elastic 


Fig.  1.   Design  of  a  simplified  holder  for  eumenid  nesting  blocks. 


60 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


*  -£-i 


„     _ 
•  *•  £  , 


&     -€ 


•  J^-,- .  < 

*    w  ,  >«        , 


_,      -  ^- *      i.' 

»-^2r  '    -i  '  •**•».  %"tfc"- 

,   »  sP^ 

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Fig.  2.   Field  placements  ot  trap-nesting  bundles  in  a  spruce-fir  forest;  a)  tree-mounted,  b) 
stake-mounted,  c)  on  logging  slash. 


Vol.  95,  No.  2,  March  &  April  1984  61 

thread,  and  for  added  strength,  the  ends  are  oversewn  two  or  three  times. 
Loop  size  is  dependent  on  bundle  size.  The  elastic  bands  should  be  tight 
enough  to  hold  the  blocks  firmly  together,  but  also  allow  easy  removal  and 
replacement  of  nesting  blocks. 

DISCUSSION 

The  trap  nest  holder  we  describe  is  simple,  easily  constructed  and 
relatively  inexpensive.  Nesting  block  sizes,  numbers  of  blocks  per  bundle, 
diameter  and  depth  of  borings,  and  deployment  sites  may  vary  depending  on 

study  objectives.  Bundles  of  blocks  may  be  hung  from  live  or  dead  trees 
(Fig.  2a);  from  stakes  (Fig.  2b);  or  from  logging  slash  and  debris  near  the 
ground  (Fig.  2c). 

Blocks  that  have  been  provisioned  by  the  wasps  (i.e.,  entrance  holes 
sealed  with  mud  plugs)  can  be  removed  and  replaced  with  new,  unused 
blocks.  Provisioned  blocks  are  taken  to  the  laboratory  where  they  are  split  with  a 
chisel  and  rubber  mallet.  Block  contents  are  examined  and  reared  in  situ 
(Krombein  1967);  or,  the  contents  (wasp  egg,  larva,  or  pupa  and  prey)  are 
removed  and  reared  separately  in  4-dram  shell  vials  (Jennings  and 
Houseweart  1984). 

The  elastic  bands  usually  last  for  one  collecting  season  (4  months). 
Under  rigorous  and  continued  use,  the  elastic  stretches  and  no  longer  holds 
the  nesting  blocks  firmly  together.  However,  the  non-roll  ribbed  elastic  is 
more  durable  than  ordinary  rubber  bands  which  readily  stretch  and  crack  in 
open  sun. 

These  trap  nesting  blocks  and  holders  have  been  used  successfully  to 
determine  the  species  of  eumenid  wasps  preying  on  spruce  budworm, 
Choristoneura  fumiferana  (Clemens),  and  other  lepidopterous  larvae  in 
spruce-fir  forests  of  Maine. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We  thank  John  B.  Dimond,  Arnold  S.  Menke,  Eben  A.  Osgood  and  Frank  D.  Parker  for 
their  review  comments. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Cooper,   K.W.    1953.   Biology  of  Eumenine   Wasps.   I.  The  ecology,  predation,   and 

competition  of  Ancistrocerus  antilope  (Panzer).  Trans.  Amer.  Ent.  Soc.  79:   13-35. 
Fye,  R.E.  1965a.  The  biology  of  the  Vespidae,  Pompilidae,  and  Sphecidae  (Hymenoptera) 

from  trap  nests  in  northwestern  Ontario.  Can.  Entomol.  97:  716-744. 
Fye,  R.E.  1965b.  Methods  of  placing  wasp  trap  nests  in  elevated  locations.  J.  Econ. 

Entomol.  58:  803-804. 
Jennings,  Daniel  T.,  and  Mark  W.  Houseweart  1984.  Predation  by  eumenid  wasps 

(Hymenoptera:   Eumenidae)  on  spruce  budworm  (Lepidoptera:  Tortricidae)  and  other 


62  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


lepidopterous  larvae  in  spruce-fir  forests  in  Maine.  Ann.  Entomol.  Soc.  Am.  77:  39-45. 
Koerber,  T.,  and  J.T.  Medler.  1958.  A  trap  nest  survey  of  solitary  bees  and  wasps  in 

Wisconsin,  with  biological  notes.  Proc.  Wisconsin  Acad.  Sci.  Arts  and  Lett.  47:  53-63. 
Krombein,  Karl  V.  1 967.  Trap  nesting  wasps  and  bees:  life  histories,  nests,  and  associates. 

Smithsonian  Press,  Washington,  D.C.  570  pp. 
Medler,  J.T.,  and  R.E.  Fye.  1956.  Biology  ofAncistrocerus  antilope( Panzer)  (Hymenoptera, 

Vespidae)  in  trap  nests  in  Wisconsin.  Ann.  Entomol.  Soc.  Am.  49:  97-102. 
Parker,  F.D.,  and  R.M.  Bohart.  1966.  Host-parasite  associations  in  some  twig-nesting 

Hymenoptera  from  western  North  America.  The  Pan-Pacific  Entomologist  42:  91-98. 


MEMOIRS  OF  THE  AMERICAN  ENTOMOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY 

A  SERIES  OF  MONOGRAPHICS  PAPERS  BY  STUDENTS  OF  AUTHORITY  IN 

THEIR  RESPECTIVE  SUBJECT. 

CURRENTLY  AVAILABLE  NUMBERS  LISTED  BELOW. 

(Listing  continued  from  page  57) 

18.  The  Genus  Bucculatrix  in  America  North  of  Mexico  (Microlepidoptera).  Annette  F. 
Braun.  1963.  $15.00. 

19.  The  Butterflies  of  Libera.  Richard  M.  Fox,  Arthur  W.  Lindsey,  Jr.,  Harry  K.  Clench  and 
LeeD.  Miller.  1965.  $12.50. 

20.  A  Revision  of  the  Mexican  and  Central  American  Spider  Wasps  of  the  Subfamily 
Pompilinae  (Hymenoptera:  Pompilidae).  Howard  E.  Evans.  1966.  $12.50. 

21 .  A  Taxonomic  and  Zoogeographic  Survey  of  the  Scarabaeinae  of  the  Antilles  (Coleoptera: 
Scarabaeidae).  Eric  G.  Matthews.  1966.  $5.00. 

22.  A  Monograph  of  the  Ithomiidae  ( Lepidoptera)  Part  III.  The  Tribe  Mechanitini  Fox. 
Richard  M.  Fox.  1967.  $9.00. 

23.  A  List  of  New  North  American  Spiders,  1940-1966.  Beatrice  R.  Vogel.  1967.  $9.00. 

24.  The  Higher  Classification,  Phylogeny  and  Zoogeography  of  the  Satyridae  (Lepidoptera). 
LeeD.  Miller.  1968.  $7.00. 

25.  The  Schizopteridae  (Hemiptera:  Heteroptera)  With  the  Description  of  New  Species 
from  Trinidad.  Michael  G.  Emsley.  1969.  $6.50. 

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Vol.  95,  No.  2,  March  &  April  1984  63 

AN  INEXPENSIVE  CARRION  BEETLE  TRAP 
(COLEOPTERA:   SILPHIDAE)1 

Paul  P.  Shubeck2 

ABSTACT:  An  inexpensive  carrion  beetle  trap  is  depicted  (with  diagrams  and  directions 
made  available  to  the  reader).  Eight  species  of  Silphidae  and  representatives  from  the  families 
Dermestidae,  Staphylinidae,  Histeridae,  Leiodidae,  Scarabaeidae  and  Nitidulidae  have  been 
taken  in  this  trap. 

More  than  two  decades  of  experience  with  sampling  carrion  beetles 
have  given  me  ample  opportunity  to  try  out  a  variety  of  different  traps.  In  my 
early  studies  I  used  a  simple  pitfall  trap  described  by  Walker  ( 1 957).  Since 
then  the  pitfall  method  of  trapping  has  been  improved  and  described  in 
detail  by  Newton  and  Peck  (1975).  For  a  period  of  time  I  used  ground 
(surface)  traps  which  were  cleaner  and  easier  to  operate  than  pitfall  traps 
(Shubeck,  1976).  Although  I  still  consider  ground  traps  excellent  in  all 
ways,  when  being  prepared  for  use  they  are  cumbersome  to  transport  if  one 
must  carry  them  any  distance  and  if  a  large  number  of  traps  must  be  set  up. 
One  way  to  minimize  the  transport  problem  is  to  use  a  suspended-type  trap 
which  requires  two  No.  10  cans  and  a  wire  coat  hanger  for  its  construction 
( Shubeck,  1 968).  This  trap  has  been  improved  by  constructing  a  permanent 
inexpensive  wood  frame  and  rain  cover  to  which  a  disposable  No.  10  food 
can  is  attached.  This  trap  is  depicted  in  Fig.  1 .  It  has  been  used  by  me  in 
New  Jersey,  Maryland,  and  Missouri  during  the  last  few  years  and  it  has 
proved  to  be  most  satisfactory  so  long  as  it  is  not  set  up  in  the  direct  rays  of 
the  sun.  Intense  buildup  of  heat  in  the  can  may  discourage  beetles  from 
entering  the  trap  or  may  even  drive  some  of  the  individuals  out  after  they 
have  entered. 

Eight  species  of  carrion  beetles  (Silphidae)  have  been  taken  in  these 
traps.  They  are:  Necrophila  americana,  Oiceoptoma  noveboracense,  O. 
inaequale,  Necrodes  surinamensis,  Oiceoptoma  orbicollis,  N.  tomentosus, 
N.  pustulatus,  and  TV.  marginatus.  Other  families  of  "carrion  beetles"  that 
have  been  taken  in  these  traps  include  Dermestidae,  Staphylinidae, 
Histeridae,  Leiodidae,  Scarabaeidae,  and  Nitidulidae. 

Detailed  diagrams  and  directions  for  the  construction  of  this  inexpensive 
carrion  beetle  trap  have  been  prepared  and  duplicated  and  are  available  to 
the  reader  upon  request. 


'Received  October  5,  1983.  Accepted  October  8,  1983. 

^Biology  Department,  Montclair  State  College,  Upper  Montclair,  NJ  07043 

ENT.  NEWS  95(2)  63-64  March  &  April  1984 


64 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


* 


"t^    ^^BB^'<*wP<iMi  WH 

^*         ^^-"P^^p.' 


'>. 
•   » 


Fig.  1 .  Inexpensive  carrion  beetle  trap  in  use  at  Great  Swamp  National  Wildlife  Refuge,  NJ. 
Photograph  by  Thomas  P.  Shubeck. 


LITERATURE  CITED 

Newton,  A.  and  S.B.  Peck.  1975.  Baited  pitfall  traps  for  beetles.  The  Coleopterists  Bull. 

29(1):  45-56. 
Shubeck  P.P.  1968.  Trapping  Fabre's  "sexton"  beetles.  The  American  Biology  Teacher 

30(6):  564-565. 
Shubeck,  P.P.  1976.  An  alternative  to  pitfall  traps  in  carrion  beetle  studies  (Coleoptera).  Ent. 

News87(5&6):    176-178. 
Walker,  T.J.  1957.  Ecological  studies  of  the  arthopods  associated  with  certain  decaying 

materials  in  four  habitats.  Ecology  38:  262-276. 


Vol.  95.  No.  2.  March  &  April  1984  65 

MASS-REARING  METHOD  FOR  THE  LARGE 

MILKWEED  BUG,  ONCOPELTUS  FASCIATUS 

(HEMIPTERA:  LYGAEIDAE)1 

Karl  P.  Koerper,  Clive  D.  Jorgensen2 

ABSTRACT:  A  method  of  mass-rearing  the  large  milkweed  bug,  Oncopeltus  fasciatus,  has 
been  developed  that  requires  limited  time  and  costs.  This  method  allows  removal  of  the  eggs 
without  disturbing  the  adults  or  damaging  them  during  handling.  Eggs  are  produced  for  about 
$1.307 1000  eggs. 

The  large  milkweed  bug,  Oncopeltus  faciatus,  has  been  the  subject  of 
much  experimental  research.  Mass-rearing  methods  specifically  designed 
to  reduce  labor  required  to  maintain  the  colony,  and  reduce  difficulties 
experienced  in  gathering  eggs  seem  to  have  escaped  the  literature  (Anon- 
ymous 1982,  Best  1977,  Butt  1949,  Dingle  1968,  Gordon  1974,  Richards 
andKolderie  1957,  Richards  and  Suanraksa  1962,  Siverly  1962).  Methods 
of  collecting  eggs  described  in  these  studies  include  removing  them  with 
small  brushes  from  cotton  or  gauze  oviposition  media.  These  techniques 
sometimes  cause  egg  damage  and  always  disrupt  the  adult  colony.  We  have 
developed  a  labor  conservative  method  for  rearing  large  milkweed  bugs 
that,  if  implemented,  will  assist  other  researchers  in  maintaining  their 
colonies.  Harvesting  and  handling  eggs  will  be  especially  enhanced. 

Materials  listed  are  adequate  for  about  195  breeding  pairs  of  adults. 
Expansions  or  reductions  in  the  number  of  specimens  (especially  eggs) 
required  should  be  made  according  to  space  requirements  of  the  adult  pairs, 
each  pair  requiring  38  to  46  cm^  for  optimum  egg  production.  Gordon 
( 1 974)  found  optimum  egg  production  was  obtained  at  about  38  cm^/pair. 
Increased  densities  will  cause  some  reduction  in  the  rate  of  egg  production. 
Materials  required  are:  five  plastic  freezer  storage  containers  about  3,01 9  cm2 
(6.5-7.0  1  capacity),  ten  250  ml  nalgene  water  bottles,  grade  50  (6.5-7.0 
1  capacity),  ten  250  ml  nalgene  water  bottles,  grade  50  cheesecloth, 
cotton,  No.  233  and  363  Nitex  nylon  monofilament  screen  cloths,  25  mgs 
of  sunflower  seeds  per  week  that  have  not  been  sprayed  with  pesticides,  and 
50  large  milkweed  bug  eggs. 

Adult  cages  ( Fig.  1 )  are  designed  to  give  females  no  choice  of  where  to 
oviposit.  The  only  satisfactory  site  is  through  the  cheesecloth  onto  paper 
sheets  provided  outside  (below)  the  cages.  The  center  portion  of  the  original 
snap-on  lid  is  cut  away  so  that  only  the  snap-on  ( S)  rim  remains  ( Fig.  1  A). 
This  rim  is  used  to  secure  the  stretched  cheesecloth  (Z)  onto  the  bottom  of 


1  Received  June  16,  1983.  Accepted  November  12.  1983. 

^Department  of  Zoology,  Brigham  Young  University,  Provo,  Utah  84602. 

ENT.  NEWS  95(2)  65-69  March  &  April  1984 


66 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Figure  1 .  A  —  Top  view  of  adult  rearing  cage:  W  =  water  bottles;  O  =  windows  cut  in  the 
original  bottom  of  the  freezer  storage  container;  S  =  snap-on  lid  with  the  center  removed, 
leaving  only  the  rim  to  hold  the  cheesecloth  ( Z)  bottom.  B  -  -  Bottom  view  showing  the  wicks 
(K)  from  the  water  bottles;  cheesecloth  (Z)  bottom  held  in  place  by  the  rim  of  the  snap-on  lid 
(S);  and  the  windows  (O);  all  seen  through  the  cheesecloth. 


Vol.  95,  No.  2,  March  &  April  1984  67 


the  cage.  Water  (W)  is  provided  through  two  holes  cut  in  the  bottom  (which 
is  the  top  of  the  cage  when  completed,  (Fig.  1  A)  of  the  freezer  container,  in 
which  water  bottles  with  tight  cotton  wicks  (K)  covered  with  No.  233  screen 
cloth  are  inserted  (Fig.  IB).  The  screen  cloth  prevents  oviposition  into  the 
cotton.  Windows  (O)  in  the  top  of  the  cage  are  covered  with  No.  363  screen 
cloth  glued  into  place  to  allow  observation  and  yet  prevent  oviposition  ( Fig. 
1 ).  About  1 5  gms  of  sunflower  seeds  and  65  adults  pairs  are  introduced  into 
the  cage  before  the  water  bottles  are  screwed  in  place.  The  cage  is  then 
placed  on  or  above  the  collection  sheets  (paper)  where  eggs  are  collected  as 
often  as  needed.  Eggs  may  be  continuously  collected  from  outside  the  cage 
without  ever  opening  the  cage  until  it  is  time  to  discard  the  adults.  Three 
adult  cages  are  required. 

Nymph  cages  are  the  same  as  adult  cages  except:  ( 1 )  the  center  of  the 
lid  is  not  removed,  (2)  wicks  in  the  water  bottles  are  not  covered  with  screen 
cloth,  and  (3)  about  50  gms  sunflower  seeds  are  cracked  to  provide  a  better 
food  base  for  the  young  nymphs.  Sunflower  seeds  and  eggs  are  placed  in  the 
cages  before  the  water  bottles  are  screwed  into  place.  These  cages  need  no 
additional  care  until  emerged  adults  are  removed  and  placed  in  the  adult 
cages.  Two  nymph  cages  are  required. 

Collecting  200  eggs  from  the  first  collection  of  adults  (4  weeks)  will  take 
longer  than  subsequent  collections  since  only  25  adult  females  are  present. 
More  eggs  to  start  with  would  speed  up  this  process. 

Week  1 4  is  the  beginning  of  routine  maintenance,  with  the  reinoculation 
of  adults  into  adult  cage  "  1 "  after  it  has  been  cleaned,  and  gauze  and  water 
bottles  with  their  cotton  wicks  replaced.  After  this,  400  nymphs  and  195 
adults  will  be  maintained  continuously.  Maintaining  this  colony  indefinitely 
will  require  about  25  gms  of  sunflower  seeds  per  week,  which  should  be 
stored  in  refrigeration  to  avoid  contamination  with  stored  products  pests. 
Egg  production  is  maximized  with  a  photoperiod  of  16L-8D,  and  tempera- 
ture set  at  27  C  (Dingle  1968). 

Cost  and  time  assessments  for  this  method  are  unusually  conservative. 
The  initial  cost,  excluding  intitutional  costs,  for  the  entire  system  ready  to 
maintain  at  week  1 4  is  estimated  at  $85,  25%  of  which  is  for  the  cost  of  50 
eggs.  Maintenance  cost  expressed  in  terms  of  eggs  produced  is  about 
S. 70/1000  eggs.  In  addition,  the  labor  estimate  is  about  $2.50/1000  eggs. 
We  estimate  eggs  counted  into  groups  of  1000  will  cost  about  $3.20  per 
group.  Of  course,  if  approximate  number  of  eggs  is  acceptable  the  cost  is 
much  less,  about  $1.30/1000.  Only  about  five  minutes  per  collection  are 
required  to  collect  eggs,  plus  one  hour  twice  monthly  to  clean  cages,  transfer 
adults  and  collect  eggs  for  future  generations.  This  method  offers  minimal 
expense  in  maintaining  a  colony  where  specimens  are  needed  continually 
for  experimental  purposes. 


68 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Colony  establishment  and  maintenance  are  sequentially  explained  in 
the  following  flow  table: 

Table  1.  Flowtable  to  explain  colony  established  and  maintenance. 

Cage  contents  and  collection  no. 
Week  Action  Nymph  cages  Adult  cages 

0    50  eggs  placed  in  a=l.yrcoll  b=empty     l=empty     2=empty      3=empty 

nymph  cage  "a" 

4    25  pairs  of  adults  a=  Is/ coll  b=empty     l  =  lsf  coll  2=empty      3=empty 

from  nymph  cage  "a" 
placed  in  adult 
cage  "1" 

6    200  eggs  from  adult       a=empty     b=2nd  coll  1  =  1  st  coll  2=empty      3=empty 
cage  "1"  placed  in 
nymph  cage  "b" 

8    200  eggs  from  adult       a=3rd  coll  b=2nd  coll  \  =  lst  coll  2=empty      3=empty 
cage  "1"  placed  into 
nymph  cage  "a" 

10    65  pairs  of  adults  a=3rd  coll  b=4th  coll  l=lst  coll  2=2nd  coll  3=empty 

from  nymph  cage  "b" 
placed  in  adult  cage 
"2."  200  eggs  from 
adult  cage  "1"  placed 
into  nymph  cage  "b" 

12    65  pairs  of  adults  a=5^  coll  b=4th  coll  l  =  ls/coll  2=2/zrfcoll  3=3rcfcoll 

from  nymph  cage  "a" 
placed  in  adult  cage 
"3."  200  eggs  from 
adult  cages  "1  and  2" 
placed  into  nymph 
cage  "a" 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Anonymous.   1982.  Carolina  Arthropods  Manual  45-4401.   Carolina  Biol.   Sup.   Co., 

Burlington,  NC. 

Best,  R.L.  1977.  The  milkweed  bug.  Carolina  Tips  40:1-2. 
Butt,  F.H.  1949.  Embryology  of  the  milkweek  bug,  Oncopeltus  fasciatus  (Hemiptera). 

Cornell  Expt.  Sta.  Mem  283:  43  pp. 
Dingle  H.  1968.  Life  history  and  population  consequences  of  density,  photo-period,  and 

temperature  in  a  migrant  insect,  the  milkweed  bug  Oncopeltus.  Amer.  Nat.  102:    149- 

163. 
Gordon,  H.T.  1974.  Cohort  rearing  and  cold-storage  of  the  sunflower  strain  of  Oncopeltus 

fasciatus.  Ann.  Entomol.  Soc.  Am.  67:  976-980. 
Richards,  A.G.  and  M.Q.  Kolderie.  1957.  Variation  in  weight,  development  rate,  and 


Vol.  95,  No.  2,  March  &  April  1984  69 


hatchability  of  Oncopeltus  eggs  as  a  function  of  the  mother's  age.  Entomol.  News. 

68:  57-64. 
Richards,  A.G.  and  S.  Sunaraksa.  1962.  Energy  expenditure  during  embryonic  development 

under  constant  versus  variable  temperatures  \Oncopeltus  fasciatus  (Dallas)j.  Entomol. 

Expt.  Appl.  5:   167-178. 
Siverly,  R.E.  1962.  Rearing  insects  in  schools.  Wm.  C.  Brown  Publishers,  Dubuque.  Iowa. 


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70  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

A  METHOD  OF  STORING  INSECT  GENITALIA 
FOR  TAXONOMIC  STUDY1 

J.E.  O'Hara,  M.G.  Mclntyre2 

ABSTRACT:  A  genitalia  tray  specifically  designed  for  use  by  insect  taxonomists  is 
described  and  illustrated.  A  method  is  outlined  whereby  trays  can  be  reproduced  using  molds 
and  a  polyester-based  casting  resin.  Trays  are  suitable  for  storage  of  genitalia  during 
revisionary  work,  and  provide  immediate  access  to  series  of  genitalia  for  comparative  study. 

Many  insect  taxonomists  store  adult  insect  specimens  on  pins  in  foam- 
bottomed  trays,  inside  specially  designed  drawers  and  cabinets.  Specimens 
stored  in  this  manner  are  readily  available  for  study  and  comparison  of 
external  structures.  Unfortunately,  a  similar  system  has  not  been  developed 
to  accommodate  the  needs  of  taxonomists  interested  in  studying  large  series 
of  insect  genitalia,  so  it  is  often  necessary  to  repeatedly  examine  genitalia 
stored  in  microvials,  or  temporarily  remove  limited  series  of  genitalia  to 
porcelain  trays  or  similar  ad  hoc  containers  for  comparative  study.  With  the 
increasing  awareness  of  the  importance  of  genitalic  characters  in  the 
systematics  of  many  insect  taxa,  a  method  is  needed  whereby  numerous 
genitalia  can  be  efficiently  stored,  easily  retrieved  and  readily  grouped  for 
study  under  a  dissecting  microscope.  The  gentialia  tray  here  described  is 
one  solution  to  this  problem,  and  over  the  past  several  years  has  not  only 
proved  itself  useful  in  practice,  but  has  indirectly  encouraged  the  senior 
author's  study  of  genitalic  structure  within  the  Tachinidae  (Diptera)  by 
eliminating  time-consuming  and  inefficient  storage  difficulties. 

MATERIALS  AND  METHODS 

Design  of  the  genitalia  tray  shown  in  Fig.  1,  and  technical  aspects  of  its 
production  and  duplication,  were  developed  by  the  junior  author.  Production 
of  genitalia  trays  basically  involves  machining  of  a  master  tray,  creation  of 
one  to  many  molds  from  that  tray,  and  replication  of  plastic  trays  from  the 
molds.  Our  master  tray  was  cut  from  0.5  in  (12. 7mm)  thick  Plexiglass®  and 
sanded  to  the  outside  dimensions  shown  in  Fig.  1 ,  and  then  machined  with  a 
0.5  in  milling  tool  to  produce  the  interior  contours.  The  completed  tray, 
approximately  63x66mm  square,  was  placed  in  the  center  of  a  small  wooden 
box,  of  such  a  size  as  to  allow  about  10mm  clearance  on  each  side.  A 
molding  compound  (Dow  Corning  Silastic  Moldmaking  Rubber  RTV  E, 
soft)  was  poured  over  the  tray,  covering  the  top  by  about  5  mm,  and  allowed 


1  Received  June  1,  1983.  Accepted  October  28,  1983. 

^Department  of  Entomology,  University  of  Alberta,  Edmonton,  Alberta  T6G  2E3 

ENT.  NEWS  95(2)  70-72  March  &  April  1984 


Vol.  95,  No.  2,  March  &  April  1984 


71 


to  set.  (To  ensure  smooth  edges  in  the  finished  product,  trapped  air  bubbles 
were  removed  from  the  angles  of  the  tray  by  running  a  pointed  object  along 
tray  edges.)  Once  hardened,  the  flexible  molds  were  ready  for  repeated 
casting  of  plastic  genitalia  trays  using  a  polyester-based  casting  resin,  such 
as  commonly  found  under  a  variety  of  brand  names  commercially  and  in 
hobby  stores.  White  dye  added  to  the  resin  gives  superior  results,  as  white 
trays  reflect  light  more  evenly  than  do  clear  plastic  ones.  This  is  important 
because  the  trays  are  designed  for  use  with  a  dissecting  microscope,  with 
standard  illumination. 

For  best  results,  trays  should  be  lightly  sanded  on  outside  surfaces  after 
removal  from  molds  to  smooth  slight  irregularities  caused  by  shrinkage 
during  the  hardening  process  (interior  surfaces  are  not  adversely  affected). 
Lids,  which  can  be  fashioned  from  a  variety  of  materials,  should  be  fitted  to 
finished  size  of  the  trays  rather  than  to  dimensions  of  the  master  tray.  (Our 
lids  simply  rest  loosely  on  top  of  the  trays,  and  are  not  fastened  in  any  way.) 
We  prefer  0.125in  (3.2mm)  thick  Plexiglass®  for  lid  material,  as  it  is 
transparent  and  can  be  written  on  with  India  ink. 


628 


127 


60 


r-  —  1 
1  

i  

1  

1  

1  

1  

1  

L  _  j 

1  

3- 

'. 

( 

H» 

-12.' 

T  > 

Fig.  1.   Dimensions  of  genitalia  tray  (in  mm). 


72 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Fig.  2.  Two  completed  trays,  left  tray  with  lid  and  right  without,  as  used  for  storage  of  tachinid 
fly  genitalia  in  glycerin-filled  dishes. 


DISCUSSION 

Each  tray  is  designed  to  hold  20  genitalia  dishes  in  4  rows.  Dishes  are 
best  cut  to  a  height  of  7mm  from  0.5  dram,  12x35mm,  shell  vials  (such  as 
Kimble  brand  #60930-L  vials).  Genitalia  are  stored  one  per  dish  in  several 
drops  of  glycerin,  accompanied  by  a  code  number  to  ensure  correct 
association  with  the  adult  specimen.  By  keeping  a  record  of  all  code 
numbers  and  specimens  dissected,  pairing  of  pinned  specimens  and 
genitalia  are  facilitated,  even  if  the  former  are  scattered  throughout  a  large 
general  collection. 

Two  finished  trays,  as  used  for  storage  of  tachinid  fly  genitalia,  are 
shown  in  Fig.  2. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The  authors  thank  Dr.  G.E.  Ball  for  his  comments  on  this  paper  and  for  meeting 
publication  costs  through  NSERC  Grant  No.  A- 13 99,  and  Mr.  J.S.  Scott  for  the  illustrations. 


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US  ISSN  0013-872X 


NTOM 


MAY  &  JUNE  1984 

JJJLT 


No.  3 


M 


New  species  of  Cicindela  from  Florida  and  elevation  of 
C.  abdominalis  scabrosa  to  species  level  (Coleoptera: 
Cicindelidae)  Paul  M.  Choate    73 

New  Nearctic  species  of  Hyadina  (Diptera:  Ephydridae) 

Philip  J.  Clausen    83 

Acanthoscelides  winderi,  new  species  (Coleoptera:  Bruchidae) 

associated  with  Mimosa  spp.  John  M.  Kingsolver    87 

|  Elevation  of  Diabrotica  sicuanica  (Coleoptera:  Chrysomelidae) 
to  species  level  with  notes  on  altitudinal  distribution 
of  Diabrotica  species  in  Cuzco  Department  of  Peru 

J.L.  Krysan,  T.F.  Branson, 
R.F.W.  Schroeder,  W.E.  Steiner,  Jr.     91 

Pseudocossinae:  a  new  subfamily  of  Cossidae  (Lepidoptera) 

J.B.  Heppner    99 

Additional  observations  on  association  ofPedilus  (Pedilidae) 

withMe/oe  (Coleoptera:  Meloidae)  Linda  Butler  101 

Trichoptera  of  the  Cahaba  River  system  in  Alabama 

S.C.  Harris,  P.K.  Logo,  P.E.  O'Neil  103 

Checklist  of  stoneflies  (Plecoptera)  of  Kentucky 

D.C.  Tarter,  D.A.  Adkins,  C.V.  Covell,  Jr.  113 

Insect  marking  techniques:  durability  of  materials 

S.A.  Wineriter,  T.J.  Walker  117 


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Vol.  95,  No.  3,  May  &  June,  1984  73 


A  NEW  SPECIES  OF  CICINDELA  LINNAEUS 

(COLEOPTERA:  CICINDELIDAE)  FROM 

FLORIDA,  AND  ELEVATION  OF  C.  ABDOMINALIS 

SCABROSA  SCHAUPP  TO  SPECIES  LEVEL1 

Paul  M.  Choate2 

ABSTRACT:  A  new  species  of  Cicindela  Linnaeus  was  discovered  during  a  study  of  the 
named  forms  of  C,  abdominalis  Fabricius.  This  species,  C.  highlandensis  n.  sp.,  is  described 
here.  Additionally,  the  various  names  applied  to  C.  abdominalis  are  examined  for  validity.  C. 
abdominalis  is  redescribed.  Based  on  examination  of  types,  the  following  name  changes  are 
proposed.  C.  scabrosa  Schaupp  is  found  to  be  a  valid  species.  C.  extenuata  Casey  is  a 
synonym  of  C.  scabrosa  Schaupp,  as  is  C.  abdominalis  floridana  Cartwright  (NEW 
SYNONYMY).  C.faceta  Casey  is  a  synonym  of  C.  abdominalis  F.  (NEW  SYNONYMY). 
C.  highlandensis  n.  sp.  is  believed  to  be  a  sister  species  of  C.  abdominalis,  having  evolved 
on  pre-Pleistocene  islands  in  central  Florida. 

This  research  began  several  years  ago  during  a  cursory  study  of  the  tiger 
beetle  fauna  of  Florida.  An  attempt  at  collecting  and  identifying  the  named 
forms  of  this  group  revealed  inconsistencies  concerning  the  application  of 
names  to  Cicindela  abdominalis  and  its  subspecies  scabrosa. 

Several  museum  collections  that  were  borrowed  had  mixtures  of  the 
various  forms  under  the  same  heading,  some  examples  merely  set  aside  with 
question  marks.  Invariably  it  was  found  that  the  confused  specimens  were 
scabrosa. 

Cicindela  abdominalis  Fabricius  has  included  3  subspecies;  abdominalis, 
scabrosa  Schaupp,  andfloridana  Cartwright.  Additionally,  Casey  (1913) 
described  C.  extenuata  and  C.  faceta  as  species  close  to  abdominalis. 
Newman  (1838)  described  C.  ventralis  from  St.  John's  Bluff,  Florida,  but 
his  description  is  too  incomplete  to  be  interpreted.  The  name  must  therefore 
remain  a  no  men  inquirendum. 

The  genus  Cicindela  (sensu  latu)  still  requires  comprehensive  study  in 
North  America.  Numerous  subspecies  names  have  yet  to  be  resolved. 
Species  descriptions,  however,  have  been  relatively  few  in  recent  years.  It  is 
surprising,  therefore,  to  discover  a  new  species  in  Florida.  The  following 
descriptions  and  discussions  are  presented  to  make  a  species  name 
available  for  a  manuscript  dealing  with  the  phylogeny,  zoogeography,  and 
ecology  of  Cicindela  abdominalis  Fabricius  and  its  related  species. 
Detailed  discussion  of  the  relationships  of  this  new  species  is  postponed  to 
publication  of  the  above  mentioned  manuscript. 


Deceived  June  10,  1983.  Accepted  February  27,  1984. 
2USDA  SEA  IAML.,  PO  Box  14565,  Gainesville,  FL  32604 

ENT.  NEWS.  95(3):   73-82.  May  &  June,  1984 


74  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Cicindela  highlandensis  n.  sp. 

Head:  Eyes  prominent,  approximately  as  wide  as  humerus,  wider  than  pronotum. 
Clypeus  black  with  purple,  green,  and  blue  reflection;  microsculpture  isodiametric.  Labrum 
pale,  medially  convex  with  2  anterior  medial  setae,  2  lateral  setae;  slightly  wider  than  long; 
front  margin  with  central  protuberance,  edentate;  microsculpture  isodiametric  laterally, 
effaced  or  stretched  on  median  convexity.  Mandibles  pale  basally,  apical  half  piceus.  Mentum 
with  acute  median  tooth.  Ligula  lacking.  Maxilla  cardo  with  2  setae,  stipes  with  5  setae; 
segment  1  with  1  apical  seta,  segment  2  glabrous,  segment  3  with  2-3  setae,  segment  4  with  2 
apical  setae,  segment  5  glabrous.  Labial  palp  4  segmented;  segments  1  and  2  rufous,  glabrous; 
segment  3  rufous,  glabrous  ventrally,  with  15-18  scattered  erect  setae  dorsally;  segment  4 
piceus,  glabrous.  Gena  glabrous,  bright  purple  with  8  longitudinally  impressed  striae 
terminating  anteriorly  in  a  depressed  pit  under  anterior  margin  of  eye;  microsculpture  effaced 
medially,  isodiametric  towards  ventral  margin.  Frons  glabrous,  longitudinally  strigose; 
laterally  purple;  medially  green;  microsculpture  isodiametric  medially,  stretched  laterally. 
Inner  margin  of  eye  emarginate;  elevated  interocular  area  of  head  smooth  near  lateral  edge, 
longitudinally  grooved  in  center  of  head;  2  supraorbital  setae.  Antennae  with  segments  1-4 
glabrous  except  for  scattered  erect  setae,  rufous  with  green  reflection;  segment  1  with  1  apical 
seta;  segment  2  glabrous;  segment  3  with  3  evenly  spaced  medial  setae,  several  apical  setae; 
segment  4  with  1  medial  seta,  2  apical  setae;  segment  1  slightly  swollen  apically,  2-3  times 
length  of  segment  2;  segment  3  equal  in  length  to  segments  2+4;  segments  5-1 1  covered  with 
short  dense  pubescence. 

Thorax:  Pronotum  with  deeply  impressed  anterior  V-shaped  impression;  longitudinal 
median  line  with  impressed  transverse  strigae;  microsculpture  isodiametric,  tending  toward 
meshes  anteriorly  and  laterally;  basal  impression  deep;  posterior  angle  on  elevated  bump; 
surface  green  with  cupreus-purple  mixture;  lateral  margin  glabrous.  Prosternum  glabrous, 
shining  purple.  Proepisternum  smooth,  glabrous,  shining  purple,  microsculpture  effaced. 
Procoxae  with  small  cluster  of  white  setae  on  inner  and  lateral  margin,  glabrous  medially; 
inner  surface  with  single  erect  seta.  Trochanter  glabrous.  Profemur  metallic  purple  on  basal 
half,  rufous  apically;  3  erect  setae  on  venter.  Protibia  rufous  with  purple  reflection;  inner 
surface  of  apical  half  covered  with  dense  fringe  of  short  hairs;  anterior  surface  with  6  large  erect 
setae  set  in  green  foveae.  Protarsi  glabrous  dorsally;  ventrally  with  4  pair  of  erect  setae; 
segment  1  longest,  2-5  subequal.  Claws  2,  long,  smooth.  Protarsal  segments  1-4  ventrally  at 
apex  with  2  larger  setae.  Mesosternum  glabrous.  Mesepisternum  glabrous,  shiny,  purple. 
Mesocoxae  setose  on  anterior  lateral  surface;  glabrous  medially  on  inner  surface;  posteriorly 
with  a  few  hairs  and  a  single,  fine,  erect,  seta.  Trochanter  glabrous.  Mesofemur  glabrous 
ventrally.  Mesotibia  with  dense  inner  fringe  of  hairs  in  apical  half.  Meta  sternum  glabrous. 
Metepisternum  glabrous.  Metacoxae  with  single  erect  seta  each  on  anterior  and  median 
portion,  posterior  lateral  edge  with  3-4  decumbent  setae.  Trochanter  glabrous.  Metatibia  with 
short  fringe  of  setae  at  apex  on  inner  margin.  Metafemur  with  5  ventral  setae.  Elytron  black; 
scutellum  transversely  impressed,  with  slight  purple-green  reflection;  7-9  irregular  sutural 
foveae  containing  a  seta  set  in  shallow  pit,  pit  with  slight  metallic  purple  reflection.  Entire 
dorsal  surface  appearing  shallowly  punctate;  microsculpture  coarse,  isodimetric.  Suture 
terminating  posteriorly  in  spine.  Apices  microserrulate.  Depressed  area  near  humerus  with  6 
setae. 

Abdomen:  Rufous,  glabrous  except  for  erect  tactile  setae  along  posterior  margin  of  apical 
stemite,  and  medially  on  sternites  3-4.  Sternite  5  depressed  medially  with  numerous  small 
hairs  in  depression. 

Size:  Holotype  female:    1 1.5  mm.  in  length  (Fig.  1). 

Variation:  (35  measured)  Females  average  11.4  mm.  in  length  (10.5-12.0);  35  males 
average  10.9  mm.  in  length  (10.5-12.0).  Males  have  protarsal  segments  1-3  dilated  with 


Vol.  95,  No.  3,  May  &  June,  1984  75 


ventral  pad  of  dense  setae.  Approximately  half  of  the  specimens  were  immaculate.  The  only 
maculation  seen  was  a  very  narrow  apical  lunule.  Neither  ventral  pubescence  nor  pronotal 
lateral  hairs  occurred  on  any  specimens. 

Type  Locality:  Florida;  Highlands  Co.,  Rt.  27,  0.25  mi.  south  of  Josephine  Creek,  4.3 
mi.  north  of  junction  of  Rt.  S-17  and  621;  10-VII-1976,  P.M.  Choate  &  L.  Davis,  23 
paratypes  (15  males,  8  females). 

Distribution:  Restricted  to  Highlands  Co.,  FL.,  on  fossil  sand  dunes  south  of  Sebring. 
This  sand  ridge  extends  into  Polk  County,  thus  this  species  may  also  occur  there. 

Etymology:  This  new  species  is  named  for  Highlands  Co.,  FL.,  an  area  noted  for  its  plant 
and  animal  endemics. 

Specimens  examined:  Holotype  and  101  paratypes,  all  from  Highlands  Co.,  FL.  All  but 
5  specimens  were  from  the  type  locality.  30  specimens  were  collected  in  June  (some  teneral) 
and  71  in  July.  The  5  specimens  not  from  the  type  locality  are  in  FSCA  (Florida  State 
Collection  of  Arthropods,  Gainesvile,  FL,  32602),  and  bear  the  data  "Hendricks  Field,  nr. 
Sebring,  on  fossil  sand  dunes,"  5  -  VII  -  1976,  H.V.  Weems,  collr.. 

Type  material  will  be  distributed  as  follows:  Holotype  and  9  paratypes  from  the  original 
series  will  be  deposited  in  FSCA.  Additional  specimens  (4  ea.)  from  the  same  series  will  be 
sent  to  AMNH  (New  York),  USNM,  CAS  (California  Academy  of  Sciences),  MCZ 
Harvard  University),  Strickland  Museum  (Edmonton,  Alberta),  Carnegie  Museum  (Pittsburgh), 
with  the  remainder  in  the  author's  personal  collection. 

Redescription  of  Cicindela  abdominalis  Fabricius 

Cicindela  abdominalis  Fabricius,  1801.  p.  237,  Syst.  Eleuth.  Type  locality  "Carolina." 
Cicindela  ventralis  Newman,  1818.  p.  413-414.  Type  locality  "St.  John's  Bluff,  East 

Florida,  North  America." 
Cicindela  abdominalis  faceta  Casey,  1913.  p.  38.  NEW  SYNONYMY.  (No  locality,  single 

female)  Type  USNM  45969  red  label. 

Size:  Females  average  1 1.0  mm.  (10.3  -  12.5);  males  average  10.0  mm  (9.3  -  10.5). 

Head:  Eyes  prominent,  approximately  as  wide  as  humerus,  distinctly  wider  than 
pronotum;  black,  with  purple,  green,  and  blue  reflections,  microsculpture  isodiametric. 
Labrum  pale,  with  2  anterior  medial  setae  and  2  lateral  setae;  edentate,  lateral  area 
microsculpture  isodiametric,  stretched  medially.  Mandibles  pale  basally,  apical  half  piceous 
with  metallic  reflection.  Ligula  lacking.  Mentum  with  single  acute  median  tooth.  Maxilla  with 
cardo  2-3  setae,  stipes  with  3-4  setae,  segment  1  with  single  erect  seta,  segment  2  glabrous, 
segment  3  with  2-3  setae,  segment  4  with  2  apical  setae,  segment  5  glabrous.  Labial  palp  4 
segmented;  segments  1-2  pale  rufous,  glabrous,  segment  3  rufous  with  20  erect  setae,  segment 
4  piceous  and  glabrous.  Gena  glabrous,  shallowly  grooved.  Frons  longitudinally  strigose, 
strigae  isodiametric.  Inner  margin  of  eye  emarginate;  2  erect  supraorbital  setae.  Antennal 
segments  1  -4  glabrous  except  for  isolated  large  erect  setae.  Segment  1  with  1  erect  apical  seta, 
rufopiceous  ventrally.  Segment  2  lacks  tactile  setae.  Segment  3  with  3-4  basal  setae,  1-2 
medial  setae,  5  apical  setae.  Segment  4  glabrous  basally,  5-7  apical  setae.  Segments  1  -4  with 
metallic  green  reflections.  Segments  5- 1 1  densely  covered  with  short  pubescence.  Segment  5 
rufopiceous,  6-1 1  piceous.  Segment  1  swollen  apically,  3  times  as  long  as  segment  2,  one  half 
as  long  as  segments  3  and  4;  segments  3  and  4  subequal,  elongate. 

Thorax:  Pronotum  dorsally  with  deep  anterior  v-shaped  impression,  longitudinal  median 
line  moderately  impressed  with  transverse  strigae  extending  laterally.  Microsculpture  coarse, 
isodiametric.  Basal  impression  moderately  impressed ,  posterior  lateral  angle  suggested  by  an 
elevated  bump.  Surface  with  cupreous  (blue-green)  reflection.  Lateral  margin  with  inconspicous 
fringe  of  white  hairs  which,  when  missing,  are  indicated  by  extremely  fine  punctures  near 


76  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


marginal  groove.  Prosternum  glabrous,  microsculpture  effaced,  with  purple  reflection. 
Proepisternum  with  approximately  15  white  setae  along  basal  margin  adjacent  to  procoxae, 
otherwise  glabrous.  Microsculpture  effaced,  shiny.  Procoxae  with  anterior  surface  with  fringe 
of  white  hairs,  inner  surface  glabrous.  A  single  erect  seta  on  inner  medial  surface.  Trochanter 
glabrous,  pale  rufous.  Profemur  with  metallic  blue-green  reflection;  piceous  basally,  rufous 
apically,  knees  with  metallic  green  reflection.  Ventrally  with  2-3  erect  setae.  Numerous  large 
erect  setae  on  anterior  and  inner  surface.  Isodiametric  microsculpture  evident  over  entire 
surface.  Protibia  ventral  inner  surface  with  fringe  of  hair,  dorsal  surface  glabrous  except  for 
scattered  tactile  setae.  Tibia  with  metallic  green  reflection.  Tibia  with  2  large  ventral  apical 
spines. 

Protarsi  of  male  ventrally  with  segments  1-3  with  dense  covering  of  hairs,  segments  4-5 
glabrous  except  for  a  few  erect  setae.  Females  with  tarsal  segments  unmodified.  Each  tarsal 
segment  (both  sexes)  with  2  ventral  apical  spines,  claws  smooth,  subequal.  Mesosternum 
smooth,  glabrous.  Mesepisternum  glabrous  medially,  basally  with  fringe  of  white  decumbent 
setae.  Mesocoxae  as  in  procoxae.  Mesotrochanter  glabrous,  tibia  and  tarsi  as  above. 
(Posterior  surface  of  coxa  with  basal  setae.)  Mesofemur  with  1-2  ventrally  erect  setae  on 
apical  half.  Mesepimeron  with  covering  of  decumbent  white  hairs.  Metasternum  glabrous 
medially,  extreme  anterior  margin  with  up  to  8  white  setae;  anterior  lateral  angle  labrous; 
posterior  lateral  margin  with  fringe  of  setae.  Metepimeron  covered  with  whte  decumbent  setae. 
Metacoxal  process  with  single  large  erect  tactile  seta  basally  and  apically,  also  with  lateral 
fringe  of  white  setae.  Metafemur  with  2-4  ventral  erect  setae. 

Abdomen:  Rufous,  sternites  1-4  with  decreasing  lateral  fringe  of  white  setae.  Segment  3 
laterally  overlapping  segment  4  in  the  form  of  a  flange,  extending  posteriorly  to  segment  5. 
Segments  3-5  medially  with  several  inconspicous  setae.  Segment  5  emarginate  apically  in 
male,  depressed  and  setose  in  female.  Segment  6  in  male  with  apical  fringe  of  setae.  Elytra 
black,  with  apical  lunule  and  other  maculation  white.  Median  lunule  represented  by  broken 
dots  or  lunule  may  be  totally  absent.  Scutellum  with  cupreous  to  blue-green  reflection; 
microsculpture  coarse,  isodiametric.  Basal  elytral  punctures  at  scutellum  umbilicate.  Elytra 
with  row  of  6-9  large  foveae,  each  with  metallic  blue-green  reflection  and  containing  a  single 
umbilicate  setiferous  puncture.  Elytra  irregularly  and  shallowly  punctured  (Fig.  2),  micro- 
sculpture  isodiametric,  granular.  Subsutural  row  of  metallic  punctures  shallow,  with  blue- 
green  reflection.  Apex  of  elytra  spined  and  microserrulate  in  both  sexes.  Humeri  with 
impressed  groove  containing  5-6  umbiliferous  punctures.  Male  genitalia  (Fig.  5). 

Distribution:  New  Jersey,  south  along  the  Atlantic  seaboard  to  north  central  Florida, 
west  along  the  Gulf  States  to  Louisiana. 

Variation:  Elytral  pattern  appears  to  be  more  heavily  maculated  in  northern  specimens, 
decreasing  southward.  This  probably  led  to  the  naming  of  Casey's  Cicindela  faceta. 

Cicindela  scabrosa  Schaupp  NEW  STATUS 

Cicindela  abdominalis  var.  scabrosa  Schaupp  1884,  p.  108.  type  locality  FLA  (Cedar 

Keys). 
Cicindela  extenuata  Casey  191 3,  p.  38.  Type  locality  Crescent  City.  Holotype  USNM  Type 

45970  red  label. 

Paratype  USNM  Type  45970  "extenuata  2,"  red  label. 
C.  abdominalis  floridana  Cartwright  1939,  p.  364.  Type  locality  Miami,  FL.,  Collr.  F.N. 

Young,  Aug.  9-12,  1934,  NEW  SYNONYMY. 

Size:  Females  average  10.5  mm.  (10.0  -  1 1.5),  males  average  9.8  mm.  (8.2  -  10.3). 
Head:  Eyes  prominent,  as  wide  as  humerus,  wider  than  pronotum.  Clypeus  black  with 
green  central  area,  purple  laterally.  Microsculpture  isodiametric.  Labrum  pale,  with  4  medial 


Vol.  95,  No.  3,  May  &  June,  1984  77 


setae,  2  lateral.  Mandibles  piceous  with  narrow  pale  basal  lateral  portion.  Mentum  with  acute 
median  tooth.  Ligula  lacking.  Maxilla  cardo  with  3  white  setae,  stipes  with  4-5  setae.  Segment 
1  with  1  apical  seta,  segment  2  glabrous,  segment  3  with  3  setae  ventrally,  segment  4  with  1 
ventral  seta  (apex),  segment  5  glabrous.  Labial  palpi  4  segmented,  segments  1  and  2  glabrous, 
segment  3  with  approximately  20  erect  setae  on  dorsal  surface,  segment  4  glabrous.  Colored  as 
in  abdominalis  and  highlandensis.  Gena  glabrous  with  purple  reflection,  3-5  grooves 
terminating  anteriorly  in  a  depressed  pit.  Frons  glabrous  with  suggestion  of  striae  laterally, 
central  area  smooth  and  elevated.  Eyes  with  2  erect  supraorbital  setae.  Antennal  segments  1-4 
glabrous  with  metallic  reflection,  1-2  erect  setae  on  each  segment.  Segments  5-1 1  covered 
with  dense  tomentose  setae.  Segment  1  with  1  large  erect  seta;  segment  2  glabrous.  Segment  3 
with  3-5  medial  setae,  6  apical  setae.  Segment  4  with  1-2  medial  setae,  3-5  apical  setae. 
Segment  1  gradually  swollen  apically,  2  times  the  length  of  segment  2.  Segment  3  less  than  2 
and  4,  greater  in  length  than  1  and  2.  Segment  4  shorter  than  3. 

Thorax:  Pronotum  with  anterior  v-shaped  impression;  middle  smooth,  microsculpture 
reduced,  basal  impression  shallow.  Lateral  margin  with  30  -  50  flattened  setae.  Prosternum 
glabrous,  with  greenish  reflection,  shiny.  Proepisternum  with  numerous  white  setae  near 
procoxae,  the  remainder  smooth,  shiny,  microsculpture  effaced.  Procoxae  anterior  surface 
with  dense  layer  of  flattened  setae.  Single  erect  slender  seta  on  inner  surface.  Trochanter 
glabrous.  Profemur  with  6-7  ventral  erect  setae.  Protibia  anterior  surface  with  6-7  short,  erect 
seta  in  depressions.  Inner  half  surface  apically  with  dense  layer  of  fine  setae.  Protarsi  glabrous 
dorsally ,  ventrally  with  4  pair  of  small  erect  setae  and  1  large  apical  pair.  Segment  1  longest,  2- 
5  subequal.  Males  with  segments  1-3  ventrally  with  dense  layer  of  hair;  female  unmodified;  2 
tarsal  claws,  long  smooth,  subequal.  Meso-stemum  glabrous,  smooth,  shiny.  Mesepimeron 
covered  with  dense  fringe  of  decumbent  setae.  Mesocoxae  anterior  surface  with  numerous 
white  setae,  posteriorly  with  single  large  erect  seta.  Trochanter  glabrous.  Mesofemur  with  5-6 
erect  setae  on  ventral  surface.  Mesotibia  with  dense  fringe  of  short  setae  near  apex  on  inner 
surface.  Mesosternum  with  scattered  decumbent  setae  on  anterior  margin.  Metepisternum  and 
metepimeron  with  dense  covering  of  decumbent  setae.  Metacoxae  with  fringe  of  setae  along 
posterior  margin,  also  with  2  erect  setae.  Metatrochanter  glabrous.  Metatibia  glabrous 
apically  except  for  short  scattered  erect  setae.  Ventral  surface  with  row  of  1 1  - 1 2  erect  setae  on 
posterior  and  anterior  margin. 

Abdomen  rufous.  Sternites  1-3  with  dense  lateral  margin  of  decumbent  setae.  Stemites  3- 
5  with  2  central  erect  tactile  setae.  Stemite  6  with  deep  median  depression  in  females,  covered 
with  short  erect  pubescence.  Males  with  sternite  6  moderately  emarginate,  not  depressed. 
Elytra  shiny  black,  often  with  greenish  luster  around  humerus  ( extreme  form  of  greenish  cast 
seen  in  C.  abdominalis  floridana,  but  also  seen  to  greater  or  lesser  degree  from  different 
localities).  Maculation  consisting  of  apical  lunules,  median  lateral  mark,  and  2  small  medial 
dots  slightly  anterior  to  mid-lateral  dots.  Few  specimens  lacked  the  mid-lateral  maculation 
missing  in  the  majority  of  specimens  of  C.  abdominalis.  Elytral  apices  spined  in  both  sexes. 
Microsculpture  largely  effaced,  finely  isodiametric,  lending  a  shiny  appearance  to  the  beetles. 
Microsculpture  of  type  entirely  unlike  abdominalis.  Elytral  tips  microserrulate;  surface 
heavily  and  deeply  punctured  throughout  ( Fig.  3),  punctures  often  separated  by  less  than  their 
own  diameter.  Large  sutural  foveae  with  umbiliferous  center. 

Gcnitalia,  male:   Fig.  6. 

Distribution:  Restricted  to  peninsular  Florida,  in  sand-pinescrub  and  along  margins  of 
pine  flatwoods. 

Variation:  This  species  exhibits  little  variation.  Some  specimens  are  quite  greenish  (i.e., 
floridana)  but  this  is  interpreted  to  be  a  sign  of  recent  emergence.  Older  specimens  appear  to 
have  lost  the  greenish  tint.  Maculation  (Fig.  3)  is  quite  constant. 


78 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


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Vol.  95,  No.  3,  May  &  June,  1984 


79 


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4B 


Fig.  4 A.  C.  highlandensis  n.  sp.,  paratype,  aedeagus.  Internal  sac  removed.  Fig.  4B. 
Internal  sac,  same  specimen,  removed  to  show  internal  sclerites  characteristic  of 
Cicindelidia  Rivalier.  Fig.  5.  C.  abdominalis  Fab.,  aedeagus.  Fig.  6.  C.  scabrosa 
Schaupp,  aedeagus.  Figs.  4,  5  and  6  are  printed  at  the  same  magnification  to  show  relative 


size. 


80  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


DISCUSSION 

Cicindela  highlandensis  n.  sp.  (Fig.  1)  belongs  in  the  subgenus 
Cicindelidia  (sensu  Rivalier's  genus  Cicindelidia)  as  illustrated  by  its  red 
abdomen  and  male  genitalia  (Fig.  4).  It  differs  from  C.  abdominalis  Fab. 
(Fig.  2)  by  its  total  lack  of  decumbent  setae  ventrally,  by  the  lack  of  pronotal 
hairs,  and  by  reduced  maculation.  The  male  aedeagus  is  more  robust  than 
that  of  abdominalis  (Fig.  4  vs.  Fig.  5). 

C.  highlandensis  will  key  to  couplet  4  in  Willis's  (1968)  key  to  the 
North  American  species  of  Cicindela.  This  should  be  modified  as  follows: 

4a.       Labrum  with  2  anterior  medial  setae,  2  lateral  setae. 

4a'.  Ventrally  glabrous;  lacking  pronotal  hairs C.  highlandensis  n.  sp. 

4a.'!  Ventrally  with  lateral  sclerites  covered  with  decumbent  setae,  also  sternites  1-4 
with  lateral  decumbent  setae;  pronotum  with  at  least  a  few  lateral  setae,  or  if 

absent,  punctures  are  visible  along  suture C.  abdominalis  Fabricius 

4b.  Labrum  with  4  anterior  medial  setae,  2  lateral  setae 5 

5a.  Elytra  deeply  punctured,  scabrous;  surface  shiny  (Fig.  3)  . . .  C.  scabrosa  Schaupp 

5b.  Elytra  shallowly  punctate  or  impuncate 6 

6a.  Elytra  shallow  punctate 

6a'.  Proepisternum  densely  setose C.  roseiventris  Chev. 

6a'!  Proepisternum  with  sparse  setae  near  coxal  margin C.  politula  LeConte 

6b.  Elytra  impunctate 7 

Cicindela  scabrosa  will  key  to  the  species  with  4  anterior  medial  setae 
on  the  labrum.  From  abdominalis  and  highlandensis,  scabrosa  may  easily 
be  separated  by  habitus  (Fig.  3)  and  by  male  genitalia  (Fig.  6).  Both 
abdominalis  and  highlandensis  have  2  medial  setae  on  the  labrum. 

The  most  striking  differences  between  scabrosa  and  the  other  two 
species  are  densely  punctate  elytral  surface  in  scabrosa  only;  conspicuous 
lateral  row  of  pronotal  hairs  in  scabrosa  30-50  per  side,  0- 1 5  in  abdominalis. 
0  in  highlandensis;  extensive  covering  of  decumbent  setae  ventrally  in 
scabrosa,  while  in  abdominalis  is  reduced,  and  highlandensis  is  glabrous. 

Cicindela  highlandensis  n.  sp.  has  been  collected  only  in  Highlands 
Co.,  Florida,  near  Sebring.  This  is  an  area  of  high  endemism  in  many  groups 
of  plants  and  animals.  Species  restricted  to  this  area  include  spiders  (Brady 
1972,  McCrone  1963,  McCrone  &  Levi  1 964),  lizards  (Carr  1 940),  camel 
crickets  (Hubbell  1960),  millipedes  (Keeton  1959),  and  mutillid  wasps 
( Schmidt  &Mickel  1979).  The  sand  dunes  near  Sebring  are  considered  the 
southernmost  extension  of  the  Lake  Wales  Ridge  (Laessle  1958).  Typical 
scrub  as  well  as  sandhill  vegetation  occupy  much  of  this  area,  and  some  of 
the  highest  elevations  in  peninsular  Florida  are  found  here.  Cicindela 
scutellaris  unicolor  and  C.  hirtilabris  LeConte  which  would  normally 
occur  in  this  habitat,  are  absent.  Larvae  of  C.  highlandensis  have  not  yet 
been  collected,  and  adult  activity  probably  occurs  only  in  the  summer 


Vol.  95,  No.  3,  May  &  June,  1984 


81 


<*3HNT  -JS 


8 

Fig.  7.  Type  locality  of  C.  highlandensis  n.  sp..  Fig.  8.  New  citrus  grove  near  type  locality 
of  C.  highlandensis  n.  sp.. 


82  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

months  as  in  C.  abdominalis  Fab.. 

The  range  of  C.  highlandensis  is  apparently  restricted  to  fossil  sand 
ridges.  Unfortunately,  these  sand  ridges  are  rapidly  being  converted  into 
citrus  groves  (Figs.  7  &  8).  Unless  some  means  of  preserving  this  habitat 
is  found,  numerous  organisms  will  become  extinct,  including  this  species. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I  wish  to  thank  the  following  individuals  for  their  encouragement,  assistance,  and 
constructive  criticism  during  the  preparation  of  this  manuscript:  Gary  Dunn,  John  Stamatov, 
Donald  Wilson,  Ken  Vick,  Terry  Erwin,  Howard  Frank,  Mike  Thomas,  Al  Undeen,  Angela 
Cameron,  Teresa  Choate,  Pat  Carlisle,  Brenda  Beck,  Robert  Woodruff,  Reece  Sailer,  and 
Lloyd  Davis. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Brady,  A.R.  1972.  Geographic  variation  and  speciation  in  the  Sosippus  floridanus  species 

group.  Psyche  79(1-2):  27-48. 
Carr,  A.F.,  Jr.  1940.  A  contribution  to  the  herpetology  of  Florida.  Univ.  Fla.  Pub.  Biol  Sci 

Ser.  3(1):   1-118. 

Casey,  T.L.  1913.  Memoirs  on  the  Coleoptera  IV.  New  Era  Printing  Co.,  Lancaster,  PA. 
Hubbell,  T.H.  1961.  Endemism  and  speciation  in  relation  to  Pleistocene  changes  in  Florida 

and  the  southeastern  coastal  plain.  1 1th  Int.  Cong.  Ent.  Wien  1:  466-469. 
Keeton,  W.T.  1959.  A  new  family  for  the  diplopod  genus  Floridobolus  ( Spirobolida: Sprio- 

bolidae).  Bull.  Brook.  Ent.  Soc.  54:   1-7,  16  fig. 
Laessle,  A.M.  1958.  The  origin  and  successional  relationships  of  sandhill  vegetation  and 

sand-pine  scrub.  Ecol.  Mon.  28  (4):  361-387. 
McCrone,  J.D.  1963.  Taxonomic  status  and  evolutionary  history  of  the  Geolycosa  pikei 

complex  in  the  southeastern  United  States  (Aranea:  Lycosidae).  Amer    Mid    Nat 

70(1):  47-73. 
McCrone,  J.D.  and  H.W.  Levi.  1964.  North  American  widow  spiders  of  the  Latrodectus 

curacaviensis  group  (Aranea:  Theridiidae).  Psyche  71(1):   12-27. 
Newman,  E.  1838.  Description  of  Cicindela  ventralis  in  Communications  on  the  natural 

history  of  North  America  by  E.  Doubleday.  Ent.  Mag.,  London  V:  414/532. 
Rivalier,  E.  1954.  Demembrement  du  genre  Cicindela  L..  II.  Faune  Americane.  Rev.  Fran. 

d'Ent.  21(4):  249-268. 
Schmidt,  J.O.,  and  C.E.  Mickel.  1979.  A  new  Dasymutilla  from  Florida  ( Hymenoptera: 

Mutillidae).  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  Wash.  81(4):  576-579. 
Willis,  H.L.  1968.  Artificial  key  to  the  species  of  Cicindela  of  North  America  north  of 

Mexico.  J.  Kans.  Ent.  Soc.  41:  303-317. 


Vol.  95,  No.  3,  May  &  June,  1984  83 

A  NEW  NEARCTIC  SPECIES  OF  HYADINA 
(DIPTERA:  EPHYDRIDAE)1 2 

Philip  J.  Clausen3 

ABSTRACT:  A  new  species  of  Hyadina  is  described,  while  the  generic  description  and 
species  key  is  modified  for  its  inclusion. 

Not  long  after  completing  a  revision  of  the  genus  Hyadina  for  the 
Nearctic  (Clausen,  1983),  I  received  a  number  of  specimens  from  the 
Canadian  National  Collections  for  identification.  Contained  therein  were 
three  specimens  of  a  new  species.  Consequently,  this  paper  should  be 
considered  as  a  supplement  to  the  above  revision. 

Hyadina  vockerothi  n.  sp. 

It  is  with  great  pleasure  that  I  name  this  species  in  honor  of  Dr.  J.R. 
Vockeroth  who  collected  the  male  specimens. 

At  this  point,  I  should  mention  that  this  species  contains  the  only 
brachypterous  specimens  of  Hyadina  known  from  the  Nearctic  Region.  Of 
the  three  known  specimens,  one  male  has  normal  or  nearly  normal  wings 
while  the  other  male  and  the  female  are  brachypterous.  Unfortunately,  with 
this  small  sample,  I  have  no  way  of  knowing  the  frequency  of  brachypterism, 
therefore  I  have  designated  the  normal  male  as  the  holotype.  The  wing 
measurements  for  each  specimen  are  listed  separately  in  the  following 
description. 

Types:  Holotype  cf  and  paratype  cf,  both  from  Cranberry  I.,  Lockeport,  Nova  Scotia,  31- 
VII- 1958,  J.R.  Vockeroth,  mouse  run  among  Carex;  paratype  9,  Upper  Rock  L.,  30  mi.  N. 
Kingston,  Ontario,  VII- 1977,  J.  Redner,  ex.  sphagnum  bog;  all  three  deposited  in  the 
Canadian  National  Collections. 

Diagnosis:  Wings  with  all  crossveins  dark  brown  to  black;  head  with  2  pair  of  large, 
vertical  setae  (inners  large  and  convergent,  outers  large  and  divergent),  and  1  large  pair, 
divergent,  orbital  setae;  face  laterally  with  dense  black,  velvety  patch  and  medially  with  dense 
grayish  to  silvery  pruinosity. 

Description:  MALE.  Total  body  length  1.26  to  1.40  mm;  shining  black  with  grayish, 
silvery,  golden,  coppery  and  dense,  black  velvety  pruinosity. 

Head  shining  black  with  black,  grayish,  silvery,  golden  and  coppery  pruinosity;  length 
0.25  to  0.27  mm;  1  large  pair  divergent,  orbital  setae;  1  large  pair  convergent  inner  vertical 
setae;  1  large  pair  divergent  outer  vertical  setae;  vertex  shining  black,  laterally  with  dense 


1  Received  January  3,  1984.  Accepted  February  29,  1984. 

^Received  No.    13,706,   Scientific  Journal   Series,   Minnesota   Agricultural   Experiment 
Station,  St.  Paul,  Minnesota  55108. 

^Department  of  Entomology,  University  of  Minnesota,  St.  Paul,  Minnesota  55108. 
ENT.  NEWS.  95(3):   83-86.  May  &  June,  1984 


84  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


black,  velvety  pruinosity  above  and  below,  medially  with  coppery  pruinosity  above,  becoming 
grayish  to  silvery  below;  gena  black  with  dense  black,  velvety  pruinosity  above,  dense  grayish 
below.  Face  shining  black,  laterally  with  dense  black,  velvety  patch,  medially  with  dense 
grayish  to  silvery  pruinosity;  parafacial  setae  in  2  convergent  and  decumbent  rows,  4  or  5 
outers,  3  inners.  Clypeus  black  with  dense  grayish  to  silvery  pruinosity.  Antennae  black  with 
copper  pruinosity. 

Thorax  shining  black  with  sparse  golden  to  coppery  pruinosity,  no  stripes  or  spots;  scutum 
length  0.31  to  0.34  mm;  dense  grayish  patch  of  humeral  pruinosity;  1  large  mesopleural  seta. 
Scutellum  shining  black  with  sparse  golden  to  coppery  pruinosity  medially,  laterally  with 
dense  black,  velvety  patch;  length  0.14  to  0.15  mm.  Legs  black  with  golden  to  coppery 
pruinosity;  apex  of  mesothoracic  tibiae  with  a  large  black  spur  and  2  small,  black,  anterior  setae. 
Wing  slightly  clouded,  not  darkened  at  crossveins,  no  whitish  spots,  veins  and  all  crossveins 
dark  brown  to  black;  R2+3  very  short  and  angles  upward  sharply,  meeting  costs  just  beyond 
junction  of  Rj  and  costa.  Normal  of  with  wing  rather  short  and  broad,  length  from  humeral 
crossvein  0.90  mm,  width  0.48  mm,  distance  from  h  to  RI  0.14  mm,  RI  to  R2+3  0.09  mm, 
1*2+3  toRr+5  0-66  mm,  R4  +5  to  M 1+2  0.12  mm,  length  R4+5  0.66  mm,  length  M 1+2 
0.44  mm,  costal  section  from  RI  to  R2+3  0.13  times  distance  from  R2+3  to  R4+5- 
Brachypterous  cf  with  wing  veins  fused  at  crossveins,  length  from  humeral  crossvein  0.42  mm, 
width  0.22  mm,  distance  from  h  to  RI  0. 10  mm,  RI  to  R2+3  0.07  mm,  R2+3  to  R4+5  0.25 
mm,  R4+5  to  MI +2  0.10  mm,  length  R4+5  0.29  mm,  length  MI  +2  0.12  mm,  costal 
section  from  RI  to  R2+3  0.27  times  distance  from  R2+3  to  R4+5-  Halteres  light  brown; 
normal  in  holotype  cr,  capitulum  reduced  in  paratype  cf. 

Abdomen  as  in  Fig.  1 ,  shining  brown  with  sparse  golden  to  coppery  pruinosity. 

Genitalia  (Fig.  2).  Note  narrow  tergite  9  with  very  long,  narrow  surstyli  with  rounded, 
slightly  broadened  and  flattened  apices,  each  bearing  several  short  setae;  gonites  rather  long, 
narrow,  curved,  pointed  apically;  gonal  arch  incomplete;  aedeagus  large,  long,  abruptly  curved 
near  base,  enlarged  apically  with  striations. 

FEMALE:  Total  body  length  1.41  mm.  Head,  thorax  and  legs  as  in  males  except  as 
noted: 

Head  length  0.27  mm;  parafacial  setae  in  2  convergent  and  decumbent  rows,  except  2 
outers  proclinate,  5  outers,  4  inners. 

Thorax  with  scutum  length  0.31  mm,  scutellum  length  0.14  mm.  Wing  brachypterous, 
veins  not  fused  at  crossveins,  length  from  humeral  crossvein  0.53  mm,  width  0.27  mm, 
distance  from  h  to  RI  0.12  mm,  RI  toR2+30.07  mm,  R2+3  toR4+5  0.32  mm,  R4+5  to 
MI  -)-2  0-08  mm,  length  R4+5  0.32  mm,  length  Mj  +2  0. 14  mm,  costal  section  from  RI  to 
R2+3  0.21  times  distance  from  R2+3  to  R4+4-  Halteres  normal. 

Abdomen  as  in  Fig.  3,  sternites  7  and  8  more  strongly  sclerotized  and  darker  than  others. 
Ventral  receptacle  as  in  Fig.  4. 

Distribution.  Nova  Scotia  and  Ontario. 

Specimens  examined.  3  specimens  (2  cftf  and  1  9),  the  types  with  data  as  listed 
previously. 

To  include  vockerothi  in  the  genus  Hyadina,  some  minor  changes  in  the 
generic  diagnosis  and  description  (Clausen,  1983)  are  necessary.  These  are 
as  follows: 

Diagnosis  and  Description.  Body  length  1.26  to  2.30  mm.  Head  with  face  black, 
pruinosity  uniform,  striped  or  spotted,  pruinosity  grayish,  silvery,  golden,  coppery  or  black;  1 
large  orbital  seta  or  orbital  setae  very  small.  Wing  with  costal  section  from  R  \  to  R2  +3  0. 1 3  to 
1.25  times  the  distance  from  R2+3  to  R4+5- 


Vol.  95,  No.  3,  May  &  June,  1984 


85 


TERQITE     1 
SPIRACLE     1 
3TERNITE     1 


0.26mm 


3TERNITE     6 
SPIRACLE     6 

TERQITE    0  +  SUftSTYLl 

CERCU3 


AEDEAQUS 


AEDEAQAL     APODEME 


QONAL    ARCH 
QONITE 


TERQITE     9  +  SUR8TYLI 

CERCUS 


3TERNITE 


0.167mm 


Fig.  I .     Male  abdomen,  Hyadina  vockerothi  Clausen.  Fig.  2.  Male  genitalia,  Hyadina 
vockerothi  Clausen. 


86 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


The  inclusion  of  vockerothi'm  Hyadina  also  necessitates  the  modification 
of  the  species  key  in  Clausen  (1983).  The  modifications  are  as  follows: 

4.  Scutellum  laterally  with  dense  black,  velvety  patch 4A 

Scutellum  without  lateral,  dense  black,  velvety  patch,  covered  uniformly  with  golden  to 
copper  pruinosity pruinosity  (Cresson) 

4A.  Face  laterally  with  dense  black,  velvety  patch  and  medially  with  dense  grayish  to 

silvery  pruinosity;  1  large  pair,  divergent  orbital  setae vockerothi  n.  sp. 

Face  with  uniformly  dense,  grayish  to  golden  pruinosity;  1  to  5  very  small,  orbital 
setae  .  binotata  (Cresson) 


TERQITE     1 
SPIRACLE     1 
STERNITE     1 


SPIRACLE     8 
STERNITE     8 
TERQITE     8 
CERCUS 


0.26mm 


3 


0.167mm 


Fig.  3.  Female  abdomen,  Hyadina  vockerothi  Clausen.  Fig.  4.  Ventral  receptacle,  Hyadina 
vockerothi  Clausen. 


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I  thank  Dr.  J.R.  Vockeroth  and  Dr.  B.E.  Cooper,  both  of  the  Biosystematics  Research 
Institute  of  Ottawa,  Canada  for  providing  these  extremely  interesting  specimens. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Clausen,  P.J.  1983.  The  genus  Hyadina  and  a  new  genus  of  nearctic  Ephydridae  (Diptera). 
Trans.  Am.  EnL  Soc.  109(2):  201-228. 


Vol.  95,  No.  3,  May  &  June,  1984  87 

ACANTHOSCELIDES  WINDERI,  NEW  SPECIES, 

(COLEOPTERA;  BRUCHIDAE)  ASSOCIATED 

WITH  MIMOSA  SPP.  (LEGUMINOSAE: 

MIMOSOIDEAE)  FROM  BRAZIL1 

John  M.  Kingsolver^ 

ABTRACT:  During  a  survey  of  Mimosa  species  in  Brazil  for  potential  biocontrol  agents  to 
control  Mimosa  pigra  recently  introduced  into  Australia,  a  new  species,  Acanthoscelides 
winderi,  was  reared  from  seeds  of  Mimosa  pigra  and  Mimosa  sp.  The  species  is  named  after 
the  collector. 

John  Winder  recently  collected  several  series  of  specimens  of  a  new 
species  of  Acanthoscelides  reared  from  Mimosa  sp.  and  M.  pigra.  All 
localities  are  in  southeastern  Brazil.  Since  this  species  is  one  of  those  being 
considered  for  biological  control  of  M.  pigra  introduced  into  Australia,  a 
name  is  needed  for  reference. 

Acanthoscelides  winderi  Kingsolver,  new  species 
Fig.  1-3 

Body  length.  2.3-2.6  mm;  width.- 1.5 -1.7  mm. 

Color.  Integument  yellowish  red  to  dark  red,  eyes  piceous.  Vestiture  of  yellow,  white,  and 
dark  brown  slender  hairs  in  mottled  pattern  (fig.  1 )  on  dorsal  surface.  Head  sparsely  clothed; 
pronotum  predominantly  yellow  with  short,  narrow,  white  spot  on  basal  lobe  and  scattered  dark 
brown  hairs  on  paired  apical  and  median,  diagonal,  slightly  elevated  gibbosities.  Elytra  with 
1st,  2nd,  4th,  6th,  and  10th  intervals  yellow,  3rd,  5th,  7th,  8th,  and  9th  intervals  with 
alternating  dark  brown  and  yellow,  elongate  spots.  Pygidium  predominantly  yellow,  with  3 
vague  basal  spots  and  1  subapical  median  spot  white,  ventral  border  fringed  with  yellow,  apical 
1/2  with  prominent,  nearly  bare,  paired  dark  red  reniform  spots  (fig.  1 ).  Abdomen  with  lateral 
row  of  white  spots  set  in  broad  band  of  yellow;  metepisternum  yellow  with  white  margin. 

Structure.  Body  short,  broad,  subdepressed.  Head  turbiniform,  eyes  prominent,  ocular 
sinus  about  1/2  length  of  eye;  vertex  microfoveolate,  each  foveola  bearing  a  hair,  frons  with 
fine,  short  carina  flanked  by  rugose  punctation,  clypeus  with  basal  1/2  rugosely  punctate, 
apical  1/2  finely  granulose,  antenna  serrate  from  5th  segment,  4th  slightly  eccentric,  terminal 
segment  subelliptical.  Pronotum  campaniform,  strongly  convex,  lateral  margins  sinuate, 
apical  margin  evenly  rounded,  basal  margin  straight  with  somewhat  angulate  basal  lobe; 
surface  microfoveolate,  foveolae  mostly  discrete,  separated  by  a  diameter,  nearly  concealed 
by  vestiture  except  sparse  on  dark  red  gibbosities;  prosternum  short,  triangular,  not  separating 
coxae  at  apices.  Scutellum  quadrate,  bidentate  apically.  Elytra  slightly  longer  than  wide, 
convex  except  subdepressed  between  4th  striae,  striae  prominent  but  not  deep,  3rd,  5th,  7th, 
and  9th  intervals  slightly  wider  than  1  st,  2nd,  4th,  6th,  and  8th;  intervals  minutely  imbricate, 
concealed  by  vestiture,  mesostemum  subtriangular,  apex  rounded,  postmesocoxal  sulci  not 


•Received  February  18,  1984.  Accepted  April  11,  1984. 

^Systematic  Entomology  Laboratory,  IIBIII,  Agricultural  Research  Service,  USDA,  c/o 
National  Museum  of  Natural  History,  Washington,  D.C.  20560. 

ENT.  NEWS.  95(3).  87-89.  May  &  June,  1984 


88  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


meeting  on  midline.  Abdomen  with  1  st  sternite  longer  than  remaining  sternites  in  cf ,  subequal 
in  9;  terminal  sternite  in  cf  broadly  emarginate  to  receive  apex  of  pygidium,  in  9  evenly 
rounded;  cf  pygidium  gently  convex,  9  pygidium  nearly  flat,  surface  finely  imbricate,  nearly 
concealed  by  vestiture  except  sparse  on  dark  red  triangular  spots.  Male  genitalia  with  median 
lobe  (fig.  2)  moderately  broad,  internal  sac  trilobed;  ventral  valve  bluntly  rounded  apically, 
lateral  margins  incurvate,  dorsal  valve  subtriangular,  densely  setose;  basal  1/3  of  internal  sac 
with  minute  blunt  denticles  gradating  to  minute  quadrate  denticles,  middle  of  sac  with 
transverse  cluster  of  small  spines,  lateral  lobes  of  sac  partly  lined  with  minute  triangular 
denticles;  lateral  lobes  (fig.  3)  broad,  cleft  to  1/2  their  length.  Pro-  and  mesolegs  normal  for 
genus,  metafemur  moderately  incrassate,  pecten  with  1  long  and  2  or  3  short  denticles, 
metatibia  with  lateral,  ventral,  and  dorsomedial  carinae  distinct  and  complete  to  apex, 
lateroventral  carina  obsolete  in  apical  1/5,  mucro  short,  acute;  lateral  dentical  short,  corona 
with  3  denticles. 

Holotype  cf.  BRAZIL:  Panorama  (SP),  26  April  1981,  ex  seed  pods  Mimosa  sp.,  J.A. 
Winder  (149- A- 1).  Allotype  9  2  cf,  29  paratypes,  same  data. 

Primary  types  are  deposited  in  the  Departamento  de  Zoologia  (Museu),  Universidad 
Federal  de  Parana,  Curitiba,  Brazil. 

Other  paratypes.  BRAZIL:  Uberlandia  (MB),  2  May  198 1 ,  ex  seed  pods  Mimosa  sp., 
J..A.  Winder (173-A),  47  cf  9;  Ribeirao  Preta  (SP),  9  May  1981,  ex  seed  pods  Mimosa  sp., 
J.A.  Winder  ( 194- A- 1),  45  cf  9;  Santa  Rite  do  Araguaia(GO),  28  April  1981 ,  ex  seed  pods 
Mimosa  sp.,  J.A.  Winder  (158-2),  1  9;  Pedra  Azul(MG),  20  February  1981,  ex  seed  pods 
Mimosa pigra,  J.A.  Winder  (99-2),  12  cf  9;  Vassouras(RJ),  23  March  1981,  J.A.  Winder 
(131-B),  8  cf  9.  Paratypes  are  deposited  with  the  primary  types  and  in  the  C.D.  Johnson 
collection,  Flagstaff,  Arizona;  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History ,  Washington,  D.C.; 
the  Institute  Miguel  Lillo,  Tucuman,  Argentina;  the  Museu  Paraense  Emilio  Goeldi,  Belem, 
Brazil,  and  the  CSIRO  Museum,  Canberra  City,  Australia. 

This  species  is  in  the  mexicanus  group  (Johnson,  1983:  6)  and  is 
apparently  closely  related  to  Acanthoscelid.es  mexicanus  (Sharp);  lapsanae 
(Motschulsky),  and  piceoapicalis  (Pic)  differing  principally  in  its  more 
extensive  dark  red  pygidial  spots,  and  in  the  armature  of  the  male  genitalia. 
In  A.  mexicanus,  lapsanae,  and  piceoapicalis,  the  pygidial  spots  are  small 
and  submarginal,  the  basal  white  patches  on  the  pygidium  are  vaguely 
defined,  and  the  lateral  pockets  of  the  internal  sac  are  completely  lined  with 
thorn-like  spines,  whereas  in  A.  winderi,  new  species,  the  pygidial  spots  are 
large  and  triangular  or  falcate,  the  basal  white  patches  are  large  and 
conspicuous,  and  each  of  the  lateral  pockets  of  the  internal  sac  has  a 
transverse  row  of  slender  spines  at  the  middle,  and  are  only  partly  lined  with 
minute  denticles.  Furthermore,  in  piceoapicalis,  the  apical  1/5  of  the 
elytron  is  piceous  to  black  whereas  the  other  three  species  are  patterned  to 
the  apex  of  the  elytra.  The  lateral  lobes  of  A.  winderi  are  broad  as  in 
lapsanae  and  piceoapicalis  (Johnson,  1983,  figs.  259,  406);  those  of 
mexicanus  are  slender  (ibid,  fig.  329).  Acanthoscelides  winderi  will  key  to 
lapsanae  in  Johnson's  key. 

I  am  pleased  to  name  this  species  for  John  A.  Winder  who  collected  all 
of  the  specimens  upon  which  this  description  is  based. 


Vol.  95,  No.  3,  May  &  June,  1984 


89 


LITERATURE  CITED 

Johnson,  C.D.  983.  Ecosystematics  of  Acanthoscelides  (Coleoptera:  Bruchidae)  of  southern 
Mexico  and  Central  America.  Misc.  Publ.,  Entomol.  Soc.  of  Amer.  56:   1-370. 


Figs.  1-3,  Acanthoscelides  winderi.  n.  sp.  1 .  Dorsal  habitus.  2.  Male  genitalia,  median  lobe, 
ventral  aspect.  3.   Male  genitalia,  lateral  lobes,  ventral  aspect. 


90  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


BOOK  REVIEW 

THE  AUSTRALIAN  CRICKETS  (ORTHOPTERA:  GRYLLIDAE). 
Daniel  Otte  and  Richard  D.  Alexander.  1983.  Academy  of  Natural 
Sciences  of  Philadelphia  Monograph  22.  477  pp.  $45.00. 

This  is  a  major  taxonomic  monograph  that  deals  with  an  important  fauna  in  some  unusual 
and  noteworthy  ways. 

Otte  and  Alexander  state  that  when  they  undertook  their  studies  of  Australian  crickets 
they  presumed  most  species  were  known.  However,  in  their  monograph  376  of  492  species  are 
new,  as  are  41  of  85  genera.  And  this  is  not  a  matter  of  splitting  taxa  recognized  by  previous 
workers.  Nearly  all  new  taxa  are  based  on  specimens  taken  by  the  authors  during  a  year  of 
intensive  field  work  throughout  Australia  and  Tasmania.  The  chief  cause  of  their  finding  so 
much  more  diversity  than  previous  collectors  is  their  use  of  the  male's  call  to  distinguish 
species  in  the  field.  When  they  entered  a  new  locality,  they  determined  how  many  species  were 
calling  and  set  about  collecting  at  least  one  of  each.  They  rightly  emphasize  that  cricket  calls 
are  not  just  one  more  character  that  can  be  used  in  species  discrimination.  Male  calling  songs 
have  a  direct  relation  to  species  status  —  females  use  them  in  seeking  conspecific  mates. 

This  book  is  beautifully  and  abundantly  illustrated.  Insect  lovers  will  gain  pleasure  in 
leafing  through  the  pages  and  viewing  the  varied  shapes  and  sonagrams  (calls)  of  Australian 
crickets.  The  approximately  3070  drawings,  arranged  in  357  "figures,"  include  120  whole 
crickets  (representing  nearly  every  genus),  2270  identifying  morphological  features,  310 
sonagrams,  and  340  distribution  maps.  The  illustrations  accompany  appropriate  text  and  are 
arranged  for  convenient  comparisons  of  related  species. 

This  monograph  is  unusual  in  its  thrifty  choice  of  what's  included  and  in  its  avoidance  of 
redundancy.  For  example,  synonymies  are  brief  and  streamlined,  and  the  905  collecting 
localities  mapped  and  described  in  the  introduction  are  thereafter  represented  by  a  simple 
code.  One  instance  where  brevity  is  a  flaw  is  the  book's  indexing.  Its  only  index  is  taxonomic 
and  each  tax  on  is  referenced  to  a  single  page  (not  always  an  appropriate  one;  and  some  taxa  are 
omitted  —  e.g.  Eurepa  and  Gryllulus.  This  leads  me  to  another  flaw  —  internal  inconsistencies 
and  mistakes  occur  more  frequently  than  one  expects  in  a  work  otherwise  so  compelling. 
Nonetheless,  in  most  respects  this  is  a  monograph  that  other  monographers  should  emulate. 

Thomas  J.  Walker,  Dept.  of  Entomology,  University  of  Florida 


BOOKS  RECEIVED  AND  BRIEFLY  NOTED 

INSECTS  ON  NETTLES,  GRASSHOPPERS,  SOLITARY  WASPS,  INSECTS  AND 
THISTLES.  Various  authors.  1983.  Naturalists  Handbooks  Nos.  1,  2,  3,  &  4. 

A  series  of  small  books  for  "sixth  formers  and  others  without  a  university  training  in  biology." 
Each  features  four  colored  plates  and  keys  to  identification  of  British  insects. 

SYSTEMATICS  AND  BIONOMICS  OF  ANTHOPHORA  THE  BOMBOIDES  GROUP 
AND  SPECIES  GROUPS  OF  THE  NEW  WORLD  (Hymenoptera:  Anthophoridae). 
R.W.  Brooks.  1983.  Univ.  Calif.  Press.  86  pp.  $8.50  pbk. 

The  species  groups  ofAnthophora  (s.  str.)  in  No.  America  and  the  life  history  ofAnthophora 
bomboides  stanfordiana  Cockerell. 


Vol.  95,  No.  3,  May  &  June,  1984  91 

ELEVATION  OF  DIABROTICA  SICUANICA 
(COLEOPTERA:  CHRYSOMELIDAE)  TO  THE 

SPECIES  LEVEL  WITH  NOTES  ON  THE 
ALTITUDINAL  DISTRIBUTION  OF  DIABROTICA 
SPECIES  IN  THE  CUZCO  DEPARTMENT  OF  PERU1'2 

J.L.  Krysan3,  T.F.  Branson3,  R.F.W.  Schroeder4,  W.E.  Steiner,  Jr.5 

ABSTRACT:  Diabrotica  decempunctata  sicuanica  Bechyne  is  elevated  to  the  species  level. 
The  altitudinal  distribution  of  1 7  species  of  Diabrotica  in  the  Cuzco  Dept.  of  Peru,  based  on 
material  collected  in  January  of  1 979  and  1 982,  is  presented.  The  greatest  diversity  of  species 
(11)  was  collected  in  the  altitudinal  range  of  1 250  to  2450  M.  At  elevations  below  2800  M, 
most  beetles  were  found  on  flowers  of  cucurbits.  In  the  altitude  zone  from  2800  to  3500  M,  two 
taxa  were  collected,  both  from  Zea  mays  L.:  D.  speciosa  vigens  Erichson,  from  2800  to  3200 
M  and  D.  sicuanica  Bechyne,  from  3000  to  3500  M  elevation.  The  two  species  with  the  most 
extensive  continental  ranges  were  collected  over  the  greatest  range  of  altitudes. 

Diabrotica  is  a  largely  Neotropical  genus  that  includes  several  species 
of  great  economic  importance  in  North  America,  particularly  as  pests  of 
maize.  Given  the  pest  status,  the  South  American  members  of  the  genus 
have  been  of  interest  to  North  American  entomologists  as,  for  example, 
reservoirs  of  natural  enemies.  Despite  this  interest,  most  South  American 
Diabrotica  are  very  poorly  known.  Except  for  a  few  widespread  economic 
pests,  the  literature  consists  of  original  descriptions  and  catalog  entries. 
Distribution  records  are  scanty  and  indefinite.  Given  the  nature  of  Andean 
ecology,  altitudinal  distribution  patterns  are  expected,  but  no  such  informa- 
tion is  available  for  Diabrotica. 

In  the  course  of  a  total  of  nearly  7  weeks  of  searches  for  natural  enemies 
in  the  Cuzco  Department  of  Peru  in  January  of  1979  and  1982,  we  made 
extensive  collections  of  Diabrotica.  Based  on  these  collections,  we  herein 
elevate  one  taxon,  D.  decempunctata  sicuanica  Bechyne,  to  the  species 
level,  and  report  on  the  altitudinal  distribution  of  1 7  taxa  of  Diabrotica, 


1  Received  October  10,  1983.  Accepted  March  3,  1984. 

2 Purchased  by  Science  &  Education  Administration,  V.S.D.A.,  for  official  use. 

^USDA,  ARS,  Northern  Grain  Insects  Research  Laboratory,  Rural  Route  #3,  Brookings, 
SD  57006 

^USDA,  ARS,  Beneficial  Insects  Introduction  Laboratory,  Beltsville  Agriculture  Research 
Center,  Beltsville,  MD  20705 

5Dept.   of  Entomology,   University   of  Maryland,   College   Park,   MD   20742   (Present 
address:   Dept.  of  Entomology,  NHB-169,  Smithsonian  Inst.,  Washington,  D.C.  20560) 

ENT.  NEWS.  95(3):   91-98.  May  &  June,  1984 


92  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Taxonomic  Status  of  Diabrotica  decempunctata  sicuanica  Bechyne 

Our  experience  indicates  a  status  change  for  this  taxon  is  appropriate 
despite  our  commitment  to  the  ideal  that  piecemeal  changes  separate  from  a 
major  revision  can  be  detrimental.  We  have  recognized  D.  d.  sicuanica  as  a 
pest  of  maize  (see  below),  so  a  literature  might  develop  which  makes 
nomenclatural  simplicity  and  stability  highly  desirable.  Taxonomic  infor- 
mation indicates  species  status  is  appropriate,  and  because  trinomials  are 
commonly  ignored  in  general  entomological  literature,  we  elevate  D.  d. 
sicuanica  to  the  species  level.  A  brief  description  is  given  here  because  the 
original  description  is  limited  to  a  key  couplet. 

Diabrotica  sicuanica  Bechyne  new  status 

D.  decempunctata  sicuanica  Bechyne,  1958:  555. 

Description.  Body  elongate  oval,  lime  green  nearly  throughout,  elytra  widest  slightly 
post-medially.  Length  5  to  7  mm. 

Pronotu  m.  Shiny  lime  green,  wider  than  long,  mean  ratio  length  to  width,  0. 70;  disc  with  2 
foveae  tiny  or  absent,  glabrous  except  for  a  prominent  seta  on  anterior  and  posterior  angles  and 
1  or  2  short  setae  on  the  lateral  margin  adjacent  to  the  prominent  seta;  lateral  margin  distinct, 
reflexed;  scutellum  piceous. 

Elytra.  Humeral  plicae  absent,  disc  asculate,  finely,  irregularly  punctate,  surface  very 
finely  alutaceous;  each  elytron  with  2  spectrum  orange  (frequently  faded)  diffuse  spots,  one 
originating  on  humerus  and  narrowing  apicad,  ending  at  basal  one-third  to  one-half  of  elytron, 
other  oblong,  one-third  width  of  elytron,  originating  at  apical  one-third  of  elytron,  one-third  of 
elytral  width  of  suture,  directed  diagonally  towards  apical  curve.  Piceous  maculation  highly 
variable;  piceous  sutural  vitta  at  basal  one-sixth  of  elytron  and  at  most  5  spots  on  each 
elytron:  1  humeral;  2  in  proximal  one-half,  1  on  disc  near  but  not  touching  suture,  the  other 
nearer  lateral  margin  lying  slightly  apicad  from  the  first,  2  arranged  similarly  in  posterior  one- 
third.  Piceous  maculation  may  be  reduced  to  a  very  narrow  sutural  vitta;  distal  medial  spots 
are  the  last  to  disappear,  except  occasionally  only  humeral  spots  present;  when  present,  the 
distal  spots  lie  at  either  end  of  distal  orange  spot.  Disc  essentially  glabrous;  a  few  setae  on 
apical  margin. 

Head  Very  shiny,  entirely  piceous.  Antennae  entirely  piceous,  three-fourths  length  of 
body  in  male,  two-thirds  length  of  body  in  female;  third  segment  1 V4  times  length  of  segment  2; 
segments  2  and  3  together  two-thirds  length  of  segment  4. 

Ventral  side.  Prothorax  yellow  or  lime  green,  meso  and  metathorax  entirely  piceous,  all 
legs  entirely  piceous,  abdomen  yellow  or  lime  green. 

Male  genitalia.  The  internal  sac  is  illustrated  in  Figure  la. 

Material  Examined  Three  hundred  and  thirteen  (313)  specimens  from  the  localities 
listed  in  Table  1  collected  by  J.  Krysan  and  T.  Branson,  January  1982,  and  deposited  in 
USNM  and  Ministerio  de  Agricultura  y  Alimentacion,  Lima,  Peru;  San  Jeronimo,  Cuzco 
Dept.,  Peru  111-24-79,  G.  Buckingham,  private  colln.;  AUTOTYPE,  Urabamba,  Peru  V-16- 
62,  3200  M,  Carrasco,  obtained  from  Dr.  F.  Carrasco,  Cuzco  Dept.,  Peru  (to  be  deposited  in 
USNM). 

Distribution.  In  addition  to  the  material  examined,  we  know  of  specimens  collected  at 
Cuzco,  Peru,  3500  M,  by  G.  Molleda,  X- 15-61  in  California  Insect  Survey  and  the  type 
material  collected  at  Sicuani,  Peru  (Museum  G.  Frey).  Thus,  the  species  has  been  collected 
only  in  the  Cuzco  Dept.  of  Peru  and  from  localities  above  3 1 50  M  elevation. 


Vol.  95,  No.  3,  May  &  June,  1984 


93 


B 


Fig.  1.  Internal  sac  structure  of  D.  sicuanica  (A)  and  D.  d.  semiviridis  (B). 


Taxonomic  Discussion.  Bechyne  (1958)  named  D.  sicuanica  as  a 
subspecies  of  D.  decempunctata  Latreille  in  a  key.  In  that  key,  he  also 
combined  D.  semiviridis  Bowditch  as  a  subspecies  of  D.  decempunctata. 
We  collected  both  D.  d.  semiviridis  and  D.  sicuanica  in  the  Cuzco  Dept., 
but  their  ranges  are  altitudinally  distinct;  the  former  was  collected  at  1 800  - 
2500  M  and  the  latter  only  above  3150  M  (see  next  section).  Usually 
subspecies  rank  indicates  morphological  similarity,  so  at  least  some 
specimens  should  be  hard  to  place.  That  is  not  so  with  these  taxa.  Size  of 
elytral  punctations,  Bechyne' s  diagnostic  character  for  these  taxa,  is 
technically  a  quantitative  trait  and  hence  potentially  variable,  but  we  have 
seen  no  beetles  with  intermediate  punctation  size,  and  Bechyne  mentioned 
none.  We  consider  the  internal  sac  of  the  male  genitalia  to  bear  the  most 
useful  characters  for  distinguishing  Diabrotica,  so  we  illustrate  here  the 


94  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


armature  of  internal  sacs  of  D.  sicuanica  and  D.  d.  semiviridis  (Figs,  la 
and  Ib).  The  differences  are  obvious  and  should  be  taken  into  account  by 
the  next  revisor;  the  important  point  for  now  is  the  relationship  between  D. 
sicuanica  and  the  nominate  taxon  D.  decempunctata  Latreille.  The  type  of 
the  latter  is  a  damaged  female  specimen  without  exact  locality  data.  The 
pronotal  shapes  of  D.  sicuanica  and  the  type  of  D.  decempunctata  Latreille 
are  obviously  different,  a  difference  which  can  be  measured.  Of  33  female 
D.  sicuanica  measured,  the  length  to  width  ratio  of  the  pronotum  (mean 
0.70,  range  0.66  to  0.74)  is  clearly  different  than  that  of  the  type  of  the 
nominate  subspecies  (0.78). 

Collection  Sites  and  Methods 

The  climate  and  ecology  of  Peru  is  summarized  in  Gorbman  et  al. 
(1961),  and  we  use  their  designations  for  ecological  regions.  The  collections 
above  2500  M  are  in  the  Quechua  region.  Sites  between  1000  and  2500  M 
in  the  Valle  Lares,  and  the  valleys  of  the  Rio  Urubamba  and  Rio  Pilcopata, 
are  in  the  Fluvial  Yunga.  The  collections  between  400  and  1000  M  are  in 
the  Selva  Alta,  and  those  below  400  M  are  in  the  Selva  Baha.  The  collection 
sites  near  Limatambo  and  Curahuasi  in  the  Rio  Apurimac  system,  while 
classified  in  the  Quechua,  are  considerably  drier  than  the  other  sites  in  this 
biological  zone. 

In  most  localities,  all  plants  found  in  flower  were  examined  for  beetles 
on  the  foliage  as  well  as  the  floral  parts.  The  great  majority  of  beetles 
(exceptions  are  noted)  were  collected  from  the  flowers  or  foliage  of  domestic 
or  wild  cucurbits.  Collections  in  the  Selva  Baha  and  Selva  Alta  were  from 
highly  diverse  vegetation  systems,  and  few  beetles  were  found.  Only  a  total 
of  four  days  was  spent  searching  at  those  elevations.  Collections  in  the 
Fluvial  Yunga  were  usually  from  tiny  garden  plots  invariably  containing 
domestic  cucurbits  and  sometimes  containing  corn.  From  these  complex 
systems  in  the  Selva  and  Fluvial  regions,  numbers  of  beetles  collected 
would  mean  little. 

Collections  in  the  upper  elevations  (>  2800  M)  of  the  Quechua  region, 
however,  were  always  from  row-crop  agricultural  land  or  alfalfa  monocul- 
tures. In  maize  fields  in  these  upper  elevations  we  saw  evidence  of 
altitudinal  change  in  species  composition  so  we  conducted  a  rather 
intensive  search.  This  search  focused  on  the  Urcos,  Sacred,  Ccorao,  and 
Cuyo  Grande  valleys  and  the  valley  of  the  Rio  Colorado.  The  Cuyo  Grande 
valley  is  above,  but  contiguous  with,  the  Sacred  Valley  proper  and  it  was 
fortuitous  that  we  could  collect  where  maize  production  was  continuous 
between  the  two  valleys.  Twenty-seven  fields  were  searched  for  a  minimum 
of  30  minutes  each.  Longer  search  numbers  were  adjusted  to  reflect  30 
minutes  of  search.  We  think  those  numbers  reflect  the  elevational  relation- 


Vol.  95,  No.  3,  May  &  June,  1984  95 


ship  between  D.  sicuanica  and  D.  speciosa  vigens. 

The  beetles  will  be  deposited  in  the  USNM  and  the  collection  of  the 
Ministerio  de  Agricultura  y  Alimentcion,  Lima,  Peru. 

RESULTS 

Elevation  of  Collections 

The  species  collected  at  the  various  sites  summarized  by  elevation 
levels  are  presented  in  Table  1 .  In  the  Selva  Alta  and  Selva  Baha,  5  species 
were  found,  but  each  was  represented  in  very  low  numbers.  The  greatest 
variety  of  species  (11)  was  encountered  in  the  Fluvial  Yunga  where  we 
collected  at  elevations  from  1250  to  2450  M.  All  these  beetles  were 
collected  from  cucurbit  flowers. 

In  the  Quechua  region  from  elevation  2600  M  to  3000  M,  D.  speciosa 
vigens  was  by  far  the  most  common  species  found.  It  was  collected  from 
maize,  cucurbits,  common  bean  (Phaseolus  vulgaris)  foliage  and  flowers, 
alfalfa  foliage  and  flowers,  and  flowers  of  the  weedy  legume  Sparteum 
junceum.  The  one  other  species  (new  species,  virgifera  group)  collected  in 
this  elevation  range  was  represented  by  a  series  of  3 1  cf  beetles  found  near 
Limatambo  at  2800  M. 

Above  2800  M  elevation  we  found  two  species,  D.  s.  vigens  and  D. 
sicuanaca  (Table  2).  In  the  elevation  range  from  3000  to  3200  M,  D.  s. 
vigens  occurred  with  D.  sicuanaca;  we  never  collected  the  latter  taxon  at 
lower  elevations.  Above  3200  M,  D.  sicuanica  was  the  only  species  of 
Diabrotica  collected.  The  highest  elevation  at  which  we  collected  D. 
sicuanica  was  3500  M  (Table  2).  In  the  Valley  of  the  Rio  Colorado,  where 
we  collected  from  2800  to  3500  M,  we  did  not  find  D.  sicuanica,  but  we  did 
find  D.  speciosa  vigens  up  to  3200  M  elevation.  Incidentally,  the  Urcos  and 
Anta  valleys,  where  only  D.  sicuanica  was  collected,  have  no  accessible 
openings  to  valleys  at  lower  elevations  comparable  to  the  intersection  of  the 
Cuyo  Grande  and  Sacred  valleys. 

Despite  the  polycultural  nature  of  many  of  the  fields,  we  found  D. 
sicuanica  beetles  only  on  maize  plants.  Furthermore,  larvae  of  D. 
sicuanica  were  found  feeding  on  maize  roots. 

DISCUSSION 

These  collections  were  made  at  the  peak  of  the  growing  season;  e.g.,  in 
the  Quechuan  region,  maize  was  silking  and  legumes  were  commonly  in 
flower.  Therefore,  they  make  a  first  approximation  of  the  altitudinal 
distribution  of  Diabrotica  in  the  southern  Andes  of  Peru. 

Some  patterns  can  be  detected  among  the  collections.  Several  of  the 


96  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

taxa  with  restricted  elevational  distribution  have  been  recorded  only  from 
Peru. 

Two  species,  D.  s.  vigens  and  D.  viridula,  were  distinctive  in  that  we 
collected  them  over  a  much  greater  range  of  altitudes  than  any  of  th?  other 
species.  This  great  altitudinal  range  in  this  small  area  of  the  Andes  is 
consistent  with  the  fact  that  these  two  species  have  the  most  widespread 
geographical  distributions  of  any  Diabrotica.  Diabrotica  speciosa  (sensu 
lato)  range  from  Columbia  and  Brazil  to  Argentina  and  Bolivia  ( Smith  and 
Krysan,  unpublished).  The  range  of  D.  viridula  extends  from  Mexico  and 
Brazil  to  Chile  (Wilcox,  1972)  and  the  Easter  Island  (Olalquiaga,  1980). 

Our  first  collections  above  2800  M  suggeted  a  change  in  species 
composition  in  a  rather  narrow  altitudinal  zone.  The  two  species  of 
Diabrotica  in  that  zone  were  found  in  association  with  maize  in  row-crop 
agricultural  plots,  a  relatively  uniform  ecosystem  amenable  to  a  systematic 
search.  We  have  tabulated  here  (Table  2)  the  numbers  of  beetles  collected 
in  our  rather  unrefined  survey  in  preference  to  simply  listing  localities  to 
better  record  our  basis  for  concluding  that  D,  sicuanica  occurs  at  elevations 
above  the  wide-ranging  species,  D.  s.  vigens.  Ecological  characteristics  that 

Table  1.  Species  collected  at  various  sites  summarized  by  elevation  levels. 

Localities  and  elevation  ranges  (in  meters)^' 
1250-  1900-  2100-  2800-    3000-  3350- 

<900  1400    1830  2000   2100  2200   2450    2980     3200    3500 

D.  sicuanica  Bechyne  12        13 

D.  new  sp.  ( virgtfera  group)-''  1 0 

D.  nigromaculata  Jacoby  4 

D.  tumidicornis  Erichson  456 

D.  mauliki  Barber  4 

D.  sharpi  usualis  Bechyne  456 

D.  decempunctata  semiviridis  45678 

Bowditch 

D.  mapiriensis  new  ssp.*>  456  8 

D.  speciosa  vigens  Erichson  3         4         5         6  8      9,10,11      12 

D.  viridula  Fabricius  13456 

Unknown  species  #  1  3 

D.  peruensis  Bowditch  3 

D.  limitata  quindecimpunctata  3 

Germar 

D.  septemliturata  Erichson  1 

Unknown  species  #2  2 

D.  gracilenta  Erichson  1 

Unknown  species  #3  (near  1 

D.  godmani  Jacoby) 

Hi  =  Quince  Mil;  2  =  Pilcopata;  3  =  road  near  Chaullay,  4  =  Macchu  Picchu;  5  =  50  km  south 
Quillabamba,  6  =  Lares  Valley,  75  km  north  Calca;  7  =  1 40  km  post,  road  to  Pilcopata;  8  =  70  km  south 
Quillabamba;  9  =  OUantaytambo;  10  =  Limatambo;  1 1  =  Curahuasi;  12  =  Pisac  and  lower  Cuyo 
Grande;  1 3  =  Andahuaylillas(Urcos  Valley),  Cuyo  Grande  Valley,  Pucyura(  Anta  Valley),  Ccoraofon 
road  from  Cuzco  to  Pisac). 

•''These  new  taxa  will  be  described  in  a  revision  of  the  virgifera  group  now  being  completed. 


Vol.  95,  No.  3,  May  &  June,  1984  97 

obviously  change  through  this  zone  and  could  bear  on  species  distributions 
are  temperature,  plant  composition  of  the  fields,  and  edaphic  factors  related 
to  slope.  The  Sacred  Valley  is  a  flat  floodplain,  intensively  cropped,  largely 
in  maize  monoculture.  By  contrast,  the  Cuyo  Grande  Valley  is  very  steep 
and  characteristically  has  small,  sloped  fields  where  polycultures  are  the 
rule  but  maize  clearly  dominates.  The  Cuyo  Grande  opens  onto  the  Sacred 
Valley  at  3000  M  elevation.  Both  species  were  found  in  floodplain  and 
sloped  fields  so  slope  alone  is  probably  not  a  factor.  Also,  we  found  beetles 
of  both  D.  sicuanica  and  D.  s.  vigens  in  both  maize  monoculture  and 
polycultural  fields  so  the  admixture  of  forbs  so  common  in  maize  fields  in 
the  Cuyo  Grande  Valley  is  not  a  likely  explanation  for  the  elevation-related 
changes  in  species  composition. 

Given  the  larval  and  adult  associations,  we  conclude  that  D.  sicuanica 
is  a  pest  of  maize  restricted  to  high  Andean  elevations.  Indeed,  in  the  Cuyo 
Grande,  Ccorao,  Urcos,  and  Anta  Valleys,  we  found  D.  sicuanica  at  the 
highest  elevations  at  which  we  found  maize. 


Table  2.  Numbers  of  D.  speciosa  vigens  and  D.  sicuanica  collected  at  elevations  of  2800  M 
and  higher. 

D. 

speciosa  D. 

Location                         Elev.  (M)            vigens  sicuanica         Culture 

Sacred  Valley  (SV)  and  Contiguous  Valleys 

Ollantaytambo  (SV)                              2800                   20  0  maize 

Urubamba(SV)                                    2920                 212  0  maize 

Yucay(SV)                                           2990                   46  0  maize 

9  km  N.  Pisac  (SV)                              3020                   31  13  maize 

1  km  S.  Pisac(SV)                               3050                   34  158  poly  6 

Cuyo  Grande  Valley                             3170                   11  18  maize 

Cuyo  Grande  Valley                             3200                     8  28  poly  2 

Cuyo  Grande  Valley                             3350                     0  36  poly  5 

Ccorao  Valley                                       3470                     0  42  poly  1 

Ccorao  Valley                                       3500                     0  8  poly  4 

Adjacent  Valleys 

Rio  Colorado                                        3050                   60  0  poly  3 

Rio  Colorado                                        3 1 40                     6  0  maize 

RioColordao                                        3200                   13  0  maize 

Urcos  Valley                                         3500                     0  18  maize 

Anta  Valley                                           3500                     0  43  poly  1 

Poly  1  -  maize  +  fava  beans 

Poly  2  -  maize  +  fava  beans  +  snapbeans  +  peas 

Poly  3  -  maize  4-  snapbeans 

Poly  4  -  maize  +  fava  beans  -I-  potatoes 

Poly  5  -  maize  +  lupine  4-  snapbeans 

Poly  6  -  maize  4-  peas  (few) 


98  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

During  the  1979  expedition,  Dr.  R.D.  Gordon,  USDA,  ARS,  Washington,  D.C.,  and 
Arturo  Giron,  Entomol.  Dept.  University  of  Maryland,  were  very  helpful  in  the  practical 
matters  of  working  in  Peru.  Mr.  Alfonso  Arestequi  and  Dr.  Francisco  Carrasco,  Entomologists, 
Cuzco,  Peru,  provided  invaluable  assistance. 

We  thank  Dr.  P.  Passerin  d'Entreves,  Curator,  Museo  Ed  Institute  di  Zoologica 
Sistematica,  Universita  di  Torino,  Italy,  for  loan  of  the  type  ofDiabrotica  decempunctata  and 
Drs.  Ron  McGinley  and  Al  Newton,  Museum  Comparative  Zoology,  Harard  University,  for 
hospitality  extended  to  JLK  while  examining  types  at  MCZ. 

The  1979  expedition  was  supported  by  a  cooperative  agreement  between  the  Beneficial 
Insects  Introduction  Laboratory,  USDA,  ARS,  and  the  Dept.  of  Entomology,  University  of 
Maryland.  The  1 982  expedition  was  supported  by  the  Office  of  International  Cooperation  and 
Development,  USDA. 

REFERENCES  CITED 

Bechyne,  J.I 958.   Notizen  zu  den  neotropischen  Chrysomeloidea  (Col.   Phytophaga). 

Entomol.  Arb.  Mus.  Frey  Vol.  9,  pp.  478-706. 
Gorbman,  A.,  W.  Salhuana,  Ricardo  Sevilla,  and  P.C.  Mangelsdorf.  1 96 1 .  Races  of  maize 

in  Peru:  Their  origins,  evolution  and  classification.  Pub.  915.  Nat.  Acad.  Sciences,  Nat. 

Res.  Council,  Washington,  D.C.  374  pp. 
Olalquiaga,  G.  1980.  Aspectos  fitosanitarios  de  La  Isla  de  Pascua.  Revista  Chilena  de 

Entomologia.  10:   101-102. 
Wilcox,  J.A.  1972.  Coleopterorum  catalogus  supplementa.  Pars.  78.  Fasc.  2  (editi  seconda). 

(Galerucinae,  Luperini:  Aulacophorina).  pp.  296-431. 


Y.E.S. 

Y.E.S.,  the  YOUNG  ENTOMOLOGIST'S  SOCIETY,  was  originally  the  Teen 
International  Entomology  Group  which  was  formed  in  1 965 .  Y.E.S.  serves  as  an  organization 
through  which  members  can  exchange  information  about  insects  through  correspondence  and 
group  publications.  The  oranization's  name  reflects  it's  youth  orientation,  but  "young" 
members  of  any  age  are  needed  for  its  many  activities  and  functions. 

The  Societies'  publication,  Y.E.S.  QUARTERLY,  is  full  of  "how  to"  articles,  collecting 
tips,  news,  field  notes,  life  history  information,  identification  dps,  and  virtually  every  other 
entomological  topic,  including  the  non-insect  arthropods.  Nearly  all  of  the  articles  are  written 
by  the  members  themselves!  In  addition,  the  members  tell  about  themselves  and  their  specific 
interests  via  a  member  directory  and  the  "tradingpost." 

Membership  in  Y.E.S.  is  open  to  all  individuals,  young  or  old,  amateur  or  professional, 
with  an  interest  in  entomology.  There  are  four  membership  categories:  youth  members  ( up  to 
age  18),  collegiate  members,  adult  members  and  sustaining  members.  Membership  applications 
and  additional  information  may  be  obtained  from  the  Department  of  Entomology,  Michigan 
State  University,  East  Lansing,  Michigan  48824-1 1 15. 


Vol.  95,  No.  3,  May  &  June,  1984  99 

PSEUDOCOSSINAE:  A  NEW  SUBFAMILY 
OF  COSSIDAE  (LEPIDOPTERA)1 

J.B.  Heppner2'  3 

ABSTRACT:  Pseudocossinae,  new  subfamily,  is  named  and  diagnosed  for  three  genera  in 
Cossidae:  Pseudocossus  Kenrick  (type-genus),  Chilecomadia  Dyar,  and  Rhizocossus 
Clench.  Pseudocossus  is  from  Madagascar  and  the  other  genera  are  from  Chile.  Pseudocossinae 
have  proto-tympanal  organs  on  the  anterior  abdominal  sternite. 

Recent  review  of  Lepidoptera  classification  for  a  book  to  be  published 
soon  on  Lepidotera  families  (Heppner,  1984)  and  for  the  Atlas  of 
Neotropical  Lepidoptera  (W.  Junk  Publ.,  The  Hague,  Netherlands)  has 
indicated  the  need  for  a  new  subfamily  name  for  a  group  of  primitive  genera 
in  Cossidae.  Since  the  name  is  needed  for  these  two  publications,  I  propose 
the  new  subfamily  at  this  time. 

Pseudocossinae,  new  subfamily 
Type-genus:  Pseudocossus  Kenrick,  1914.  Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  Lond.,  1913:  590. 

Diagnosis:  Adults  medium  sized  (wingspan  ca.  30-45  mm);  head  somewhat  roughened 
on  vertex,  antenna  filiform  (somewhat  serrate  ventrally),  ocelli  present  (Pseudocossus)  or 
absent,  compound  eye  large,  labial  palpus  upturned  with  small  terminal  segment;  thorax  with 
legs  having  arolium  between  tarsal  claws;  forewing  venation  typical  for  family  but  pterostigma 
absent,  cubital  veins  connate  at  base  (Pseudocossus)  or  separated,  CuP  merged  with  anal 
veins  near  tornus  (Pseudocossus)  or  nearly  so,  median  vein  in  discal  cell  single  or  forked; 
hindwing  with  no  crossvein  from  Sc  to  Rs  at  base;  abdomen  with  proto-tympanal  organ  as  a 
lateroventral  invagination  on  anterior  stemite;  male  genitalia  with  rounded  uncus  (slightly 
bifid),  valva  simple,  saccus  reduced;  female  with  setose  ovipositor,  simple  ostium  and  bursa 
copulatrix. 

Immature  Stages:  Unknown. 

Remarks:  The  new  subfamily  is  proposed  for  one  Ethiopian  and  two 
Neotropical  genera  of  primitive  Cossidae,  first  noted  for  their  unique 
characteristic  by  Clench  (1957,  1959).  These  genera  are  the  Madasgascar 
endemic  Pseudocossus  Kenrick,  1914,  with  two  known  species,  and  the 
Chilean  genera  Chilecomadia  Dyar,  1937,  with  two  species,  and  Rhizocossus 
Clench,  1957,  with  one  species.  The  characters  demonstrating  the  primitive 
nature  of  these  genera  in  relation  to  other  Cossidae,  as  well  as  in  definition 
of  Pseudocossinae,  primarily  involve  the  so-called  proto-tympanal  organs 


1  Received  December  19,  1983.  Accepted  April  7.  1984. 

^Center  for  Arthropod  Systematics,  Florida  State  Collection  of  Arthropods,  Bureau  of 
Entomology.  DPI.  FDACS,  P.O.  Box  1269,  Gainesville,  FL  32602. 

^Contribution  No.  580,  Bureau  of  Entomology,  FDACS,  Division  of  Plant  Industry. 
ENT.  NEWS.  95(3):  99-100.  May  &  June,  1984 


100  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 

on  the  anterior  abdominal  sternite.  These  proto-tympanal  organs  are  not  as 
developed  as  the  more  advanced  tympana  found  in  Dudgeonea  (Dudgeoneidae). 
Pseudocossus  additionally  has  ocelli,  but  the  two  Chilean  genera  do  not. 
The  Indian  genus  Catopta  and  the  Australian  Idioses  also  have  ocelli  and 
may  also  belong  to  Pseudocossinae.  The  remainder  of  the  Cossidae,  as  well 
as  Metarbeliadae  and  Dudgeoneidae,  do  not  have  ocelli  (except  as  noted 
above  for  two  genera)  and  lack  proto-tympanal  organs,  except  that 
Dudgeoneidae  have  developed  enlarged  tympanal  organs.  There  may  be 
other  Cossidae  with  a  simple  abdominal  imagination  similar  to  a  proto- 
tympanal  organ,  but  this  requires  further  study. 

The  three  genera  here  included  in  Pseudocossinae  also  have  very 
similar  male  genitalia,  as  pointed  out  by  Clench  (1959),  particularly  in 
lacking  the  long  beak-like  uncus  characteristic  of  most  Cossidae,  as  well  as 
Dudgeoneidae.  Pseudocossus  clearly  is  the  more  distinct  genus  of  the 
subfamily  and  shows  more  affinities  to  some  proto-Dudgeoneidae  stem 
lineage  than  do  the  Chilean  genera.  The  extent  of  the  parameters  of 
Pseudocossinae  will  undoubtedly  continue  to  change  as  more  cossids  are 
discovered  in  remote  areas  of  the  world,  particularly  in  the  Gondwanaland 
refugia  (South  Africa,  Madagascar,  Assam,  New  Zealand,  Chile)  that 
involve  the  habitats  of  Pseudocossinae.  This  fact  is  likewise  true  for  most 
higher  categories  of  Lepidoptera.  Thus  far  at  least,  the  three  genera  herein 
included  in  Pseudocossinae  clearly  demonstrate  a  set  of  characters 
distinctive  enough  among  Cossidae  to  require  a  separate  higher  category  to 
adequately  delimit  their  distinctions  within  the  family. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

Clench,  H.K.   1957.  Cossidae  from  Chile  (Lepidoptera).  Mitt.  Miinchner  Ent.   Ges. 

(Munich),  47:   122-142. 
1959.  On  the  unusual  structure  and  affinities  of  the  Madagascan  genus  Pseudocossus 

(Lepidoptera:  Cossidae).  Rev.  Franc.  Ent.  (Paris),  26:  44-50. 
Heppner,  J.B.  1984.  Lepidoptera  family  classification.  A  guide  to  the  higher  categories, 

world  diversity  and  literature  resources  of  the  butterflies  and  moths.  Medford,  NJ:  Plexus 

Publ.  (ca.  1200  pp.) 


ERRATA 

In  the  March- April  1984  issue  of  ENT.  NEWS,  an  article  appeared  entitled  "A  Spate  of 
Glowworms"  by  Steven  R.  Wing.  In  that  paper  the  words  Phengodidae  and  phengodid(  s)  were 
misspelled  four  times:  in  the  title,  and  on  lines  1,5,  and  13.  The  correct  spelling  should  be 
Phengodidae  and  phengodid(s).  Both  the  author  and  the  editor  regret  these  errors. 


Vol.  95,  No.  3,  May  &  June,  1984  101 

ADDITIONAL  OBSERVATIONS  ON  THE 

ASSOCIATION  OF  PEDILUS  (PEDILIDAE) 

WITH  MELOE  (COLEOPTERA:  MELOIDAE)12 

Linda  Butler3 

ABSTRACT:  Three  specimens  of  Pedilus  collaris  (Say)  were  observed  in  association  with  a 
male  Meloe  angusticollus  Say.  Two  of  the  beetles  were  firmly  attached  to  Meloe  abdominal 
tergites  but  were  producing  little  or  no  obvious  damage. 

Recently,  LeSage  and  Bousquet  (1983)  reviewed  reports  of  Pedilus  - 
Meloe  associations  and  described  their  observations  of  P.  lugubris  (Say) 
chewing  Meloe  elytra. 

On  April  27,  1979  I  observed  an  association  between  Pedilus  and 
Meloe  near  the  unincorporated  community  of  Triune,  21  km  south  of 
Morgantown,  West  Virginia.  The  habitat  was  a  steep  hillside  in  a  typical 
Eastern  cove  of  hardwood  forest  (oak,  hickory,  maple). 

A  male  Meloe  angusticollis  Say  was  observed  resting  on  the  edge  of  a 
fallen  dead  white  oak  leaf.  Two  male  Pedilus  collaris  (Say)  were  firmly 
attached  by  their  mandibles  to  the  second  and  third  abdominal  tergites  of 
the  Meloe  with  their  legs  drawn  up  below  their  bodies.  A  third  male  P. 
collaris,  which  was  crawling  over  leaf  litter  and  dead  twigs  about  23  cm 
away,  oriented  to  the  leaf  on  which  Meloe  was  resting.  The  leaf  was  reached 
by  means  of  an  indirect  route  of  about  64  cm  utilizing  small  twigs  as 
"bridges"  to  the  leaf.  Once  on  the  leaf,  the  Pedilus  walked  directly  to  the 
Meloe  and  attempted  to  crawl  onto  it  at  the  abdominal  apex.  When  touched 
by  the  third  pedilid,  the  Meloe  rapidly  jerked  forward  and  began  walking 
over  the  forest  floor  directly  away  from  the  Pedilus. 

After  observing  the  blister  beetle  walk  over  a  distance  of  about  one 
meter,  I  collected  the  Meloe  and  two  pedilids  and  placed  them  in  a  plastic 
bag  together  with  leaves  and  twigs.  The  captive  Meloe  moved  actively  and 
frequently  crawled  upside  down  on  the  twigs.  At  these  times,  the  pedilids 
hung  freely  by  their  mandibles.  The  pedilids  detached  about  10  hours  later 
and  apparently  were  no  longer  attracted  by  the  Meloe.  Examination  of  the 
meloid's  abdominal  tergites  showed  only  very  small  scratches  on  their 
posterior  margins. 


Deceived  January  23,  1984.  Accepted  April  5,  1984. 

^  Published  with  the  approval  of  the  Director  of  the  West  Virginia  University  Agricultural  and 
Forestry  Station  as  Scientific  Article  #1865. 

^Division  of  Plant  and  Soil  Sciences,  P.O.  Box  6 108,  West  Virginia  University,  Morgantown, 
WV  26506-6108. 

ENT.  NEWS.  95(3):    101-102.  May  &  June,  1984 


102  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


These  observations  gave  no  indication  of  pedilid  feeding  on  Meloe. 
Meloe  specimens  in  the  West  Virginia  University  Collection  also  show  no 
damage  such  as  that  described  by  LeSage  and  Bousquet  (1983).  I  agree 
with  these  authors  that  the  phenomenon  of  elytral  chewing  by  pedilids  may 
be  uncommon. 

The  two  attached  pedilids  in  the  current  study  held  firmly  to  the  Meloe, 
but  appeared  to  be  carried  passively,  generally  not  even  clinging  with  the 
legs.  This  type  of  behavior  is  suggestive  of  that  demonstrated  by  many 
groups  of  phoretic  arthropods.  It  is  unlikely,  however,  that  beetles  as 
relatively  mobile  as  pedilids  would  benefit  from  phoresy  on  another  insect, 
especially  one  as  sluggish  as  the  flightless  Meloe. 

The  behavior  of  the  unattached  pedilid  indicated  that  is  was  detecting 
Meloe  from  a  distance  and  was  strongly  attracted  to  it.  While  visual 
orientation  may  have  been  important,  the  possibility  of  chemical  attraction 
seems  more  likely.  A  chemical  of  obvious  consideration  is  cantharadin,  the 
allomone  secreted  by  meloid  beetles  when  disturbed.  Pedilid  orientation  to 
Meloe  chemicals  might  be  for  any  of  a  number  of  purposes:  protection  from 
natural  enemies  by  means  of  Meloe 's  repellant  fluid;  attraction  to  the 
chemical  for  feeding;  or  use  of  Meloe  as  an  aggregation  site  for  mating. 
Another  possibility  is  that  pedilids  as  larvae  or  adults  associate  in  some 
fashion  with  Meloe  eggs.  These  suggestions  can  be  only  speculative  at  this 
point. 

LITERATURE  CITED 

LeSage,  L.  and  Y.  Bousquet  A  new  record  of  attacks  by  Pedilus  (Pedilidae)  on  Meloe 
(Meloidae:  Coleoptera).  Ent.  News  94:  95-96. 


ANNOUNCEMENT 

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Vol.  95,  No.  3,  May  &  June,  1984  103 

TRICHOPTERA  OF  THE  CAHABA  RIVER 
SYSTEM  IN  ALABAMA1 

S.C.  Harris2,  P.K.  Lago3,  P.E.  O'Neil2 

ABSTRACT:  Distribution  records  for  146  species  of  caddisflies  collected  in  the  Cahaba 
River  basin  are  presented  and  seasonal  occurrence  and  abundance  of  each  are  indicated. 
Annotations  include  habitat  notes  and  geographical  distributions.  Seven  undescribed  species  are 
reported  for  the  river  system  and  two  northerly  species  are  newly  reported  from  southeastern 
United  States.  Distinct  faunas  were  differentiated  on  the  basis  of  stream  size  and  physiographic 
province. 

The  Cahaba  River  is  one  of  the  largest  free-flowing  rivers  in  Alabama. 
Although  there  is  some  municipal  and  industrial  drainage  into  the  river, 
large  stretches  remain  relatively  undisturbed.  The  biota  of  the  river  is 
considered  to  be  particularly  rich  and  unique,  with  32  plants,  23  mollusks, 
and  9  fishes  considered  threatened  or  endangered  within  Alabama  occurring 
in  the  river  system  (Boschung,  1976;  Freeman  et  al.,  1979).  Studies  of  the 
aquatic  insect  fauna  of  the  river  have  been  few  and  primarily  limited  to 
environmental  impact  studies  in  the  Birmingham  area.  This  study  lists  the 
caddisfly  species  known  to  occur  in  the  Cahaba  River  system  and  annotates 
their  distribution.  Distribution  patterns  are  discussed  in  more  detail  in 
Harris  et  al.  (in  press)  with  which  this  paper  should  be  considered  a 
companion. 

Description  of  River  System 

The  Cahaba  River  originates  north  of  Trussville,  Alabama  (fig.  1 )  in  the 
Valley  and  Ridge  physiographic  province  and  flows  southerly  for  nearly 
245  km  before  joining  the  Alabama  River  near  Selma  on  the  East  Gulf 
Coastal  Plain.  Within  the  Valley  and  Ridge,  the  river  flows  in  the  Cahaba 
Valley  flanked  by  the  Cahaba  and  Coosa  Ridges.  Soils  are  typically 
nonresistant  sandstone  and  shale  with  some  unconsolidated  deposits  of 
sand,  clay  and  gravel.  North  of  Centreville,  which  is  situated  on  the  fall  line, 
the  river  flows  through  an  area  rich  in  limestone  and  dolomite.  This  is  the 
most  scenic  and  unique  portion  of  the  river,  with  the  limestone  outcroppings 


'  Received  January  4,  1984.  Accepted  February  27,  1984. 

^Geological  Survey  of  Alabama,  P.O.  Box  0,  University  Station,  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama 

35486 

•'Department  of  Biology,  University  of  Mississippi,  University,  Mississippi  38677 
ENT.  NEWS.  95(3):    103-1 12.  May  &  June,  1984 


104  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


forming  extensive  shoals.  The  majority  of  species  considered  rare  in  the 
river  system  occur  in  this  small  section.  South  of  Centreville  the  river  flows 
across  the  Coastal  Plain.  The  soils  of  this  physiographic  province  are 
primarily  fine  to  coarse  sands  and  sandy  clay  with  some  deposits  of  gravel. 
In  total,  the  river  drains  an  area  of  approximately  4,700  km2. 

Water  quality  in  the  river  is  generally  good  (Table  1),  although  some 
degradation  seems  to  have  occurred  in  those  river  sections  and  tributaries  in 
the  Birmingham  area.  Dissolved  oxygen  levels  are  lower  and  nitrate  and 
phosphate  levels  higher  in  the  river  sections  near  Birmingham,  particularly 
in  Shades  Creek,  a  river  tributary  receiving  domestic  sewage. 

Collecting  Sites  and  Methodology 

Adult  Trichoptera  were  collected  using  UV  light  traps  (BioQuip 
Universal  Trap)  at  24  localites  in  the  Cahaba  River  basin  (Fig.  1). 
Collections  were  concentrated  within  five  sections  of  the  river:  river 
headwaters  above  Birmingham  (sites  1-4, 6,  7);  main  river  channel  between 
Birmingham  and  Centreville  (sites  8,  11,  12,  17,  18);  river  tributaries 
between  Birmingham  and  Centreville  (sites  5 a,  5b,  10,  13-16,  19);  main 
channel  and  tributaries  in  the  Coastal  Plain  physiographic  province  (sites 
20-24);  and  springs  (sites  5c,5d,  9, 15).  Sampling  was  most  intensive  in  the 
section  of  river  north  of  Centreville  which  is  considered  the  most  unique 
portion  faunistically  (Chermock,  1977).  Collections  at  sixteen  sites  were 
made  at  approximately  monthly  intervals,  while  collections  at  the  remaining 
eight  sites  were  made  irregularly.  Light  traps  were  situated  on  the  stream 
banks  and  operated  for  approximately  one  hour  after  dusk.  Specimens  were 
collected  and  preserved  in  70%  ethanol.  In  all,  8 1  collections  were  made  in 
1981  and  1982.  Over  54,000  specimens,  primarily  males,  were  examined 
during  the  course  of  the  study. 

Annotated  List  of  Species 

Included  with  each  species  is  information  on  distribution  and  abundance 
within  the  Cahaba  River  watershed.  Collecting  stations  are  shown  in  figure 
1 .  Since  collections  were  made  at  several  dates  within  each  month,  seasonal 
occurrences  were  broadly  defined.  Distribution  annotations  are  brief  with  a 
more  detailed  discussion  contained  in  Harris  et  al.  (in  press).  Number  of 
specimens  collected  is  indicated  by  (  ).  In  most  cases  only  males  of  the 
species  were  identified  and  enumerated.  Voucher  specimens  are  deposited 
at  the  Geological  Survey  of  Alabama  and  in  the  collections  of  the  authors. 


Vol.  95,  No.  3,  May  &  June,  1984 


105 


Alabama 
It-V    dnil    Rulqr 


East  Gull 

Coastal     Pldl 


JEFFERSON  COUNTY 

1  Cahaba  River  at  Interstate    59 

2  Cahaba  River  al  Co  Hwv  132  ITrussvillel 

3  Cahaba  River  at  Camp  Colpman 

4  Cahaba  River  at  Co   Hwv  10 

5  Tannehill  State  Park 

a   Mill  Creek  at  grist  mill 
b  Mud  Creek  at  park  entrance 
c   Bubbling  Spring 
a   Republic  Steel  Spring. 
1  mile  NW  park  entrance 

6  Drv  Creek  nr   Co   Hwv  132  ITrussvillel 

7  Little  Cahaba  Creek  at  Camp  Coleman 


SHELBY  COUNJY 

8  Cahaba  River  at  Co    Hwv   52  I  Helena! 

9  Spring  al  Eben.zer  Church. 
5  miles S  Alabaster 

10  Shoal  Creek  at  Montevallo 

BIBB  COUNTY. 

1 1  Cahaba  River  at  Co   Hwv  24 

12  Cahaba  River  at  Co   Hwv  27 

13  Little  Cahaba  River  nr  Co   Hwv  65 

14  Si.  Mile  Creek  at  AL  Hwv  25 

15  Little  Schultz  Creek  and  spring 
5  miles  S  West  Blocton 

16  Schult;  Creek   4  mile  N  Centrmlle 

17  Cahaba  River  at  U  S  Hwv  82  ICentreviilel 

18  Cahaba  River  at  Centreville.  nr  goll  course 

19  Little  Ugly  Creek    2  miles  SE  West  Blocton 

PERRY  COUNTY 

20  Cahaba  River  al  Co   Hwv  183  nr  Sprott 

21  Cahaba  River  at  Co   Hwv  6  nr  Sultle 

22  Oakmulgee  Creek  at  Co   Hwv  219 

23  Oakmuigee  Creek  at  Co   Hwv  30 

24  Little  Oakmuigee  Creek  at  Co   Hwy  30 


Figure  1.  Collecting  stations  in  the  Cahaba  River  basin. 


106  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Hydropsychoidea 

Philopotamidae 

Chimarra  aterrima  Hagen.  Stations  5b,  5d,  6,  13,  16.  March-October.  (12) 

C.  moselyi (Denning).  2,  14,  16,  18,  22,  23.  Widely  collected  and  common  in  the  basin, 

but  most  numerous  in  Coastal  Plain  tributaries.  April-October.  (78) 
C.  n.  sp.  8,  12,  16,  18,  20-23.  Collected  in  large  tributaries  and  main  river  channel.  June- 
August.  (37) 
C.  obscura  (Walker).  1-4,  5b,  5d,  8,  11-13,  15,  16.  The  most  common  Chimarra 

collected  in  the  basin,  widely  distributed  north  of  the  fall  line.  April-October.  (145) 
Wormaldia  moesta  (Banks).  5c.  May.  (1) 
Psychomyiidae 

Lype  diversa  (Banks).  l-5c,  6,  8,  Collected  primarily  in  small  tributaries  and  headwaters 

of  the  main  river  channel.  April-October.  (45) 
Psvchomyiaflavida  Hagen.  1,  2,  5a,  5b,  12-16,  18.  Widespread  and  common  in  basin 

'  north' of  the  fall  line.  (175) 
Polycentropodidae 

CernotinacalceaRoss.  4, 11-14, 18.  Collected  in  large  tributaries  and  main  river  channel. 

May- September.  (71) 
C.  spicata  Ross.  2,  1 1-13,  15,  20,  22,  23.  Widely  distributed  in  the  basin.  May-June, 

September.  (56) 
Cyrnellus  fraternus  (Banks).  3,  4,  5d,  8,  1 1-13,  16,  18,  20,  22.  Widely  distributed  and 

common  in  the  basin.  May-October.  (457) 
Neureclipsis  crepuscularis  (Walker).  3, 11, 13, 16,  20.  Collected  in  large  tributaries  and 

main  river  channel.  April-October.  (78) 
N.  melco  Ross.  13,  23.  June,  September.  (2) 
Nyctiophylax  affinis  (Banks).  15,  16,  20.  April,  June,  October.  (6) 
N.  banksi  Morse.  6.  May.  (1) 
TV.  celta  Denning.  1,  2,  12-14,  16,  18,  21-23.  Widely  distributed  and  abundant  in  the 

basin.  May-October.  (1527) 
TV.  denningi  Morse.  6.  May.  (2) 
N.  moestus  Banks.  5a,  15.  Only  collected  in  two  small  tributaries  during  the  spring  and 

fall.  (6) 

Phylocentropus  carolinus  Carpenter.  14,  16.  April,  August  (3) 
P.  placidus  (Banks).  7,  8,  23,  24.  Primarily  collected  in  small  tributaries.  April,  June, 

September.  (13) 
Polycentropus  cinereus  Hagen.  1,  2,  5c,  6,  1 3,  14,  16.  Collected  in  small  tributaries  and 

river  headwaters  north  of  the  fall  line.  April-June,  September.  (60) 
P.  confusus  Hagen.  1-6,  14-16,  19.  Primarily  collected  at  the  river  headwaters  and  in 

small  tributaries  north  of  the  fall  line.  April-October.  (134) 
P.  crassicornis  Walker.  5b.  May.  (1) 
P.  n.  sp.  (nr.  elarus).  6.  May.  (2) 

Hydropsychidae 

Cheumatopsyche  burksi  Ross.  23.  June.  (1) 

C.  campy  la  Ross.  1,3,4,  5d,  7,  11,  12.  Primarily  collected  in  the  main  river  channel  north 

of  the  fall  line.  May-October.  (616) 

C.  edista  Gordon.  12.  Primarily  a  Coastal  Plain  inhabitant.  October.  (1) 
C.  ela  Denning.  3, 4, 5d,  8,  10-12,  14.  Collected  primarily  in  the  main  river  channel  north 

of  the  fall  line.  April-October.  (43) 
C.  geora  Denning.  16,  19.  Rare  in  the  basin  but  common  in  small  central  Alabama 

streams.  August- October.  (10) 


Vol.  95,  No.  3,  May  &  June,  1984  107 


C.  gracilis  (Banks).  1,  2,  5a,  13,  14.  Collected  in  large  tributaries,  primarily  station  13, 

and  headwaters  of  the  Cahaba.  May- September.  (66) 
C.  minuscula  (Banks).  3,  5c,  8,  11-15,  18,  19.  The  most  common  Hydropsychidae 

collected,  widespread  in  basin  north  of  fall  line.  April-October.  (2919) 
C.  n.  sp.  1.  July.  (1) 
C.  nr.  wabasha.  12.  Probably  represents  a  new  species  since  C.  wabasha  Denning  is  only 

known  from  the  Pacific  northwest.  October.  ( 1 ) 
C.  oxa  Ross.  1-3,  5a,  5b,  5d,  9,  15.  Collected  in  springs  and  at  the  headwaters  of  the 

Cahaba.  May-October.  (89) 
C.  pasella  Ross.  4,  8,  11-17.  Widespread  in  basin  north  of  the  fall  line.  April-October. 

(721) 
C  pettiti  (Banks).  2-5a,  5d,  6-8,  12,  15,  16,  23.  Widespread  in  basin  although  never 

collected  in  large  numbers.  April-October.  (138) 

C.  sordida  (Hagen).  14,  20-23.  Primarily  restricted  to  the  Coastal  Plain.  April,  June- 
September.  (52) 
Ceratopsyche  cheilonis(Ross).  l-5a,  8,  10-16.  Widespread  in  basin  north  of  the  fall  line 

but  most  abundant  at  station  13.  April-October.  (345) 
C.  sparna(Ross).  l,2,5a,5b,  14.  Primarily  occurring  in  small  tributaries  and  headwaters 

of  the  Cahaba.  May,  October.  (9) 
Diplectrona  modesta  Banks.  2 1 .  September.  ( 1 ) 
Hydropsyche  alvata  Denning.  14,20-23.  Except  for  a  single  specimen  taken  at  station  14, 

restricted  to  the  Coastal  Plain,  primarily  in  the  main  river  channel.  May- June.  (547) 
H.  betteni  Ross.  1 1.  May.  (5) 
H.  depravata  Hagen.  l,3,5a,5b,8, 10, 13-16.  Widespread  in  river  tributaries  north  of  the 

fall  line.  April-October.  (123) 
H.  dicantha  Ross.  15,  19.  April-May.  (2) 
H.  elissoma  Ross.  23.  June.  (2) 
//./mom  Ross.  1,  3,  4,  5a,  7,  8,  11-16,  19.  Widespread  in  the  basin  north  of  the  fall  line 

but  most  abundant  at  station  13.  (765) 
H.  hagent 'Banks.  3,  5d,  8,  11-14,  16,  18,  19.  The  most  common  Hydropsyche  taken  in  the 

watershed;  most  abundant  in  the  main  river  channel  at  station  12.  April-October. 

(1089) 

H.  incommode  Hagen.  4,  14.  May,  August- September.  (4) 
H.    mississippiensis  Flint.   3,    14,   20,   22-24.   Primarily  collected  in  Coastal   Plain 

tributaries  to  the  river.  April-July.  (73) 
//.  ormRoss.  11-14,  17,20-23.  Primarily  collected  on  the  Coastal  Plain.  April-October. 

(296) 
H.  rossi  Flint,  Voshell  and  Parker.  1,4,  5d,  8,  1 1,  12,  14,  16,  20-23.  Widespread  in  the 

basin,  but  most  common  on  the  Coastal  Plain.  April-October.  (179) 
H.  scalaris  Hagen.  13,  14.  May,  September.  (6) 
H.  venularis  Banks.  3,  4,  8,  1 1,  14.  Collected  in  large  tributaries  and  main  river  channel 

north  of  the  fall  line.  May-June,  October.  (9) 
Macrostemum  Carolina  (Banks).  8,  1 1-14,  17,  18,  20-23.  Widespread  in  the  basin,  but 

most  common  on  the  Coastal  Plain.  June- August.  (208) 
M.  transversum  (Walker).  20,  21 .  Only  collected  on  the  Coastal  Plain  in  the  main  river 

channel.  June.  (58) 
M.  zebratum  (Hagen).  14.  May.  (3) 
Potamyia  flava  (Hagen).  11,  12,  14,  20-23.  Collected  in  large  tributaries  and  main 

channel  throughout  the  basin,  but  most  numerous  on  the  Coastal  Plain.  April- 
September.  (515) 


108  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Rhyacophiloidea 

Rhyacophilidae 

Rhyacophila  Carolina  Banks.  2,  5c,  6,  15.  Collected  in  small  tributaries  and  the 

headwaters  of  the  Cahaba.  May- September.  (7) 

R.  ledra  Ross.  1,  2.  Restricted  to  the  headwaters  of  the  Cahaba.  May,  October.  (8) 
R.  vuphipes.  13.  Record  tentative  on  the  basis  of  larvae  collected  by  D.A.  Etnier.  April. 
Glossosomatidae 

Agapetus  hessi  Leonard  and  Leonard.  14.  May.  (8) 

A.  rossi  Denning.  14.  This  species  and  A.  hessi  only  known  in  Alabama  from  this  locality. 

May.  (3) 

A.  tomus  Ross.  1,2,  13.  May.  (8) 

Glossosoma  nigriorBanks.  1,2.  Only  collected  at  the  headwaters  of  the  Cahaba.  May.  (5) 
Matrioptila  jeanae  (Ross).  14.  May.  (2) 
Protoptila  lega  Ross.  2, 4, 5  a,  8, 1 2- 1 8.  Widespread  in  basin  north  of  the  fall  line,  but  most 

abundant  at  station  13.  April-October.  (1599) 
Hydroptilidae 

Dibusa  angata  Ross.  16.  Many  immatures  collected  at  site  in  April  from  red  algae 

(Lemanea).  April.  (16) 
Hydroptila  alabama  Harris  and  Kelley.  2,  3,  14-16.  Collected  in  small  tributaries  and  at 

the  headwaters  of  the  Cahaba.  May,  August- October.  (10) 
H.  amoena  Ross.  14,  16.  April-October.  (24) 
H.  angusta  Ross.  5d.  July.  (1) 
H.  armata  Ross.  1-6,  8,  9,  1 1-16,  19.  Widespread  in  basin  north  of  the  fall  line,  but  most 

common  in  the  main  river  channel  at  station  11.  April-October.  (4320) 
H.  callia  Denning.  2.  Only  known  Alabama  locality  for  this  species  which  had  not  been 

reported  south  of  Kentucky  previously.  September.  (2) 
H.  delineate  Morton.  5d,  11-13,  15,  16,  18.  Primarily  collected  in  main  river  channel 

north  of  the  fall  line.  April-October.  (1490) 
H.  gunda  Milne.  l-5a,  7,  8,  11-16,  18,  19,  21.  Widespread  in  the  basin  primarily 

occurring  above  the  fall  line.  April-October.  (1889) 
H.  hamata  Morton.  l-5a,  7,  8,  1 1-16.  Widespread  in  basin  north  of  the  fall  line,  but  most 

abundant  at  station  13.  May-October.  (903) 
H.  n.  sp.  (nr.  amoena)  2,  5a-5c,  15,  19.  Collected  in  small  tributaries  and  at  the 

headwaters  of  the  Cahaba.  April-October.  (73) 
H.  n.  sp.  (nr.  eramosa).  15.  May,  October.  (2) 
H.  n.  sp.  (nr,  molsonae).  22-24.  Collected  in  Coastal  Plain  tributaries  to  the  river.  April, 

June.  (225) 
H.   novicola  Blickle  and  Morse.   15,  23,  24.  Collected  primarily  in  Coastal  Plain 

tributaries.  April- June,  October.  (13) 
H.  quinola  Ross.  3,  4,  5b,  8,  1 1-16,  19,  21-23.  Widespread  in  the  basin.  April-October. 

(260) 
H.  spatulata  Morton.  3, 4,  5d,  1 1,  12,  15,  18.  Widespread  in  basin  north  of  the  fall  line, 

but  most  common  in  the  main  river  channel.  April-October.  (33) 
H.  waskesia  Ross.  1,  2.  Only  known  Alabama  locality  for  this  species.  May.  (3) 
H.  waubesiana   Betten.  2-5b,  7,  8,  11-16,  18-20,  22,  23.  Most  frequently  collected 

caddisfly  in  the  basin,  widespread  in  watershed.  April-October.  (6608) 
Mayatrichia  ayama  Mosely.  16.  August.  (13) 

Neotrichia  alabamensis  Kelley  and  Harris.  22,  23.  June,  September.  (3) 
N.  minutisimella  (Chambers).  20,  23.  As  was  N.  alabamensis,  only  collected  in  the 

Coastal  Plain.  June,  September.  (4) 


Vol.  95,  No.  3,  May  &  June,  1984  109 


N.  vibrans  Ross.  4,  15,  16.  July-October.  (30) 

Ochrotrichia  graysoni  Parker  and  Voshell.  1-3,  12,  13.  Previously  only  known  from 

Virginia,  most  abundant  at  station  13.  May-October.  (2466) 
O.  riesi  Ross.  5b.  October.  (1) 
O.  tarsalis  (Hagen).  2,  5d,  1 1,  12,  16-18,  20,  21.  Widespread  in  basin.  May-October. 

(309) 
Orthotrichia  aegerfasciella  (Chambers).  l-5a,  5d,  7,  8,  12, 14-16,  18-23.  May-October. 

(146) 
O.  cristata  Morton.  1-4,8,  13, 15, 16, 18,22.  As  was  O.  aegerfasciella,  widespread  in  the 

basin.  June-October.  (51) 
Oxyethria  coercens  Morton.  12-14,  16,  19.  Primarily  a  northeastern  species;  this  record 

represents  the  southermost  extension  of  its  range.  April-May,  August-October.  (45) 
O.  forcipata  Mosely.  1 .  October.  ( 1 ) 
O.  janella  Denning.  11,  12,  22.  September- October.  (8) 
O.  lumipollex  Kelley  and  Harris.  22.  April.  (2) 
O.  novasota  Ross.  4,  5d,  13,  15,  16,  23.  May-August.  (14) 
O.  pallida  (Banks).  1-4,  5d,  8,  11-15,  19-23.  Widespread  in  the  basin.  April- September. 

(171) 
O.  zeronia  Ross.  1  -3, 5b,  5d,  14-16.  Widespread,  but  uncommon,  in  basin  north  of  the  fall 

line.  May-October.  (20) 
Stactobiella  martynovi  Blickle  and  Denning.  2,  4-5b,  1 1-14,  16,  19.  Primarily  collected 

in  small  tributaries  north  of  the  fall  line.  April-May.  (208) 
S.  n.  sp.  16.  April.  (4) 

Limnephiloidea 

Phryganeidae 

Agrypnia  vestita  (Walker).  16.  October.  (1) 
Ptilostomis  ocellifera  (Walker).  9.  July.  (1) 
P.  postica  (Walker).  21.  April.  (1) 
Brachycentridae 

Brachycentrus  numerosus(Say).  16.  Record  from  a  single  larva  identified  by  O.S.  Flint. 

March. 

Micrasema  rusticum  (Hagen).  16.  April.  (1 14) 
M.  watagaRoss.  l-3,5a,5c-6,  14-16.  Widespread  in  tributaries  to  the  river  north  of  the 

fall  line.  August-October.  (32) 
Limnephilidae 

Goera  calcarata  Banks.  15.  May,  September.  (9) 

Ironoquia  punctatissima  (Walker)  4,  13,  15,  20.  September-October.  (8) 

Neophylax  sp.  13.  Record  from  larva  collected  by  D.A.  Etnier.  April. 

Pycnopsyche  Indiana  (Ross).    1,  3,  4,   15,   16.  Collected  in  small  tributaries  and 

headwaters  of  the  river.  October.  (14) 
P.  luculenta  (Betten).  16.  October.  (1) 
P.  scabripennis  (Rambur).  5b,  15,  16.  October.  (5) 
Lepidostomatidae 

Lepidostoma  latipenne  (Banks).  15  May.  (1) 
Helicopsychidae 

Helicopsyche  borealis  (Hagen).  1,  2,  4,  5a,  6,  13,  15,  16.  Primarily  collected  in  small 

tributaries  and  headwaters  of  the  river.  May-October.  (224) 
Leptoceridae 

Ceraclea  ancylus  ( Vorhies).  5 a,  11,  13.  Primarily  collected  in  the  main  river  channel  at 

station  11.  May-June.  (224) 


1 10  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


C.  cancellata  (Betten).  3-5a,  8,  11-14,  20-23.  Widespread  in  the  basin  but  most 

commonly  collected  in  the  main  river  channel.  May-August.  (892) 
C.  flava  (Banks).  4,  8,  1 1-1 3,  20-23.  Distribution  similar  to  that  of  C.  cancellata,  May- 
June.  (395) 
C.  maculata( Banks).  1,3,4,  5d,  8,  11-15,  18,  20-23.  Widespread  and  abundant  in  the 

basin.  May-October.  (2713) 
C.  nepha  (Ross).  l-5c,  13,  14.  Primarily  collected  at  the  headwaters  of  the  river.  May. 

(128) 
C.  ophioderus  (Ross).  8,  1 1 ,  1 3,  20-23.  Primarily  collected  in  the  main  river  channel  on 

the  Coastal  Plain.  June,  September.  (775) 
C.  protonepha  Morse  and  Ross.  l-5c,  8,  1 1 ,  1 3,  14,  19.  Widespread  in  basin  north  of  the 

fall  line,  but  most  commonly  collected  at  the  river  headwaters.  April- June.  (325) 
C.  resurgens  (Walker).  12,  14,  23.  April.  (7) 
C.  tarsipunctata  (Vorhies).  1,  3,  4,  8,  1 1-16,  20-23.  Widespread  in  the  basin,  but  most 

numerous  in  the  main  river  channel.  April- June.  (631) 
C.  transversa  (Hagen).  5a-5d,  11-14.  May-July.  (78) 
Mystacides  sepulchralis  (Walker).  1-3,  5b,  14-16.  Collected  in  small  tributaries  and  at 

the  river  headwaters.  May- October.  (28) 
Nectopsvche  Candida  (Hagen).  Within  the  watershed,  only  collected  in  the  Coastal  Plain. 

June.  (21) 

N.  exquisita  (Walker).  8,  11-13,  20,  23.  May-September.  (78) 
N.pavida  (Hagen).  2-4,8,  11, 12, 14,  16,  21,  23.  As  was  N.  exquisita,  widespread  in  the 

basin.  May-October.  (42) 
N.  spiloma(Ross).  1 1, 12,21.  Only  collected  in  the  main  river  channel,  easternmost  range 

extension  of  this  species.  June-October.  (25) 
Oecetis  avara  (Banks).  3,  11-13,  16-18,  20-23.  Widespread  in  the  basin,  but  most 

abundant  in  the  main  channel  and  larger  tributaries.  May- September.  (1814) 
O.  cinerascens( Hagen).  3,  11,  15,  20,  23.  May-June,  September.  (28) 
O.  ditissa  Ross.  1-4,  5b,  5d,  8,  12,  13,  15,  16,  18,  20-23.  Widespread  in  the  basin.  May- 
October.  (90) 
O.  inconspicua  (Walker).  l-5d,  8,  10-16,  18,  20-23.  More  common  than  O.  ditissa,  but 

with  a  similar  distribution  within  the  basin.  May-October.  (736) 
O.  morsei  Bueno-Soria.  13,  16,  22.  June-October.  (14) 
O.  nocturna  Ross.  1-4,  8,  1 1-14,  16,  21-23.  Widespread  in  the  basin,  with  distribution 

similar  to  that  of  O.  ditissa  and  O.  inconspicua.  May-October.  (234) 
O.  osteni  Mime.  1,  16.  September-October.  (2) 
O.persimilis(  Banks).  l-5a,5d,8, 1 1-14, 16, 18.  Widespread  in  the  basin,  north  of  the  fall 

line,  but  most  numerous  in  large  tributaries  and  main  river  channel.  May-October. 

(429) 
O.  scala  Milne.  11-13,  16,  18.  Most  commonly  collected  at  station  16.  June-October. 

(385) 
O.  sphyra  Ross.  13,  16,  20-23.  Primarily  collected  in  river  tributaries  on  the  Coastal 

Plain.  June-August.  (224) 
Setodes  dixiensis  Holzenthal.  11,  13,  15,  16,  22.  Most  common  in  large  tributaries, 

particularly  station  13,  and  main  river  channel.  May-June,  September-October.  (482) 
5.  guttatus (Banks).  14.  Previously  only  known  from  the  northeastern  United  States.  This 

species  has  also  been  collected  in  southern  Alabama.  August.  ( 1 ) 
Triaenodes  Ignitus  (Walker).  1-4,  5b-6,  9,  18,  22.  Widespread  but  uncommon  in  the 

basin.  May-October.  (21) 
T.  injusta  (Hagen).  1 , 2, 8, 1 1 , 1 2,  1 4.  Primarily  collected  in  the  main  channel  north  of  the 

fall  line.  May-June,  September.  (33) 
T.  perna  Ross.  2,  5a,  12.  May.  (4) 
T.  smithi  Ross.  23.  June.  (1) 
T.  tarda  Milne.  22.  June.  (1) 


Vol.  95,  No.  3,  May  &  June,  1984  111 


SUMMARY 

The  Cahaba  River  yielded  146  species  of  caddisflies  in  45  genera  and 
1 3  families.  Hydroptilidae  (35  species),  Hydropsychidae  (34  species),  and 
Leptoceridae  (32  species)  were  the  dominant  families.  In  comparison  to  the 
few  caddisfly  studies  conducted  on  other  large  southeastern  rivers  (Resh  et 
al.,  19 75;  Gordon  and  Wallace,  1975),  the  Cahaba  River  seems  to  support 
a  particularly  rich  fauna.  The  wide  diversity  of  habitat  in  the  river,  including 
the  rocky,  swift  waters  of  the  headwaters,  the  shoal  areas  north  of  the  fall 
line,  and  the  slow,  sandy  waters  of  the  Coastal  Plain,  probably  accounts  for 
the  rich  fauna. 

The  majority  of  species  and  individuals  were  collected  during  May  and 
June  (112  species,  36,647  specimens),  but  a  diverse  fauna  was  also  present 
during  September  and  October  (90  species,  3,1 34  specimens).  While  most 
species  were  collected  throughout  the  study  period,  including  Cheumatopsyche 
minuscula,  Hydropsyche  hageni,  and  Hydroptila  armata,  others  had  more 
restricted  emergence  patterns.  Stactobiella  n.sp.,  Dibusa  angata,  and 
Ceraclea  resurgens,  for  example,  were  collected  only  during  early  April, 
while  others  such  as  Pycnopsyche  spp.  and  Ironquia  punctatissima  only 
occurred  during  early  October. 

Cluster  analysis,  using  Jaccard's  coefficient  and  based  on  species 
presence  or  absence  at  a  station,  indicated  that  the  caddisfly  fauna  of  the 
Cahaba  basin  also  displayed  geographical  distribution  patterns  (Harris  et 
al.,  in  press).  In  general,  three  areas  of  the  river  system  were  recognized  on 
the  basis  of  a  similar  caddisfly  fauna:  a  main  river  and  large  tributary  fauna 
of  the  Valley  and  Ridge  region  (97  species);  a  headwater  and  small  tributary 
fauna  of  the  Valley  and  Ridge  region  (101  species);  and  a  Coastal  Plain 
fauna  (58  species).  Although  many  species  were  widely  distributed  within 
the  basin,  several  were  more  restricted.  Hydropsyche  betteni  was  only 
collected  in  the  main  river  channel  above  the  fall  line;  eight  species 
including  Macrostemum  transversum  and  Nectopsyche  Candida  only 
occurred  on  the  Coastal  Plain;  and  43  species,  including  Agapetus  spp.  and 
Rhyacophla  spp.,  were  collected  only  in  tributaries  and  at  the  river 
headwaters. 

These  distribution  patterns  appear  to  be  influenced  primarily  by 
physical  parameters,  including  stream  size,  flow  regimes,  and  substrate. 
Water  quality  within  the  watershed  seemed  to  have  a  limited  impact  on 
species  abundance  and  distribution.  Of  those  parameters  measured  and 
compiled  over  a  35-year  period,  only  dissolved  oxygen  levels  were 
noticeably  lower  in  some  sections  of  the  river  (O'Neil,  1 983).  Water  quality 
deterioration  in  the  basin  appears  to  be  primarily  limited  to  Birmingham  and 
the  surrounding  area. 


112 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Table  1.  Ranges  of  physiochemical  water  parameters  in  the  Cahaba  River  basin 
(1976-1981) 

River  sections 


Parameters 


Dissolved  oxygen 

(mg/1) 

Temperature  (°C) 
pH  (units) 
Hardness  (mg/1) 
Specific  conductance 

(/imhos/cm) 
Alkalinity  (mg/1) 
Sulfate  (mg/1) 
Nitrate  (mg/1  N03-N) 
Phosphate  (mg/1) 
Discharge  (cfs) 


Upper 

Middle 

Middle 

Cahaba 

Cahaba 

Cahaba 

Upper 

River 

River 

River 

Cahaba 

(Shades 

(Birmingham 

(Centreville 

River 

Creek) 

area) 

area) 

4.8-13.0 

1.4-12.0 

1.1-13.0 

2.9-15.0 

1.0-29.0 

3.0-31.0 

4.0-30.0 

5.0-32.0 

5.2-8.7 

5.7-9.2 

5.7-8.6 

6.4-8.9 

14-180 

20-230 

17-120 

24-140 

55-680 

139-657 

104-315 

24-380 

5-123 

10-189 

9-169 

18-140 

1.0-220 

6.0-60 

10-39 

3.0-46 

0-9.8 

.03-35 

0-6.5 

0-2.3 

.02-3.0 

.05-4.2 

.01-2.1 

1.0-2.1 

— 

11-7,220 

0.39-1,440 

90-83,600 

Lower 

Cahaba 

River 

7.1-14.1 

6.0-29.5 

6.7-8.2 

26-97 

76-228 
24-90 
3.0-17 
0-1.0 

224-83,400 


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The  authors  wish  to  thank  the  following  researchers  for  their  assistance  in  specimen 
identification  and  verification:  O.S.  Flint,  Jr.,  A.E.  Gordon,  K.L.  Manuel,  J.C.  Morse,  R 
Kelley,  J.  Weaver,  and  J.  Wojtowicz.  D.A.  Etnier  generously  made  available  his  collection 
records  from  the  Cahaba  River  system.  We  also  thank  J.  Wilman  for  assistance  in  processing 
samples  and  I.  Thompson  and  S.  Rager  for  typing  and  editing  the  manuscript.  In  addition  to 
help  with  specimen  identifications,  R  Holzenthal  and  S.  Hamilton  reviewed  the  manuscript 
and  offered  valuable  comments.  Portions  of  the  study  were  supported  by  a  research  grant  to  the 
senior  author  from  the  Xerces  Society. 


LITERATURE  CITED 

Chermock,  R.L.  1977.  A  unique  area  along  the  Cahaba  River.  Ala.  Conserv.  47:  4-7. 
Boschung,  H.T.,  (ed).  1976.  Endangered  and  threatened  plants  and  animals  of  Alabama. 

Ala.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.  Bull.  2:    1-92. 
Freeman,  J.D.,  A.S.  Causey  J.W.  Short,  and  R.R.  Haynes.  1979.  Endangered,  threatened, 

and  special  concern  plants  of  Alabama.  J.  Ala.  Acad.  Sci.  50:    1-26. 
Gordon,  A.E.    and  J.B.  Wallace.   1975.   Distribution  of  the  family   Hydropsychidae 

(Trichoptera)  in  the  Savannah  River  basin  of  North  Carolina,  South  Carolina,  and 

Georgia.  Hydrobiologia.  46:  405-423. 
Harris,  S.C.,  P.E.  O'Neil,  and  P.K.  Lago.  ( In  Press.)  Emergence  patterns  and  distribution  of 

Trichoptera  in  the  Cahaba  River  system,  Alabama,  USA.  Proc.  IV  Intern.  Symp.  Trich. 
O'Neil,  P.E.  1 983.  Historical  surface  water-quality  analyses  of  the  Cahaba  River  basin  north 

of  Centreville,  Alabama.  Alabama  Geol.  Survey  Open-file  Rept.,  130  p. 
Resh,  V.H.,  K.H.  Haag,  and  S.E.  NefT.  1975.  Community  structure  and  diversity  of 

caddisfly  adults  from  the  Salt  River,  Kentucky.  Environ.  Entomol.  4:  241-253. 


Vol.  95,  No.  3,  May  &  June,  1984  113 

A  CHECKLIST  OF  THE  STONEFLIES 
(PLECOPTERA)  OF  KENTUCKY1 

Donald  C.  Tarter,  Dean  A.  Adkins2,  Charles  V.  Covell,  Jr.3 

ABSTRACT:  Examination  of  numerous  collections  and  published  records  has  resulted  in  a 
summary  of  the  stoneflies  of  Kentucky.  A  total  of  77  species  representing  nine  families  and  30 
genera  is  found  in  the  state.  Five  state  records  are  added  to  the  plecopteran  fauna  of  Kentucky. 
Fifteen  additional  species  which  occur  in  nearby  states,  but  which  have  not  yet  been  found  in 
Kentucky,  are  also  noted. 

Prior  to  1 982,  little  detailed  work  had  been  focused  on  the  identification 
of  stoneflies  from  Kentucky.  Some  investigators,  including  Ross  and  Ricker 
(1964),  lilies  (1966),  Ricker  and  Ross  (1968),  Zwick  (1973),  White 
(1974),  James  (1976),  Stark  and  Baumann  (1978),  Marker  et  al.  (1979, 
1 980)  and  Picazo  and  DeMoss  ( 1 980),  have  published  plecopteran  records 
for  the  state.  In  a  preliminary  checklist,  Tarter  et  al.  (1982)  recorded  70 
species  of  stoneflies  for  Kentucky.  The  classification  system  of  lilies 
(1966)  and  Zwick  (1973)  is  followed  in  this  study. 

The  following  numbers  of  species  have  been  recorded  from  nearby 
states:  Illinois  -  49  species  (Prison,  1942);  Ohio  -  42  species  (Gaufm, 
1956);  Indiana  -  61  species  (Bednarik  and  McCafferty,  1977);  Virginia  - 
116  species  (Kondratieff  and  Voshell,  1979);  and  West  Virginia  -  106 
species  (Tarter  and  Kirchner,  1980). 

Fifteen  additional  species  should  eventually  be  collected  in  Kentucky. 
The  folowing  list  includes  species  which  occur  in  nearby  states:  Acroneuria 
mela  Prison  (IN,  IL),  Allocapnia  illinoensis  Prison  (VA,  IN,  IL), 
Alloperla  banksi  Prison  (VA,  IL),  A.  caudata  Prison  (IL,  IN,  OH,  VA), 
Attaneuria  ruralis  Hagen)  (IL,  VA,  OH),  Hydroperla  crosbyi (Needham 
and  Claassen)  (IN,  IL),  Isogenoides  varians  (Walsh)  (IN,  IL,  TN,  VA), 
hoperla  decepta  Prison  (IN,  OH,  IL),  I.  dicala  Prison  ( WV,  VA,  IN),  /. 
orata  Prison  ( WV,  VA,  OH),  Leuctra  tenuis  (Pictet),  WV,  IN,  VA,  OH), 
Paracapnia  angulata  Hanson  (WV,  VA,  IN),  Paragnetina  kansensis 
(Banks)  (IN,  IL),  Prostoia  completa  (Walker)  (WV,  IN,  VA)  and 
Talloperla  maria  (Needham  and  Smith)  (VA,  TN,  WV). 


1  Received  February  6,  1984.  Accepted  March  29,  1984. 

^Department  of  Biological  Sciences,  Marshall  University,  Huntington,  WV  25701 

•^Department  of  Biology,  University  of  Louisville,  Kentucky,  KY  40292 

ENT.  NEWS.  95(3):    113-1 16.  May  &  June,  1984 


114 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


Order  Plecoptera 

Suborder  Arctoperlaria 

Group  Euholognatha 

Superfamily  Neumouroidea 

Family  Leuctridae 
Subfamily  Leuctrinae 


Leuctra  alexanderi  Hanson 
L.  ferruginea  (Walker) 
L.  sibleyi  Claassen 


Paraleuctra  sara  (Claassen) 
Zealeuctra  claasseni  (Prison) 
Z.  fraxina  Ricker  and  Ross 


Family  Taeniopterygidae 
Subfamily  Brachypterinae 


*Oemopteryx  contorta  (Needham  and 

Claassen) 
Taenionema  atlanticum  Ricker  and  Ross 


Strophopteryx  fasciata 
(Burmeister) 


Subfamily  Taeniopteryginae 


Taeniopteryx  burski  Ricker  and  Ross 
T.  lita  Prison 
T.  maura  (Pictet) 


T.  metequi  Ricker  and  Ross 
T.  parvula  Banks 


Amphinemura  delosa  (Ricker) 
A.  nigritta  (Provancher) 


Prostoia  similis  (Hagen) 


Family  Nemouridae 
Subfamily  Amphinemurinae 

A.  varshava  (Ricker) 
A.  wui  (Claassen) 

Subfamily  Nemourinae 

Soyedina  vallicularia  (Wu) 
Family  Capniidae 


Allocapnia  cunninghami  Ross  and  Ricker 

A.  curiosa  Prison 

A.  forbesi  Prison 

A.  frisoni  Ross  and  Ricker 

A.  granulata  (Claassen) 

A.  indianae  Ricker 

A.  mystica  Prison 

A.  mystica  Prison 

A.  nivicola  (Fitch) 


A.  ohioensis  Ross  and  Ricker 

A.  pygmaea  (Burmeister) 

A.  recta  (Claassen) 

A.  rickeri  Prison 

A.  smithi  Ross  and  Ricker 

A.  vivipara  (Claassen) 

A.  vivipara  (Claassen) 

A.  zola  Ricker 


Group  Systellognata 

Superfamily  Pteronarcyoidea 

Family  Pteronarcyidae 


Allonarcys  proteus  (Newman) 
*Pteronarcys  dorsata  (Say) 


*P.  pictetii  Hagen 


Vol.  95,  No.  3,  May  &  June,  1984 


115 


Peltoperla  arcuata  Needham 


Family  Peltoperlidae 
Subfamily  Peltoperlinae 


Superfamily  Perloidea 

Family  Perlodidae 
Subfamily  Isoperlinae 


Isoperla  bilineata  (Say) 

/.  burski  Prison 

/.  clio  (Newman) 

*/.  Ao/oc/z/ora(Klapalek) 

/.  marlynia  Needham  and  Claassen 


/.  namata  Prison 

/.  nana  (Walsh) 

/.  richardsoni  Prison 

/.  similis  (Hagen) 

/.  transmarina  (Newman) 


Subfamily  Perlodinae 


Cultus  dicisus  (Walker) 

Diploperla  robusta  Stark  and  Gaufin 

Helopicus  subvarians  (Banks) 


Malirekus  has  talus  (Banks) 
Remenus  bilobatus  (Needham  and 
Claassen) 


Family  Chloroperlidae 
Subfamily  Chloroperlinae 


Alloperla  chloris  Prison 
A.  ute/(Ricker) 
A.  imbecilla  ( Say) 


Hastaperla  brevis  (Banks) 
Sweltsa  onkos  ( Ricker) 


Family  Perlidae 
Subfamily  Acroneuriinae 


Acroneuria  abnormis  Newman) 

A.  carolinensis  (Banks) 

A.  evoluta  Klapalek 

A.  filicis  Prison 

A.  internata  (Walker) 

A.  lycorias  (Newman) 


A.  perplexa  Prison 

Eccoptera  xanthenes  (Newman) 

Perlesta  placida  (Hagen) 

P.  frisoni  Banks 

*Perlinella  dry  mo  (Newman) 

P.  ephyre  (Newman) 


Subfamily  Perlinae 


Neoperla  freytagi  Stark  and  Bauman 
N.  gaufini  Stark  and  Baumann 
N.  stewarti  Stark  and  Baumann 


Paragnetina  media  (Walker) 
Phasganophora  capitata  (Pictet) 


*  state  record 


116  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS 


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We  are  grateful  to  the  following  persons  who  loaned  specimens  or  helped  with 
identifications:  Kimberly  Benson,  Marshall  University  and  University  of  Louisville;  Gerald 
DeMoss,  Morehead  State  University;  Paul  Freytag,  University  of  Kentucky;  Ralph  Kirchner, 
U.S.  Army  Corp  of  Engineers,  Huntingdon  District;  W.P.  McCafferty,  Purdue  University; 
Rudy  Prins,  Western  Kentucky  University;  Jim  Sickel,  Murray  State  University;  Bill  Stark, 
Mississippi  College;  and  Mel  Warren,  Kentucky  Nature  Preserve.  Special  thanks  to  Vickie 
Crager  for  typing  the  manuscript. 

REFERENCES 

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,  M.L.  Warren,  Jr.,  K.E.  Camburn,  S.M.  Call,  G.J.  Fallo,  and  P.  Wigley.  1980. 

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_,  D.A.  Adkins,  K.B.  Benson,  and  C.V.  Covell